ABSTRACT: RNA from Lake Michigan sediment was hybridized with a DNA probe for archaeal 16S rRNA. There was a peak of archaeal rRNA abundance in the oxic zone and another immediately below it. Six contributing species were identified by PCR amplification of extracted DNA with primers specific for archaeal rDNA: two related to Methanosarcina acetivorans and four related to marine crenarchaeotal sequences. rRNA quantification using a DNA probe specific for this crenarchaeotal assemblage showed it is most abundant in the oxic zone, where it accounts for about 10% of total archaeal rRNA.
Project description:Within the last several years, molecular techniques have uncovered numerous 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequences which represent a unique and globally distributed lineage of the kingdom Crenarchaeota that is phylogenetically distinct from currently characterized crenarchaeotal species. rDNA sequences of members of this novel crenarchaeotal group have been recovered from low- to moderate-temperature environments (-1.5 to 32 degreesC), in contrast to the high-temperature environments (temperature, >80 degreesC) required for growth of the currently recognized crenarchaeotal species. We determined the diversity and abundance of the nonthermophilic members of the Crenarchaeota in soil samples taken from cultivated and uncultivated fields located at the Kellogg Biological Station's Long-Term Ecological Research site (Hickory Corners, Mich.). Clones were generated from 16S rDNA that was amplified by using broad-specificity archaeal PCR primers. Twelve crenarchaeotal sequences were identified, and the phylogenetic relationships between these sequences and previously described crenarchaeotal 16S rDNA sequences were determined. Phylogenetic analyses included nonthermophilic crenarchaeotal sequences found in public databases and revealed that the nonthermophilic Crenarchaeota group is composed of at least four distinct phylogenetic clusters. A 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe specific for all known nonthermophilic crenarchaeotal sequences was designed and used to determine their abundance in soil samples. The nonthermophilic Crenarchaeota accounted for as much as 1.42% +/- 0.42% of the 16S rRNA in the soils analyzed.
Project description:Four stratified basins in Lake Kivu (Rwanda-Democratic Republic of the Congo) were sampled in March 2007 to investigate the abundance, distribution, and potential biogeochemical role of planktonic archaea. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization with catalyzed-reported deposition microscopic counts (CARD-FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of signature genes for ammonia-oxidizing archaea (16S rRNA for marine Crenarchaeota group 1.1a [MCG1] and ammonia monooxygenase subunit A [amoA]). Abundance of archaea ranged from 1 to 4.5% of total DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) counts with maximal concentrations at the oxic-anoxic transition zone (?50-m depth). Phylogenetic analysis of the archaeal planktonic community revealed a higher level of richness of crenarchaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences (21 of the 28 operational taxonomic units [OTUs] identified [75%]) over euryarchaeotal ones (7 OTUs). Sequences affiliated with the kingdom Euryarchaeota were mainly recovered from the anoxic water compartment and mostly grouped into methanogenic lineages (Methanosarcinales and Methanocellales). In turn, crenarchaeal phylotypes were recovered throughout the sampled epipelagic waters (0- to 100-m depth), with clear phylogenetic segregation along the transition from oxic to anoxic water masses. Thus, whereas in the anoxic hypolimnion crenarchaeotal OTUs were mainly assigned to the miscellaneous crenarchaeotic group, the OTUs from the oxic-anoxic transition and above belonged to Crenarchaeota groups 1.1a and 1.1b, two lineages containing most of the ammonia-oxidizing representatives known so far. The concomitant vertical distribution of both nitrite and nitrate maxima and the copy numbers of both MCG1 16S rRNA and amoA genes suggest the potential implication of Crenarchaeota in nitrification processes occurring in the epilimnetic waters of the lake.
Project description:Here the composition of total and active archaeal communities in a sediment core of Jiulong River estuary at Fujian Province, Southern China was reported. Profiles of CH(4) and SO(2-) (4) concentrations from the sediment core indicated the existence of a sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) in which sulfate reduction-coupled anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) occurs. Accordingly, three sediment layers (16-18.5 cm, 71-73.5 cm, and 161-163.5 cm) from the 1.2 m sediment core were sectioned and named top, middle and bottom, respectively. Total DNA and RNA of each layer were extracted and used for clone libraries and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes, the reverse transcription (RT)-PCR products of 16S rRNA and methyl CoM reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that archaeal communities of the three layers were dominated by the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG) whose ecological functions were still unknown. The MCG could be further divided into seven subgroups, named MCG-A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. MCG-A and MCG-G were the most active groups in the estuarine sediments. Known anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANMEs) were only found as minor components in these estuarine archaeal communities. This study, together with the studies of deep subsurface sediments, would be a very good start point to target and compare the specific active archaeal groups and their roles in the dark, deep subsurface sediment environments.
Project description:Group 1.1c Crenarchaeota are the predominating archaeal group in acidic boreal forest soils. In this study, we show that the detection frequency of 1.1c crenarchaeotal 16S rRNA genes in the rhizospheres of the boreal forest trees increased following colonization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus. This effect was very clear in the fine roots of Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, and Betula pendula, the most common forest trees in Finland. The nonmycorrhizal fine roots had a clearly different composition of archaeal 16S rRNA genes in comparison to the mycorrhizal fine roots. In the phylogenetic analysis, the 1.1c crenarchaeotal 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from the fine roots formed a well-defined cluster separate from the mycorrhizal ones. Alnus glutinosa differed from the other trees by having high diversity and detection levels of Crenarchaeota both on fine roots and on mycorrhizas as well as by harboring a distinct archaeal flora. The similarity of the archaeal populations in rhizospheres of the different tree species was increased upon colonization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus. A minority of the sequences obtained from the mycorrhizas belonged to Euryarchaeota (order Halobacteriales).
Project description:Archaeal 16S rRNA was extracted from samples of deep marine subsurface sediments from Peru Margin site 1227, Ocean Drilling Program leg 201. The amounts of archaeal 16S rRNA in each extract were quantified by serial dilution and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The results indicated a 1,000-fold variation in rRNA content with depth in the sediment, with the highest concentrations found near the sediment surface and in the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ). The phylogenetic composition of the active archaeal population revealed by cloning and sequencing of RT-PCR products changed with depth. Several phylotypes affiliated with marine benthic group B (MBGB) dominated clone libraries from the upper part of the SMTZ and were detected only in this layer. Members of the miscellaneous crenarchaeotal group (MCG) dominated clone libraries from the other layers. These results demonstrate that archaeal communities change in activity and community composition over short distances in geochemically distinct zones of deep subseafloor sediments and that these changes are traceable in the rRNA pool. It was shown for the first time that members of both the MCG and MBGB Archaea are more active in the SMTZ than in layers above and below. This indicates that they benefit either directly or indirectly from the anaerobic oxidation of methane. They also appear to be ecophysiologically flexible, as they have been retrieved from a wide range of marine sediments of various geochemical properties.
Project description:We compared the phylogenetic compositions of marine planktonic archaeal populations in different marine provinces. Samples from eight different environments were collected at two depths (surface and aphotic zone), and 16 genetic libraries of PCR-amplified archaeal 16S rRNA genes were constructed. The libraries were analyzed by using a three-step hierarchical approach. Membrane hybridization experiments revealed that most of the archaeal clones were affiliated with one of the two groups of marine archaea described previously, crenarchaeotal group I and euryarchaeotal group II. One of the 2,328 ribosomal DNA clones analyzed was related to a different euryarchaeal lineage, which was recently recovered from deep-water marine plankton. In temperate regions (Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea) both major groups were found at the two depths investigated; group II predominated at the surface, and group I predominated at depth. In Antarctic and subantarctic waters group II was practically absent. The clonal compositions of archaeal libraries were investigated by performing a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with two tetrameric restriction enzymes, which defined discrete operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The OTUs defined in this way were phylogenetically consistent; clones belonging to the same OTU were closely related. The clonal diversity as determined by the RFLP analysis was low, and most libraries were dominated by only one or two OTUs. Some OTUs were found in samples obtained from very distant places, indicating that some phylotypes were ubiquitous. A tree containing one example of each OTU detected was constructed, and this tree revealed that there were several clusters within archaeal group I and group II. The members of some of these clusters had different depth distributions.
Project description:Archaea are important players in marine biogeochemical cycles, and their membrane lipids are useful biomarkers in environmental and geobiological studies. However, many archaeal groups remain uncultured and their lipid composition unknown. Here, we aim to expand the knowledge on archaeal lipid biomarkers and determine the potential sources of those lipids in the water column of the euxinic Black Sea. The archaeal community was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and by quantitative PCR. The archaeal intact polar lipids (IPLs) were investigated by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Our study revealed both a complex archaeal community and large changes with water depth in the IPL assemblages. In the oxic/upper suboxic waters (<105 m), the archaeal community was dominated by marine group (MG) I Thaumarchaeota, coinciding with a higher relative abundance of hexose phosphohexose crenarchaeol, a known marker for Thaumarchaeota. In the suboxic waters (80-110 m), MGI Nitrosopumilus sp. dominated and produced predominantly monohexose glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) and hydroxy-GDGTs. Two clades of MGII Euryarchaeota were present in the oxic and upper suboxic zones in much lower abundances, preventing the detection of their specific IPLs. In the deep sulfidic waters (>110 m), archaea belonging to the DPANN Woesearchaeota, Bathyarchaeota, and ANME-1b clades dominated. Correlation analyses suggest that the IPLs GDGT-0, GDGT-1, and GDGT-2 with two phosphatidylglycerol (PG) head groups and archaeol with a PG, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine head groups were produced by ANME-1b archaea. Bathyarchaeota represented 55% of the archaea in the deeper part of the euxinic zone and likely produces archaeol with phospho-dihexose and hexose-glucuronic acid head groups.
Project description:Studies of deeply buried, sedimentary microbial communities and associated biogeochemical processes during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 201 showed elevated prokaryotic cell numbers in sediment layers where methane is consumed anaerobically at the expense of sulfate. Here, we show that extractable archaeal rRNA, selecting only for active community members in these ecosystems, is dominated by sequences of uncultivated Archaea affiliated with the Marine Benthic Group B and the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group, whereas known methanotrophic Archaea are not detectable. Carbon flow reconstructions based on stable isotopic compositions of whole archaeal cells, intact archaeal membrane lipids, and other sedimentary carbon pools indicate that these Archaea assimilate sedimentary organic compounds other than methane even though methanotrophy accounts for a major fraction of carbon cycled in these ecosystems. Oxidation of methane by members of Marine Benthic Group B and the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group without assimilation of methane-carbon provides a plausible explanation. Maintenance energies of these subsurface communities appear to be orders of magnitude lower than minimum values known from laboratory observations, and ecosystem-level carbon budgets suggest that community turnover times are on the order of 100-2,000 years. Our study provides clues about the metabolic functionality of two cosmopolitan groups of uncultured Archaea.
Project description:Rich geochemical datasets generated over the past 30 years have provided fine-scale resolution on the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) coastal hypoxic (? 2 mg of O2 L-1) zone. In contrast, little is known about microbial community structure and activity in the hypoxic zone despite the implication that microbial respiration is responsible for forming low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. Here, we hypothesized that the extent of the hypoxic zone is a driver in determining microbial community structure, and in particular, the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Samples collected across the shelf for two consecutive hypoxic seasons in July 2013 and 2014 were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, oligotyping, microbial co-occurrence analysis, and quantification of thaumarchaeal 16S rRNA and archaeal ammonia-monooxygenase (amoA) genes. In 2014 Thaumarchaeota were enriched and inversely correlated with DO while Cyanobacteria, Acidimicrobiia, and Proteobacteria where more abundant in oxic samples compared to hypoxic. Oligotyping analysis of Nitrosopumilus 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that one oligotype was significantly inversely correlated with DO in both years. Oligotyping analysis revealed single nucleotide variation among all Nitrosopumilaceae, including Nitrosopumilus 16S rRNA gene sequences, with one oligotype possibly being better adapted to hypoxia. We further provide evidence that in the hypoxic zone of both year 2013 and 2014, low DO concentrations and high Thaumarchaeota abundances influenced microbial co-occurrence patterns. Taken together, the data demonstrated that the extent of hypoxic conditions could potentially drive patterns in microbial community structure, with two years of data revealing the annual nGOM hypoxic zone to be emerging as a low DO adapted AOA hotspot.
Project description:Because excised, washed roots of rice (Oryza sativa) immediately produce CH4 when they are incubated under anoxic conditions (P. Frenzel and U. Bosse, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 21:25-36, 1996), we employed a culture-independent molecular approach to identify the methanogenic microbial community present on roots of rice plants. Archaeal small-subunit rRNA-encoding genes were amplified directly from total root DNA by PCR and then cloned. Thirty-two archaeal rice root (ARR) gene clones were randomly selected, and the amplified primary structures of ca. 750 nucleotide sequence positions were compared. Only 10 of the environmental sequences were affiliated with known methanogens; 5 were affiliated with Methanosarcina spp., and 5 were affiliated with Methanobacterium spp. The remaining 22 ARR gene clones formed four distinct lineages (rice clusters I through IV) which were not closely related to any known cultured member of the Archaea. Rice clusters I and II formed distinct clades within the phylogenetic radiation of the orders "Methanosarcinales" and Methanomicrobiales. Rice cluster I was novel, and rice cluster II was closely affiliated with environmental sequences obtained from bog peat in northern England. Rice cluster III occurred on the same branch as Thermoplasma acidophilum and marine group II but was only distantly related to these taxa. Rice cluster IV was a deep-branching crenarchaeotal assemblage that was closely related to clone pGrfC26, an environmental sequence recovered from a temperate marsh environment. The use of a domain-specific oligonucleotide probe in a fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis revealed that viable members of the Archaea were present on the surfaces of rice roots. In addition, we describe a novel euryarchaeotal main line of descent, designated rice cluster V, which was detected in anoxic rice paddy soil. These results indicate that there is an astonishing richness of archaeal diversity present on rice roots and in the surrounding paddy soil.