Cloning, sequencing, and overexpression of the Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pckA) gene.
ABSTRACT: The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase-encoding gene from the anaerobic, CO2-fixing, succinate-producing bacterium Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene encoded a 532-residue polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 58.7 kDa. The sequence of the A. succiniciproducens PEP carboxykinase was similar to those of all known ATP/ADP-dependent PEP carboxykinases. In particular, the A. succiniciproducens enzyme was 67.3% identical and 79.2% similar to the E. coli enzyme. The A. succiniciproducens pckA transcription start site was determined, and putative promoter regions were identified. The recombinant enzyme was overexpressed in E. coli. The purified enzyme was indiscernible from the native enzyme by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and had the same activity as the native enzyme.
Project description:Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens belongs to the normal flora of cats and dogs and can rarely infect humans. Here, we report the first case of an A. succiniciproducens prosthetic joint infection.
Project description:The full extent of the clinical spectrum and optimal therapy of Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens infections remains to be determined. We describe the first case of bloodstream infection (BSI) due to A. succiniciproducens in an asymptomatic elderly male with poor dentition that was treated with levofloxacin.
Project description:We describe three cases of Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens bacteremia from Australia. We believe one of these cases represents the first report of A. succiniciproducens bacteremia in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individual. The other two patients had an underlying disorder (one patient had bleeding esophageal varices complicating alcohol liver disease and one patient had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma). A motile, gram-negative, spiral anaerobe was isolated by culturing blood from all patients. Electron microscopy showed a curved bacterium with bipolar tufts of flagella resembling Anaerobiospirillum spp. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of the isolates revealed no close relatives (organisms likely to be in the same genus) in the sequence databases, nor were any sequence data available forA. succiniciproducens. This report presents for the first time the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the type strain of A. succiniciproducens, strain ATCC 29305. Two of the three clinical isolates have sequences identical to that of the type strain, while the sequence of the other strain differs from that of the type strain at 4 nucleotides.
Project description:Succinic acid is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid produced as one of the fermentation products of anaerobic metabolism. Based on the complete genome sequence of a capnophilic succinic acid-producing rumen bacterium, Mannheimia succiniciproducens, gene knockout studies were carried out to understand its anaerobic fermentative metabolism and consequently to develop a metabolically engineered strain capable of producing succinic acid without by-product formation. Among three different CO2-fixing metabolic reactions catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase, PEP carboxylase, and malic enzyme, PEP carboxykinase was the most important for the anaerobic growth of M. succiniciproducens and succinic acid production. Oxaloacetate formed by carboxylation of PEP was found to be converted to succinic acid by three sequential reactions catalyzed by malate dehydrogenase, fumarase, and fumarate reductase. Major metabolic pathways leading to by-product formation were successfully removed by disrupting the ldhA, pflB, pta, and ackA genes. This metabolically engineered LPK7 strain was able to produce 13.4 g/liter of succinic acid from 20 g/liter glucose with little or no formation of acetic, formic, and lactic acids, resulting in a succinic acid yield of 0.97 mol succinic acid per mol glucose. Fed-batch culture of M. succiniciproducens LPK7 with intermittent glucose feeding allowed the production of 52.4 g/liter of succinic acid, with a succinic acid yield of 1.16 mol succinic acid per mol glucose and a succinic acid productivity of 1.8 g/liter/h, which should be useful for industrial production of succinic acid.
Project description:Ileocolitis associated with spiral bacteria identified as an Anaerobiospirillum sp. was found in six cats. Two cats had acute onset of gastrointestinal signs characterized by vomiting and diarrhea in one cat and vomiting in another cat, one cat had chronic diarrhea that was refractory to medical therapy; one cat had acute onset of anorexia and lethargy, and two cats had clinical signs that were not related to the gastrointestinal tract. The presence of an Anaerobiospirillum sp. was demonstrated on the basis of ultrastructural morphology of spiral bacteria associated with intestinal lesions and PCR amplification of a genus-specific 16S rRNA gene from affected tissues from each cat. The colons of three clinically healthy cats without lesions and one cat with mild colitis not associated with spiral bacteria were negative for Anaerobiospirillum spp. in the same assay. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of cloned PCR products from three affected cats further suggested that the spiral bacteria were closely related to Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens.
Project description:The succinic acid producer Mannheimia succiniciproducens can efficiently utilize sucrose as a carbon source, but its metabolism has not been understood. This study revealed that M. succiniciproducens uses a sucrose phosphotransferase system (PTS), sucrose 6-phosphate hydrolase, and a fructose PTS for the transport and utilization of sucrose.
Project description:Mannheimia succiniciproducens, a rumen bacterium belonging to the family Pasteurellaceae, has two putative β-galactosidase genes, bgaA and bgaB, encoding polypeptides whose deduced amino acid sequences share 56% identity with each other and show approximately 30% identity to the Escherichia coli gene for LacZ. The M. succiniciproducens bgaA (MsbgaA) gene-deletion mutant was not able to grow on lactose as the sole carbon source, suggesting its essential role in lactose metabolism, whereas the MsbgaB gene-deletion mutant did not show any growth defect on a lactose medium. Furthermore, the expression of the MsbgaA gene was induced by the addition of lactose in the growth medium, whereas the MsbgaB gene was constitutively expressed independently of a carbon source. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant proteins revealed that MsBgaA is more efficient than MsBgaB in hydrolyzing o-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside and p-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside. MsBgaA was highly specific for the hydrolysis of lactose, with a catalytic efficiency of 46.9 s(-1) mM(-1). However, MsBgaB was more efficient for the hydrolysis of lactulose than lactose, and the catalytic efficiency was 10.0 s(-1) mM(-1). Taken together, our results suggest that the β-galactosidase paralogues of M. succiniciproducens BgaA and BgaB play a critical role in lactose metabolism and in an unknown but likely specific function for rumen bacteria, respectively.
Project description:The sequence of the pckA gene coding for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in Escherichia coli K-12 and previous molecular weight determinations indicate that this allosteric enzyme is a monomer of Mr 51,316. The protein is homologous to ATP-dependent phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinases from Trypanosoma brucei and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A potential ATP binding site was conserved in all three sequences. A potential binding site for the allosteric activator, calcium, identified in the E. coli enzyme, was only partially conserved in T. brucei and S. cerevisiae, consistent with the observation that the enzymes from the latter organisms were not activated by calcium. The published sequence of the ompR and envZ genes from Salmonella typhimurium is followed by a partial sequence that is highly homologous to pckA from E. coli. The order of these genes and the direction of transcription of the presumptive S. typhimurium pckA gene are the same as those in E. coli. The potential calcium binding site of the E. coli enzyme is conserved in the partial predicted sequence of the S. typhimurium phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, consistent with the observation that calcium activation of the S. typhimurium phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is very similar to that observed for the E. coli enzyme. A pckA mRNA transcript was observed in stationary-phase cells but not in logarithmically growing cells. The mRNA start site was mapped relative to the sequence of the pckA structural gene.