Mutations in the tight-junction gene claudin 19 (CLDN19) are associated with renal magnesium wasting, renal failure, and severe ocular involvement.
ABSTRACT: Claudins are major components of tight junctions and contribute to the epithelial-barrier function by restricting free diffusion of solutes through the paracellular pathway. We have mapped a new locus for recessive renal magnesium loss on chromosome 1p34.2 and have identified mutations in CLDN19, a member of the claudin multigene family, in patients affected by hypomagnesemia, renal failure, and severe ocular abnormalities. CLDN19 encodes the tight-junction protein claudin-19, and we demonstrate high expression of CLDN19 in renal tubules and the retina. The identified mutations interfere severely with either cell-membrane trafficking or the assembly of the claudin-19 protein. The identification of CLDN19 mutations in patients with chronic renal failure and severe visual impairment supports the fundamental role of claudin-19 for normal renal tubular function and undisturbed organization and development of the retina.
Project description:Claudins are tight junction integral membrane proteins that are key regulators of the paracellular pathway. Defects in claudin-16 (CLDN16) and CLDN19 function result in the inherited human renal disorder familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC). Previous studies showed that siRNA knockdown of CLDN16 in mice results in a mouse model for FHHNC. Here, we show that CLDN19-siRNA mice also developed the FHHNC symptoms of chronic renal wasting of magnesium and calcium together with defective renal salt handling. siRNA knockdown of CLDN19 caused a loss of CLDN16 from tight junctions in the thick ascending limb (TAL) without a decrease in CLDN16 expression level, whereas siRNA knockdown of CLDN16 produced a similar effect on CLDN19. In both mouse lines, CLDN10, CLDN18, occludin, and ZO-1, normal constituents of TAL tight junctions, remained correctly localized. CLDN16- and CLDN19-depleted tight junctions had normal barrier function but defective ion selectivity. These data, together with yeast two-hybrid binding studies, indicate that a heteromeric CLDN16 and CLDN19 interaction was required for assembling them into the tight junction structure and generating cation-selective paracellular channels.
Project description:Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is an autosomal recessive tubular disorder characterized by excessive renal magnesium and calcium excretion and chronic kidney failure. This rare disease is caused by mutations in the CLDN16 and CLDN19 genes. These genes encode the tight junction proteins claudin-16 and claudin-19, respectively, which regulate the paracellular ion reabsorption in the kidney. Patients with mutations in the CLDN19 gene also present severe visual impairment. Our goals in this study were to examine the clinical characteristics of a large cohort of Spanish patients with this disorder and to identify the disease causing mutations. We included a total of 31 patients belonging to 27 unrelated families and studied renal and ocular manifestations. We then analyzed by direct DNA sequencing the coding regions of CLDN16 and CLDN19 genes in these patients. Bioinformatic tools were used to predict the consequences of mutations. Clinical evaluation showed ocular defects in 87% of patients, including mainly myopia, nystagmus and macular colobomata. Twenty two percent of patients underwent renal transplantation and impaired renal function was observed in another 61% of patients. Results of the genetic analysis revealed CLDN19 mutations in all patients confirming the clinical diagnosis. The majority of patients exhibited the previously described p.G20D mutation. Haplotype analysis using three microsatellite markers showed a founder effect for this recurrent mutation in our cohort. We also identified four new pathogenic mutations in CLDN19, p.G122R, p.I41T, p.G75C and p.G75S. A strategy based on microsequencing was designed to facilitate the genetic diagnosis of this disease. Our data indicate that patients with CLDN19 mutations have a high risk of progression to chronic renal disease.
Project description:Claudins are integral proteins expressed at the tight junctions of epithelial and endothelial cells. In the mammalian kidney, every tubular segment express a specific set of claudins that give to that segment unique properties regarding permeability and selectivity of the paracellular pathway. So far, 3 claudins (10b, 16 and 19) have been causally traced to rare human syndromes: variants of CLDN10b cause HELIX syndrome and variants of CLDN16 or CLDN19 cause familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. The review summarizes our current knowledge on the physiology of mammalian tight junctions and paracellular ion transport, as well as on the role of the 3 above-mentioned claudins in health and disease. Claudin 14, although not having been causally linked to any rare renal disease, is also considered, because available evidence suggests that it may interact with claudin 16. Some single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CLDN14 are associated with urinary calcium excretion and/or kidney stones. For each claudin considered, the pattern of expression, the function and the human syndrome caused by pathogenic variants are described.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is a rare autosomal recessive renal tubular disease. It is caused by mutations in CLDN16 and CLDN19, encoding claudin-16 and -19, respectively. Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is usually complicated by progressive CKD. The objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and genetic features of familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis and analyze phenotype-genotype associations in patients with CLDN16 or CLDN19 mutations. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Data from 32 genetically confirmed patients (9 patients with CLDN16 and 23 patients with CLDN19 mutations) from 26 unrelated families were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Diagnosis was based on clinical criteria at a median age of 9.5 years and confirmed by genetic testing at a median age of 15.5 years. In total, 13 CLDN16 or CLDN19 mutations were identified, including 8 novel mutations. A founder effect was detected for the recurrent CLDN16 p.Ala139Val mutation in North African families and the CLDN19 p.Gly20Asp mutation in Spanish and French families. CKD was more frequently observed in patients with CLDN19 mutations: survival without CKD or ESRD was 56% at 20 years of age in CLDN19 versus 100% in CLDN16 mutations (log rank P<0.01). Ocular abnormalities were observed in 91% of patients with CLDN19 mutations and none of the patients with CLDN16 mutations (P<0.01). Treatments seem to have no effect on hypercalciuria and CKD progression. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CLDN19 mutations may display more severe renal impairment than patients with CLDN16 mutations. Ocular abnormalities were observed only in patients with CLDN19 mutations.
Project description:Familial hypomagnesaemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) is an autosomal-recessive renal tubular disorder characterized by excessive urinary losses of magnesium and calcium, bilateral nephrocalcinosis and progressive chronic renal failure. Presentation with FHHNC symptoms generally occurs early in childhood or before adolescence. At present, the only therapeutic option is supportive and consists of oral magnesium supplementation and thiazide diuretics. However, neither treatment seems to have a significant effect on the levels of serum magnesium or urine calcium or on the decline of renal function. In end-stage renal disease patients, renal transplantation is the only effective approach. This rare disease is caused by mutations in the CLDN16 or CLDN19 genes. Patients with mutations in CLDN19 also present severe ocular abnormalities such as myopia, nystagmus and macular colobamata. CLDN16 and CLDN19 encode the tight-junction proteins claudin-16 and claudin-19, respectively, which are expressed in the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and form an essential complex for the paracellular reabsorption of magnesium and calcium. Claudin-19 is also expressed in retinal epithelium and peripheral neurons. Research studies using mouse and cell models have generated significant advances on the understanding of the pathophysiology of FHHNC. A recent finding has established that another member of the claudin family, claudin-14, plays a key regulatory role in paracellular cation reabsorption by inhibiting the claudin-16-claudin-19 complex. Furthermore, several studies on the molecular and cellular consequences of disease-causing CLDN16 and CLDN19 mutations have provided critical information for the development of potential therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Tight junctions (TJs) play a key role in mediating paracellular ion reabsorption in the kidney. Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) is an inherited disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the TJ proteins claudin-16 (CLDN16) and CLDN19; however, the mechanisms underlying the roles of these claudins in mediating paracellular ion reabsorption in the kidney are not understood. Here we showed that in pig kidney epithelial cells, CLDN19 functioned as a Cl(-) blocker, whereas CLDN16 functioned as a Na(+) channel. Mutant forms of CLDN19 that are associated with FHHNC were unable to block Cl(-) permeation. Coexpression of CLDN16 and CLDN19 generated cation selectivity of the TJ in a synergistic manner, and CLDN16 and CLDN19 were observed to interact using several criteria. In addition, disruption of this interaction by introduction of FHHNC-causing mutant forms of either CLDN16 or CLDN19 abolished their synergistic effect. Our data show that CLDN16 interacts with CLDN19 and that their association confers a TJ with cation selectivity, suggesting a mechanism for the role of mutant forms of CLDN16 and CLDN19 in the development of FHHNC.
Project description:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The tight junction conductance made of the claudin-based paracellular channel is important in the regulation of calcium and magnesium reabsorption in the kidney. This review describes recent findings of the structure, the function, and the physiologic regulation of claudin-14, claudin-16, and claudin-19 channels that through protein interactions confer calcium and magnesium permeability to the tight junction. RECENT FINDINGS:Mutations in two tight junction genes - claudin-16 and claudin-19 - cause the inherited renal disorder familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. A recent genome-wide association study has identified claudin-14 as a major risk gene of hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis. The crystal structure of claudin-19 has recently been resolved allowing the reconstruction of a claudin assembly model from cis-dimers made of claudin-16 and claudin-19 interaction. MicroRNAs have been identified as novel regulators of the claudin-14 gene. The microRNA-claudin-14 operon is directly regulated by the Ca sensing receptor gene in response to hypercalcemia. SUMMARY:The paracellular pathway in the kidney is particularly important for mineral metabolism. Three claudin proteins - claudin-14, claudin-16, and claudin-19 - contribute to the structure and function of this paracellular pathway. Genetic mutations and gene expression changes in these claudins may lead to alteration of the paracellular permeability to calcium and magnesium, ultimately affecting renal mineral metabolism.
Project description:Claudin-16 and claudin-19 play a major role in the regulation of magnesium reabsorption in the thick ascending limb (TAL). This review describes recent findings of the physiological function of claudin-16 and claudin-19 underlying normal transport function for magnesium reabsorption in the TAL.Mutations in the genes encoding the tight junction proteins claudin-16 and claudin-19 cause the inherited human renal disorder familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis. The cation selectivity of the tight junction is vital for generating the lumen positive transepithelial potential in the TAL, which drives paracellular absorption of magnesium. Claudin-16 and claudin-19 require each other for assembly into tight junctions in the TAL. Heteromeric claudin-16 and claudin-19 interaction forms a cation selective tight junction paracellular channel. Loss of either claudin-16 or claudin-19 in the mouse kidney abolishes the cation selectivity for the TAL paracellular pathway, leading to excessive renal wasting of magnesium.Epithelial paracellular channels are increasingly understood to be formed from claudin oligomeric complexes. In the mouse TAL, claudin-16 and claudin-19 cooperate to form cation-selective paracellular channels required for normal levels of magnesium reabsorption. Different subsets of the claudin family of tight junction proteins are found distributed throughout the nephron, and understanding their roles in paracellular ion transport will be fundamental to understanding renal ion homeostasis.
Project description:Mutations in the gene coding for the renal tight junction protein claudin 16 cause familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis, an autosomal recessive disorder of renal Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) handling that progressively leads to chronic renal failure, with nephrolithiasis having been reported in heterozygous carriers. Screening a cohort of 11 families with idiopathic hypercalciuria identified a novel homozygous mutation in the claudin 16 gene in two families. In contrast to classical symptoms of familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis, the patients displayed serious but self-limiting childhood hypercalciuria with preserved glomerular filtration rate. The mutation results in inactivation of a PDZ-domain binding motif, thereby disabling the association of the tight junction scaffolding protein ZO-1 with claudin 16. In contrast to wild-type claudin 16, the mutant no longer localizes to tight junctions in kidney epithelial cells but instead accumulates in lysosomes. Thus, mutations at different intragenic sites in the claudin 16 gene may lead to particular clinical phenotypes with a distinct prognosis. Mutations in claudin 16 that affect interaction with ZO-1 lead to lysosomal mistargeting, providing-for the first time, to our knowledge-insight into the molecular mechanism of a disease-associated mutation in the claudin 16 gene.
Project description:Claudins are tight junction membrane proteins that regulate paracellular permeability of renal epithelia to small ions, solutes, and water. Claudins interact within the cell membrane and between neighboring cells to form tight junction strands and constitute both the paracellular barrier and the pore. The first extracellular domain of claudins is thought to be the pore-lining domain and contains the determinants of charge selectivity. Multiple claudins are expressed in different nephron segments; such differential expression likely determines the permeability properties of each segment. Recent evidence has identified claudin-2 as constituting the cation-reabsorptive pathway in the proximal tubule; claudin-14, -16, and -19 as forming a complex that regulates calcium transport in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle; and claudin-4, -7, and -8 as determinants of collecting duct chloride permeability. Mutations in claudin-16 and -19 cause familial hypercalciuric hypomagnesemia with nephrocalcinosis. The roles of other claudins in kidney diseases remain to be fully elucidated.