ATR-dependent phosphorylation and activation of ATM in response to UV treatment or replication fork stalling.
ABSTRACT: The phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase-like kinases (PIKKs), ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) regulate parallel damage response signalling pathways. ATM is reported to be activated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), whereas ATR is recruited to single-stranded regions of DNA. Although the two pathways were considered to function independently, recent studies have demonstrated that ATM functions upstream of ATR following exposure to ionising radiation (IR) in S/G2. Here, we show that ATM phosphorylation at Ser1981, a characterised autophosphorylation site, is ATR-dependent and ATM-independent following replication fork stalling or UV treatment. In contrast to IR-induced ATM-S1981 phosphorylation, UV-induced ATM-S1981 phosphorylation does not require the Nbs1 C-terminus or Mre11. ATR-dependent phosphorylation of ATM activates ATM phosphorylation of Chk2, which has an overlapping function with Chk1 in regulating G2/M checkpoint arrest. Our findings provide insight into the interplay between the PIKK damage response pathways.
Project description:The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays an important role in DNA damage signaling and repair by facilitating the recruitment and activation of DNA repair factors and signaling proteins at sites of damaged chromatin. Proteasome activity is generally not thought to be required for activation of apical signaling kinases including the PI3K-related kinases (PIKKs) ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK that orchestrate downstream signaling cascades in response to diverse genotoxic stimuli. In a previous work, we showed that inhibition of the proteasome by MG-132 suppressed 53BP1 (p53 binding protein1) phosphorylation as well as RPA2 (replication protein A2) phosphorylation in response to the topoisomerase I (TopI) poison camptothecin (CPT). To address the mechanism of proteasome-dependent RPA2 phosphorylation, we investigated the effects of proteasome inhibitors on the upstream PIKKs. MG-132 sharply suppressed CPT-induced DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation, a marker of the activation, whereas the phosphorylation of ATM and ATR substrates was only slightly suppressed by MG-132, suggesting that DNA-PK among the PIKKs is specifically regulated by the proteasome in response to CPT. On the other hand, MG-132 did not suppress DNA-PK activation in response to UV or IR. MG-132 blocked the interaction between DNA-PKcs and Ku heterodimer enhanced by CPT, and hydroxyurea pre-treatment completely abolished CPT-induced DNA-PKcs autophosphorylation, indicating a requirement for ongoing DNA replication. CPT-induced TopI degradation occurred independent of DNA-PK activation, suggesting that DNA-PK activation does not require degradation of trapped TopI complexes. The combined results suggest that CPT-dependent replication fork collapse activates DNA-PK signaling through a proteasome dependent, TopI degradation-independent pathway. The implications of DNA-PK activation in the context of TopI poison-based therapies are discussed.
Project description:Using data generated with cells exposed to ionizing-radiation (IR) in G2-phase of the cell cycle, we describe dose-dependent interactions between ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs revealing unknown mechanistic underpinnings for two key facets of the DNA damage response: DSB end-resection and G2-checkpoint activation. At low IR-doses that induce low DSB-numbers in the genome, ATM and ATR regulate epistatically the G2-checkpoint, with ATR at the output-node, interfacing with the cell-cycle predominantly through Chk1. Strikingly, at low IR-doses, ATM and ATR epistatically regulate also resection, and inhibition of either activity fully suppresses resection. At high IR-doses that induce high DSB-numbers in the genome, the tight ATM/ATR coupling relaxes and independent outputs to G2-checkpoint and resection occur. Consequently, both kinases must be inhibited to fully suppress checkpoint activation and resection. DNA-PKcs integrates to the ATM/ATR module by regulating resection at all IR-doses, with defects in DNA-PKcs causing hyper-resection and G2-checkpoint hyper-activation. Notably, hyper-resection is absent from other c-NHEJ mutants. Thus, DNA-PKcs specifically regulates resection and adjusts the activation of the ATM/ATR module. We propose that selected DSBs are shepherd by DNA-PKcs from c-NHEJ to resection-dependent pathways for processing under the regulatory supervision of the ATM/ATR module.
Project description:The ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) protein kinases are crucial regulatory proteins in genotoxic stress response pathways that pause the cell cycle to permit DNA repair. Here we show that Chk1 phosphorylation in response to hydroxyurea and ultraviolet radiation is ATR-dependent and ATM- and Mre11-independent. In contrast, Chk1 phosphorylation in response to ionizing radiation (IR) is dependent on ATR, ATM, and Mre11. The ATR and ATM/Mre11 pathways are generally thought to be separate with ATM activation occurring early and ATR activation occurring as a late response to double strand breaks. However, we demonstrate that ATR is activated rapidly by IR, and ATM and Mre11 enhance ATR signaling. ATR-ATR-interacting protein recruitment to double strand breaks is less efficient in the absence of ATM and Mre11. Furthermore, IR-induced replication protein A foci formation is defective in ATM- and Mre11-deficient cells. Thus, ATM and Mre11 may stimulate the ATR signaling pathway by converting DNA damage generated by IR into structures that recruit and activate ATR.
Project description:DNA damage response (DDR) to double strand breaks is coordinated by 3 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) family members: the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM), the ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase and the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). ATM and ATR are central players in activating cell cycle checkpoints and function as an active barrier against genome instability and tumorigenesis in replicating cells. Loss of ATM function is frequently reported in various types of tumors, thus placing more reliance on ATR for checkpoint arrest and cell survival following DNA damage. To investigate the role of ATR in the G2/M checkpoint regulation in response to ionizing radiation (IR), particularly when ATM is deficient, cell lines deficient of ATM, ATR, or both were generated using a doxycycline-inducible lentiviral system. Our data suggests that while depletion of ATR or ATM alone in wild-type human mammary epithelial cell cultures (HME-CCs) has little effect on radiosensitivity or IR-induced G2/M checkpoint arrest, depletion of ATR in ATM-deficient cells causes synthetic lethality following IR, which correlates with severe G2/M checkpoint attenuation. ATR depletion also inhibits IR-induced autophagy, regardless of the ATM status, and enhances IR-induced apoptosis particularly when ATM is deficient. Collectively, our results clearly demonstrate that ATR function is required for the IR-induced G2/M checkpoint activation and subsequent survival of cells with ATM deficiency. The synthetic lethal interaction between ATM and ATR in response to IR supports ATR as a therapeutic target for improved anti-cancer regimens, especially in tumors with a dysfunctional ATM pathway.
Project description:Phosphorylation of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) upon ionizing radiation (IR) is essential for cellular radioresistance and nonhomologous-end-joining-mediated DNA double-strand break repair. In addition to IR induction, we have previously shown that DNA-PKcs phosphorylation is increased upon camptothecin treatment, which induces replication stress and replication-associated double-strand breaks. To clarify the involvement of DNA-PKcs in this process, we analyzed DNA-PKcs phosphorylation in response to UV irradiation, which causes replication stress and activates ATR (ATM-Rad3-related)/ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) kinases in a replication-dependent manner. Upon UV irradiation, we observed a rapid DNA-PKcs phosphorylation at T2609 and T2647, but not at S2056, distinct from that induced by IR. UV-induced DNA-PKcs phosphorylation occurs specifically only in replicating cells and is dependent on ATR kinase. Inhibition of ATR activity via caffeine, a dominant-negative kinase-dead mutant, or RNA interference led to the attenuation of UV-induced DNA-PKcs phosphorylation. Furthermore, DNA-PKcs associates with ATR in vivo and is phosphorylated by ATR in vitro, suggesting that DNA-PKcs could be the direct downstream target of ATR. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that DNA-PKcs is required for the cellular response to replication stress and might play an important role in the repair of stalled replication forks.
Project description:Since many anticancer therapies target DNA and DNA damage response pathways, biomarkers of DNA damage endpoints may prove valuable in basic and clinical cancer research. Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase is the principal regulator of cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In humans, ATM autophosphorylation at serine 1981 (p-S1981) is an immediate molecular response to nascent DSBs and ionizing radiation (IR). Here we describe the analytical characteristics and fit-for-purpose validation of a quantitative dual-labeled immunoblot that simultaneously measures p-S1981-ATM and pan-ATM in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following ex vivo exposure to 2?Gy IR, facilitating the calculation of %p-ATM. To validate our assay, we isolated PBMCs from 41 volunteers. We report that the median basal level of p-S1981-ATM and pan-ATM was 2.4 and 49.5?ng/107 PBMCs, respectively, resulting in %p-ATM of 4%. Following exposure of PBMCs to 2?Gy IR, p-S1981-ATM levels increased 12-fold to 29.8?ng/107 PBMCs resulting in %p-ATM of 63%. Interestingly, we show that PBMCs from women have a 2.6-fold greater median p-S1981-ATM level following IR exposure than men (44.4 versus 16.9?ng/107 cells; p < 0.01). This results in a significantly greater %p-ATM for women (68% versus 49%; p?<? 0.01). Our rigorous description of the analytical characteristics and reproducibility of phosphoprotein immunoblotting, along with our finding that the ATM DNA damage response is greater in women, has far reaching implications for biomedical researchers.
Project description:Stabilization of p53 in response to DNA damage is caused by its dissociation from Mdm2, a protein that targets p53 for degradation in the proteasome. Dissociation of p53 from Mdm2 could be caused by DNA damage-induced p53 posttranslational modifications. The ATM and ATR kinases, whose activation in response to ionizing radiation (IR) and UV light, respectively, is required for p53 stabilization, directly phosphorylate p53 on Ser-15. However, phosphorylation of Ser-15 is critical for the apoptotic activity of p53 and not for p53 stabilization. Thus, whether any p53 modifications, and which, underlie disruption of the p53-Mdm2 complex after DNA damage remains to be determined. We analyzed the IR- and UV light-induced stabilization of p53 proteins with substitutions of Ser known to be posttranslationally modified after DNA damage. Substitution of Ser-20 was sufficient to abrogate p53 stabilization in response to both IR and UV light. Furthermore, both IR and UV light induced phosphorylation of p53 on Ser-20, which involved the majority of nuclear p53 protein and weakened the interaction of p53 with Mdm2 in vitro. ATM and ATR cannot phosphorylate p53 on Ser-20. We therefore propose that ATM and ATR activate an, as yet unidentified, kinase that stabilizes p53 by phosphorylating it on Ser-20.
Project description:In response to ?-irradiation (IR)-induced DNA damage, activation of cell cycle checkpoints results in cell cycle arrest, allowing time for DNA repair before cell cycle re-entry. Human cells contain G1 and G2 cell cycle checkpoints. While G1 checkpoint is defective in most cancer cells, commonly due to mutations and/or alterations in the key regulators of G1 checkpoint (for example, p53, cyclin D), G2 checkpoint is rarely impaired in cancer cells, which is important for cancer cell survival. G2 checkpoint activation involves activation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)/ATM- and rad3-related (ATR) signalings, which leads to the inhibition of Cdc2 kinase and subsequent G2/M cell cycle arrest. Previous studies from our laboratory show that G2 checkpoint activation following IR exposure of MCF-7 breast cancer cells is dependent on the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signaling. As HER receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), which have important roles in cell proliferation and survival, have been shown to activate ERK1/2 signaling in response to various stimuli, we investigated the role of HER RTKs in IR-induced G2/M checkpoint response in breast cancer cells. Results of the present studies indicate that IR exposure resulted in a striking increase in the phosphorylation of HER1, HER2, HER3 and HER4 in MCF-7 cells, indicative of activation of these proteins. Furthermore, specific inhibition of HER2 using an inhibitor, short hairpin RNA and dominant-negative mutant HER2 abolished IR-induced activation of ATM/ATR signaling, phosphorylation of Cdc2-Y15 and subsequent induction of G2/M arrest. Moreover, the inhibition of HER2 also abrogated IR-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In contrast, inhibition of HER1 using specific inhibitors or decreasing expression of HER3 or HER4 using short hairpin RNAs did not block the induction of G2/M arrest following IR. These results suggest an important role of HER2 in the activation of G2/M checkpoint response following IR.
Project description:Checkpoint signaling requires two conserved phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related protein kinases (PIKKs): ATM and ATR. In budding yeast, Tel1 and Mec1 correspond to ATM and ATR, respectively. The Tel2-Tti1-Tti2 (TTT) complex connects to the Rvb1-Rvb2-Tah1-Pih1 (R2TP) complex for the protein stability of PIKKs; however, TTT-R2TP interaction only partially mediates ATM and ATR protein stabilization. How TTT controls protein stability of ATM and ATR remains to be precisely determined. Here we show that Asa1, like Tel2, plays a major role in stabilization of newly synthesized Mec1 and Tel1 proteins whereas Pih1 contributes to Mec1 and Tel1 stability at high temperatures. Although Asa1 and Pih1 both interact with Tel2, no Asa1-Pih1 interaction is detected. Pih1 is distributed in both the cytoplasm and nucleus wheres Asa1 localizes largely in the cytoplasm. Asa1 and Pih1 are required for proper DNA damage checkpoint signaling. Our findings provide a model in which two different Tel2 pathways promote protein stabilization of Mec1 and Tel1 in budding yeast.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most deleterious lesions that can challenge genomic integrity. Concomitant to the repair of the breaks, a rapid signaling cascade must be coordinated at the lesion site that leads to the activation of cell cycle checkpoints and/or apoptosis. In this context, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad-3-related (ATR) protein kinases are the earliest signaling molecules that are known to initiate the transduction cascade at damage sites. The current model places ATM and ATR in separate molecular routes that orchestrate distinct pathways of the checkpoint responses. Whereas ATM signals DSBs arising from ionizing radiation (IR) through a Chk2-dependent pathway, ATR is activated in a variety of replication-linked DSBs and leads to activation of the checkpoints in a Chk1 kinase-dependent manner. However, activation of the G2/M checkpoint in response to IR escapes this accepted paradigm because it is dependent on both ATM and ATR but independent of Chk2. Our data provides an explanation for this observation and places ATM activity upstream of ATR recruitment to IR-damaged chromatin. These data provide experimental evidence of an active cross talk between ATM and ATR signaling pathways in response to DNA damage.