Gene RB cloned from Solanum bulbocastanum confers broad spectrum resistance to potato late blight.
ABSTRACT: Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating potato disease in the world. Control of late blight in the United States and other developed countries relies extensively on fungicide application. We previously demonstrated that the wild diploid potato species Solanum bulbocastanum is highly resistant to all known races of P. infestans. Potato germplasm derived from S. bulbocastanum has shown durable and effective resistance in the field. Here we report the cloning of the major resistance gene RB in S. bulbocastanum by using a map-based approach in combination with a long-range (LR)-PCR strategy. A cluster of four resistance genes of the CC-NBS-LRR (coiled coil-nucleotide binding site-Leu-rich repeat) class was found within the genetically mapped RB region. Transgenic plants containing a LR-PCR product of one of these four genes displayed broad spectrum late blight resistance. The cloned RB gene provides a new resource for developing late blight-resistant potato varieties. Our results also demonstrate that LR-PCR is a valuable approach to isolate genes that cannot be maintained in the bacterial artificial chromosome system.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Late blight is the most serious potato disease world-wide. The most effective and environmentally sound way for controlling late blight is to incorporate natural resistance into potato cultivars. Several late blight resistance genes have been cloned recently. However, there is almost no information available about the resistance pathways mediated by any of those genes. RESULTS: We previously cloned a late blight resistance gene, RB, from a diploid wild potato species Solanum bulbocastanum. Transgenic potato lines containing a single RB gene showed a rate-limiting resistance against all known races of Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen. To better understand the RB-mediated resistance we silenced the potato Rar1 and Sgt1 genes that have been implicated in mediating disease resistance responses against various plant pathogens and pests. The Rar1 and Sgt1 genes of a RB-containing potato clone were silenced using a RNA interference (RNAi)-based approach. All of the silenced potato plants displayed phenotypically normal growth. The late blight resistance of the Rar1 and Sgt1 silenced lines were evaluated by a traditional greenhouse inoculation method and quantified using a GFP-tagged P. infestans strain. The resistance of the Rar1-silenced plants was not affected. However, silencing of the Sgt1 gene abolished the RB-mediated resistance. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that silencing of the Sgt1 gene in potato does not result in lethality. However, the Sgt1 gene is essential for the RB-mediated late blight resistance. In contrast, the Rar1 gene is not required for RB-mediated resistance. These results provide additional evidence for the universal role of the Sgt1 gene in various R gene-mediated plant defense responses.
Project description:There is a wealth of resistance genes in the Mexican wild relative of cultivated Solanum, but very few of these species are sexually compatible with cultivated Solanum tuberosum. The most devastating disease of potato is late blight caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Pi). The wild hexaploid species S. demissum, which it is able to cross with potato, was used to transfer eleven race-specific genes by introgressive hybridization that were subsequently widely used in potato breeding. However, there are now more virulent races of Pi that can overcome all of these genes. The most sustainable strategy for protecting potatoes from late blight is to pyramid or stack broad-spectrum resistance genes into the cultivars. Recently four broad-spectrum genes (Rpi) conferring resistance to Pi were identified and cloned from the sexually incompatible species S. bulbocastanum: Rpi-blb1 (RB), Rpi-blb2, Rpi-blb3, and Rpi-bt1. For this research, a resistant S. bulbocastanum accession was selected carrying the genes Rpi-blb1 and Rpi-blb3 together with race-specific R3a and R3b genes. This accession was previously used to produce a large number of somatic hybrids (SHs) with five commercial potato cultivars using protoplast electrofusion. In this study, three SHs with cv. 'Delikat' were selected and backcross generations (i.e., BC1 and BC2) were obtained using cvs. 'Baltica', 'Quarta', 'Romanze', and 'Sarpo Mira'. Their assessment using gene-specific markers demonstrates that these genes are present in the SHs and their BC progenies. We identified plants carrying all four genes that were resistant to foliage blight in greenhouse and field trials. Functionality of the genes was shown by using agro-infiltration with the effectors of corresponding Avr genes. For a number of hybrids and BC clones yield and tuber number were not significantly different from that of the parent cultivar 'Delikat' in field trials. The evaluation of agronomic traits of selected BC2 clones and of their processing qualities revealed valuable material for breeding late blight durable resistant potato. We show that the combination of somatic hybridization with the additional use of gene specific markers and corresponding Avr effectors is an efficient approach for the successful identification and introgression of late blight resistance genes into the potato gene pool.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The destructive plant disease potato late blight is caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. This disease has remained particularly problematic despite intensive breeding efforts to integrate resistance into cultivated potato, largely because of the pathogen's ability to quickly evolve to overcome major resistance genes. The RB gene, identified in the wild potato species S. bulbocastanum, encodes a protein that confers broad-spectrum resistance to most P. infestans isolates through its recognition of highly conserved members of the corresponding pathogen effector family IPI-O. IpiO is a multigene family of effectors and while the majority of IPI-O proteins are recognized by RB to elicit host resistance, some variants exist that are able to elude detection (e.g. IPI-O4). METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the present study, analysis of ipiO variants among 40 different P. infestans isolates collected from Guatemala, Thailand, and the United States revealed a high degree of complexity within this gene family. Isolate aggressiveness was correlated with increased ipiO diversity and especially the presence of the ipiO4 variant. Furthermore, isolates expressing IPI-O4 overcame RB-mediated resistance in transgenic potato plants even when the resistance-eliciting IPI-O1 variant was present. In support of this finding, we observed that expression of IPI-O4 via Agrobacterium blocked recognition of IPI-O1, leading to inactivation of RB-mediated programmed cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we definitively demonstrate and provide the first evidence that P. infestans can defeat an R protein through inhibition of recognition of the corresponding effector protein.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans can attack both potato foliage and tubers. Although interaction transcriptome dynamics between potato foliage and various pathogens have been reported, no transcriptome study has focused specifically upon how potato tubers respond to pathogen infection. When inoculated with P. infestans, tubers of nontransformed 'Russet Burbank' (WT) potato develop late blight disease while those of transgenic 'Russet Burbank' line SP2211 (+RB), which expresses the potato late blight resistance gene RB (Rpi-blb1), do not. We compared transcriptome responses to P. infestans inoculation in tubers of these two lines. RESULTS: We demonstrated the practicality of RNA-seq to study tetraploid potato and present the first RNA-seq study of potato tuber diseases. A total of 483 million paired end Illumina RNA-seq reads were generated, representing the transcription of around 30,000 potato genes. Differentially expressed genes, gene groups and ontology bins that exhibited differences between the WT and +RB lines were identified. P. infestans transcripts, including those of known effectors, were also identified. CONCLUSION: Faster and stronger activation of defense related genes, gene groups and ontology bins correlate with successful tuber resistance against P. infestans. Our results suggest that the hypersensitive response is likely a general form of resistance against the hemibiotrophic P. infestans-even in potato tubers, organs that develop below ground.
Project description:Despite intensive breeding efforts, potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, remains a threat to potato production worldwide because newly evolved pathogen strains have consistently overcome major resistance genes. The potato RB gene, derived from the wild species Solanum bulbocastanum, confers resistance to most P. infestans strains through recognition of members of the pathogen effector family IPI-O. While the majority of IPI-O proteins are recognized by RB to elicit resistance (e.g. IPI-O1, IPI-O2), some family members are able to elude detection (e.g. IPI-O4). In addition, IPI-O4 blocks recognition of IPI-O1, leading to inactivation of RB-mediated programmed cell death. Here, we report results that elucidate molecular mechanisms governing resistance elicitation or suppression of RB by IPI-O. Our data indicate self-association of the RB coiled coil (CC) domain as well as a physical interaction between this domain and the effectors IPI-O4 and IPI-O1. We identified four amino acids within IPI-O that are critical for interaction with the RB CC domain and one of these amino acids, at position 129, determines hypersensitive response (HR) elicitation in planta. IPI-O1 mutant L129P fails to induce HR in presence of RB while IPI-O4 P129L gains the ability to induce an HR. Like IPI-O4, IPI-O1 L129P is also able to suppress the HR mediated by RB, indicating a critical step in the evolution of this gene family. Our results point to a model in which IPI-O effectors can affect RB function through interaction with the RB CC domain.
Project description:Considered responsible for one million deaths in Ireland and widespread famine in the European continent during the 1840s, late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, remains the most devastating disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with about 15%-30% annual yield loss in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting mainly smallholder farmers. We show here that the transfer of three resistance (R) genes from wild relatives [RB, Rpi-blb2 from Solanum bulbocastanum and Rpi-vnt1.1 from S. venturii] into potato provided complete resistance in the field over several seasons. We observed that the stacking of the three R genes produced a high frequency of transgenic events with resistance to late blight. In the field, 13 resistant transgenic events with the 3R-gene stack from the potato varieties 'Desiree' and 'Victoria' grew normally without showing pathogen damage and without any fungicide spray, whereas their non-transgenic equivalent varieties were rapidly killed. Characteristics of the local pathogen population suggest that the resistance to late blight may be long-lasting because it has low diversity, and essentially consists of the single lineage, 2_A1, which expresses the cognate avirulence effector genes. Yields of two transgenic events from 'Desiree' and 'Victoria' grown without fungicide to reflect small-scale farm holders were estimated to be 29 and 45 t/ha respectively. This represents a three to four-fold increase over the national average. Thus, these late blight resistant potato varieties, which are the farmers' preferred varieties, could be rapidly adopted and bring significant income to smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa.
Project description:Potato is the world's fourth largest food crop yet it continues to endure late blight, a devastating disease caused by the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Breeding broad-spectrum disease resistance (R) genes into potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the best strategy for genetically managing late blight but current approaches are slow and inefficient. We used a repertoire of effector genes predicted computationally from the P. infestans genome to accelerate the identification, functional characterization, and cloning of potentially broad-spectrum R genes. An initial set of 54 effectors containing a signal peptide and a RXLR motif was profiled for activation of innate immunity (avirulence or Avr activity) on wild Solanum species and tentative Avr candidates were identified. The RXLR effector family IpiO induced hypersensitive responses (HR) in S. stoloniferum, S. papita and the more distantly related S. bulbocastanum, the source of the R gene Rpi-blb1. Genetic studies with S. stoloniferum showed cosegregation of resistance to P. infestans and response to IpiO. Transient co-expression of IpiO with Rpi-blb1 in a heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana system identified IpiO as Avr-blb1. A candidate gene approach led to the rapid cloning of S. stoloniferum Rpi-sto1 and S. papita Rpi-pta1, which are functionally equivalent to Rpi-blb1. Our findings indicate that effector genomics enables discovery and functional profiling of late blight R genes and Avr genes at an unprecedented rate and promises to accelerate the engineering of late blight resistant potato varieties.
Project description:Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most damaging potato diseases. Genetic resistance is one of the most effective means to control the destruction caused by this pathogen. Transgenic potato lines harboring a resistance gene, RB, confer broad-spectrum, rate-reducing late blight resistance. A microarray approach was used to understand what genes are manipulated in the potato background after the addition of the RB gene that contribute to the late blight resistant phenotype. Keywords: Time course, disease state analysis Overall design: CRD (3x2x2) Split-Split Plot: 3 sampling time points after inoculation (2, 5, 10 hours), Two genotypes (Katahdin with and without the RB gene), Inoculation with P. infestans or mock inoculation with water. 48 arrays were hybridized in total; 12 in each biological replicate. Each genotype with the mock and late blight inoculated samples was hybridized on two arrays using a dye-swap procedure. Each genotype had a total of 6 arrays across the three sampling time points.
Project description:Solanum × michoacanum (Bitter.) Rydb. is a diploid, 1 EBN (Endosperm Balance Number) nothospecies, a relative of potato originating from the area of Morelia in Michoacán State of Mexico that is believed to be a natural hybrid of S. bulbocastanum × S. pinnatisectum. Both parental species and S. michoacanum have been described as sources of resistance to Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. The gene for resistance to potato late blight, Rpi-mch1, originating from S. michoacanum was mapped to the chromosome VII of the potato genome. It confers high level of resistance since the plants possessing it showed only small necrotic lesions or no symptoms of the P. infestans infection and we could ascribe over 80% of variance observed in the late blight resistance test of the mapping population to the effect of the closest marker. Its localization on chromosome VII may correspond to the localization of the Rpi1 gene from S. pinnatisectum. When mapping Rpi-mch1, one of the first genetic maps made of 798 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers of a plant species from the Solanum genus and the first map of S. michoacanum, a 1EBN potato species was constructed. Particular chromosomes were identified using 48 sequence-specific PCR markers, originating mostly from the Tomato-EXPEN 2000 linkage map (SGN), but also from other sources. Recently, the first DArT linkage map of 2 EBN species Solanum phureja has been published and it shares 197 DArT markers with map obtained in this study, 88% of which are in the concordant positions.
Project description:Phytophthora capsici is a soil borne pathogen, and is among the most destructive pathogens for Capsicum annuum (chile). P. capsici is known to cause diseases on all parts of the chile plants. Therefore, it requires independent resistance genes to control disease symptoms that are induced by each of the P. capsici strains. This requirement of multiple resistance genes to confer resistance to P. capsici, in chile makes breeding for resistance a daunting pursuit. Against this backdrop, a genetic engineering approach would be to introduce a broad host resistance gene into chile in order to protect it from different races of P. capsici. Notably, a broad host resistance gene RB from Solanum bulbocastanum has been shown to confer resistance to P. infestans in both S. tuberosum and S. lycopersicum. We agroinfiltrated the RB gene into the leaves of susceptible chile plants, demonstrating that the gene is also capable of lending resistance to P. capsici in chile. We introduced the RB gene into chile by developing an Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation system. The integration of the RB gene into the genome of the primary transformants and its subsequent transfer to the F1 generation was confirmed by genomic PCR using primers specific for the RB gene. A 3:1 ratio for the presence and absence of the RB gene was observed in the F1 progeny. In addition to showing resistance to P. capsici in a leaf inoculation experiment, about 30% of the F1 progeny also exhibited resistance to root inoculation. Our data, when taken together, suggests that the RB gene from S. bulbocastanum confers resistance against P. capsici in C. annuum, thereby demonstrating that the RB gene has an even broader host range than reported in the literature-both in terms of the host and the pathogen.