Localization, by linkage analysis, of the cystinuria type III gene to chromosome 19q13.1.
ABSTRACT: Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive aminoaciduria in which three urinary phenotypes (I, II, and III) have been described. An amino acid transporter gene, SLC3A1 (formerly rBAT), was found to be responsible for this disorder. Mutational and linkage analysis demonstrated the presence of genetic heterogeneity in which the SLC3A1 gene is responsible for type I cystinuria but not for type II or type III. In this study, we report the identification of the cystinuria type III locus on the long arm of chromosome 19 (19q13.1), obtained after a genomewide search. Pairwise linkage analysis in a series of type III or type II families previously excluded from linkage to the cystinuria type I locus (SLC3A1 gene) revealed a significant maximum LOD score (zeta max) of 13.11 at a maximum recombination fraction (theta max) of .00, with marker D19S225. Multipoint linkage analysis performed with the use of additional markers from the region placed the cystinuria type III locus between D19S414 and D19S220. Preliminary data on type II families also seem to place the disease locus for this rare type of cystinuria at 19q13.1 (significant zeta max = 3.11 at theta max of .00, with marker D19S225).
Project description:Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive amino-aciduria where three urinary phenotypes have been described (I, II, and III). An amino acid transporter gene, SLC3A1 (formerly rBAT), was found to be responsible for this disorder. To assess whether mutations in SLC3A1 are involved in different cystinuria phenotypes, linkage with this gene and its nearest marker (D2S119) was analyzed in 22 families with type I and/or type III cystinuria. Linkage with heterogeneity was proved (alpha = 0.45; P < 0.008). Type I/I families showed homogeneous linkage to SLC3A1 (Zmax > 3.0 at theta = 0.00; alpha = 1), whereas types I/III and III/III were not linked. Our data suggest that type I cystinuria is due to mutations in the SLC3A1 gene, whereas another locus is responsible for type III. This result establishes genetic heterogeneity for cystinuria, classically considered as a multiallelic monogenic disease.
Project description:Hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome (HCS) and 2p21 deletion syndrome are two recessive contiguous gene deletion syndromes associated with cystinuria type I. In HCS patients, only SLC3A1 and PREPL are disrupted. In the 2p21 deletion syndrome, two additional genes (C2orf34 and PPM1B) are lost. Molecular analysis of the SLC3A1/PREPL locus was performed in the patients using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. HCS in both siblings was confirmed with the deletion screen of the SLC3A1/PREPL locus. Fine mapping of the breakpoint revealed a deletion of 77.4 kb, including three genes: SLC3A1, PREPL and C2orf34. Features not present in classical HCS were a mild/moderate mental retardation and a respiratory chain complex IV deficiency. We report the first patients with a deletion of SLC3A1, PREPL and C2orf34. They present with a phenotype intermediate between HCS and 2p21 deletion syndrome.
Project description:Cystinuria is an aminoaciduria caused by mutations in the genes that encode the two subunits of the amino acid transport system b0,+, responsible for the renal reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids. The clinical symptoms of cystinuria relate to nephrolithiasis, due to the precipitation of cystine in urine. Mutations in SLC3A1, which codes for the heavy subunit rBAT, cause cystinuria type A, whereas mutations in SLC7A9, which encodes the light subunit b0,+AT, cause cystinuria type B. By crossing Slc3a1-/- with Slc7a9-/- mice we generated a type AB cystinuria mouse model to test digenic inheritance of cystinuria. The 9 genotypes obtained have been analyzed at early (2- and 5-months) and late stage (8-months) of the disease. Monitoring the lithiasic phenotype by X-ray, urine amino acid content analysis and protein expression studies have shown that double heterozygous mice (Slc7a9+/-Slc3a1+/-) present lower expression of system b0,+ and higher hyperexcretion of cystine than single heterozygotes (Slc7a9+/-Slc3a1+/+ and Slc7a9+/+Slc3a1+/-) and give rise to lithiasis in 4% of the mice, demonstrating that cystinuria has a digenic inheritance in this mouse model. Moreover in this study it has been demonstrated a genotype/phenotype correlation in type AB cystinuria mouse model providing new insights for further molecular and genetic studies of cystinuria patients.
Project description:Autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 4 (CMT4) is a complex group of demyelinating hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies presenting genetic heterogeneity. Five different subtypes that correspond to six different chromosomal locations have been described. We hereby report a large inbred Lebanese family affected with autosomal recessive CMT4, in whom we have excluded linkage to the already-known loci. The results of a genomewide search demonstrated linkage to a locus on chromosome 19q13.1-13.3, over an 8.5-cM interval between markers D19S220 and D19S412. A maximum pairwise LOD score of 5.37 for marker D19S420, at recombination fraction [theta].00, and a multipoint LOD score of 10.3 for marker D19S881, at straight theta = .00, strongly supported linkage to this locus. Clinical features and the results of histopathologic studies confirm that the disease affecting this family constitutes a previously unknown demyelinating autosomal recessive CMT subtype known as "CMT4F." The myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) gene, located on 19q13.1 and specifically expressed in the CNS and the peripheral nervous system, was ruled out as being the gene responsible for this form of CMT.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To clarify the genotype-phenotype correlation and elucidate the role of digenic inheritance in cystinuria. METHODS: 164 probands from the International Cystinuria Consortium were screened for mutations in SLC3A1 (type A) and SLC7A9 (type B) and classified on the basis of urine excretion of cystine and dibasic amino acids by obligate heterozygotes into 37 type I (silent heterozygotes), 46 type non-I (hyperexcretor heterozygotes), 14 mixed, and 67 untyped probands. RESULTS: Mutations were identified in 97% of the probands, representing 282 alleles (86.8%). Forty new mutations were identified: 24 in SLC3A1 and 16 in SLC7A9. Type A heterozygotes showed phenotype I, but mutation DupE5-E9 showed phenotype non-I in some heterozygotes. Type B heterozygotes showed phenotype non-I, with the exception of 10 type B mutations which showed phenotype I in some heterozygotes. Thus most type I probands carried type A mutations and all type non-I probands carried type B mutations. Types B and A mutations contributed to mixed type, BB being the most representative genotype. Two mixed cystinuria families transmitted mutations in both genes: double compound heterozygotes (type AB) had greater aminoaciduria than single heterozygotes in their family. CONCLUSIONS: Digenic inheritance is an exception (two of 164 families), with a limited contribution to the aminoaciduria values (partial phenotype) in cystinuria. Further mutational analysis could focus on one of the two genes (SLC3A1 preferentially for type I and SLC7A9 for type non-I probands), while for mixed probands analysis of both genes might be required, with priority given to SLC7A9.
Project description:Cystinuria, one of the first recognized inborn errors of metabolism, has been reported in many dog breeds.To determine urinary cystine concentrations, inheritance, and mutations in the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes associated with cystinuria in 3 breeds.Mixed and purebred Labrador Retrievers (n = 6), Australian Cattle Dogs (6), Miniature Pinschers (4), and 1 mixed breed dog with cystine urolithiasis, relatives and control dogs.Urinary cystinuria and aminoaciduria was assessed and exons of the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes were sequenced from genomic DNA.In each breed, male and female dogs, independent of neuter status, were found to form calculi. A frameshift mutation in SLC3A1 (c.350delG) resulting in a premature stop codon was identified in autosomal-recessive (AR) cystinuria in Labrador Retrievers and mixed breed dogs. A 6 bp deletion (c.1095_1100del) removing 2 threonines in SLC3A1 was found in autosomal-dominant (AD) cystinuria with a more severe phenotype in homozygous than in heterozygous Australian Cattle Dogs. A missense mutation in SLC7A9 (c.964G>A) was discovered in AD cystinuria in Miniature Pinschers with only heterozygous affected dogs observed to date. Breed-specific DNA tests were developed, but the prevalence of each mutation remains unknown.These studies describe the first AD inheritance and the first putative SLC7A9 mutation to cause cystinuria in dogs and expand our understanding of this phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous disease, leading to a new classification system for canine cystinuria and better therapeutic management and genetic control in these breeds.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cystinuria is an inherited disorder of renal amino acid transport that causes recurrent nephrolithiasis and significant morbidity in humans. It has an incidence of 1 in 7000 worldwide making it one of the most common genetic disorders in man. We phenotypically characterized a mouse model of cystinuria type A resultant from knockout of Slc3a1.<h4>Methods</h4>Knockout of Slc3a1 at RNA and protein levels was evaluated using real-time quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. Slc3a1 knockout mice were placed on normal or breeder chow diets and evaluated for cystine stone formation over time suing x-ray analysis, and the development of kidney injury by measuring injury biomarkers. Kidney injury was also evaluated via histologic analysis. Amino acid levels were measured in the blood of mice using high performance liquid chromatography. Liver glutathione levels were measured using a luminescent-based assay.<h4>Results</h4>We confirmed knockout of Slc3a1 at the RNA level, while Slc7a9 RNA representing the co-transporter was preserved. As expected, we observed bladder stone formation in Slc3a1<sup>-/-</sup> mice. Male Slc3a1<sup>-/-</sup> mice exhibited lower weights compared to Slc3a1<sup>+/+</sup>. Slc3a1<sup>-/-</sup> mice on a regular diet demonstrated elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) without elevation of serum creatinine. However, placing the knockout animals on a breeder chow diet, containing a higher cystine concentration, resulted in the development of elevation of both BUN and creatinine indicative of more severe chronic kidney disease. Histological examination revealed that these dietary effects resulted in worsened kidney tubular obstruction and interstitial inflammation as well as worsened bladder inflammation. Cystine is a precursor for the antioxidant molecule glutathione, so we evaluated glutathione levels in the livers of Slc3a1<sup>-/-</sup> mice. We found significantly lowered levels of both reduced and total glutathione in the knockout animals.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results suggest that that diet can affect the development and progression of chronic kidney disease in an animal model of cystinuria, which may have important implications for patients with this disease. Additionally, reduced glutathione may predispose those with cystinuria to injury caused by oxidative stress. Word count: 327.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cystinuria is caused by the defective renal reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids, and results in cystine stone formation. So far, mutations in two genes have been identified as causative. The SLC3A1/rBAT gene encodes the heavy subunit of the heterodimeric rBAT-b0,+AT transporter, whereas the light chain is encoded by the SLC7A9/ b0,+AT gene. In nearly 85% of patients mutations in both genes are detectable, but a significant number of patients currently remains without a molecular diagnosis. Thus, the existence of a further cystinuria gene had been suggested, and the recently identified AGT1/SLC7A13 represents the long-postulated partner of rBAT and third cystinuria candidate gene. METHODS:We screened a cohort of 17 cystinuria patients for SLC7A13 variants which were negative for SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 mutations. RESULTS:Despite strong evidences for an involvement of SLC7A13 mutations in cystinuria, we could not confirm a relevant role of SLC7A13 for the disease. CONCLUSION:With the exclusion of SLC7A13/AGT1 as the third cystinuria gene accounting for the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 mutation negative cases, it becomes obvious that other genetic factors should be responsible for the cystinuria phenotype in nearly 15% of patients.
Project description:Cystinuria is an inherited metabolic disease that is caused by defects in two genes, SLC3A1 and SLC7A9, which result in a renal reabsorptive defect of cystine and other dibasic amino acids, including ornithine, arginine, and lysine. Patients usually present with recurrent renal calculi and may develop renal impairment. Medical management includes high fluid intake and chelating agents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing cystinuria in Saudi Arabia.A retrospective chart review for cystinuria patients from the genetic and nephrology divisions between 2010 to 2015. All patients were investigated, diagnosed and treated at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Saudi Arabia.Eight patients were identified from five unrelated families. The age of onset ranged from birth to 14 years. The female to male ratio was 1.7:1. Two new variants in the SLC3A1 and SLC9A7 genes were discovered. All of the detected mutations were missense variants in three different exons, such as c.1711 T?>?A (p.Cys571Ser) (exon 10), c.1166C?>?T p.Thr389Met (exon 11) and c.1400 T?>?A p.Met467Lys (exon 8). Additionally, 37.5% of our patients developed arterial hypertension and 25% had urinary tract infection, but none had renal impairment. No significant clinical differences were detected in this study between type A (SLC3A1 variants) and type B cystinuria (SLC7A9 variant). Two cases were diagnosed based on clinical information, biochemical testing and a positive family history as all of the molecular testing for cystinuria was negative.Cystinuria has wide genetic heterogeneity with a poor genotype/phenotype correlation. Negative molecular investigations should not rule out the disease if clinical and biochemical investigations support the diagnosis. A larger data registry is essential to better describe the cystinuria genotype/phenotype in Saudi Arabia.
Project description:Cystinuria (OMIM 220100) is an inborn congenital disorder characterised by a defective cystine metabolism resulting in the formation of cystine stones. Among the heterogeneous group of kidney stone diseases, cystinuria is the only disorder which is exclusively caused by gene mutations. So far, two genes responsible for cystinuria have been identified: SLC3A1 (chromosome 2p21) encodes the heavy subunit rBAT of a renal b(0,+) transporter while SLC7A9 (chromosome 19q12) encodes its interacting light subunit b(0,+)AT. Mutations in SLC3A1 are generally associated with an autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance whereas SLC7A9 variants result in a broad clinical variability even within the same family. The detection rate for mutations in these genes is larger than 85%, but it is influenced by the ethnic origin of a patient and the pathophysiological significance of the mutations. In addition to isolated cystinuria, patients suffering from the hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome have been reported carrying deletions including at least the SLC3A1 and the PREPL genes in 2p21. By extensive molecular screening studies in large cohort of patients a broad spectrum of mutations could be identified, several of these variants were functionally analysed and thereby allowed insights in the pathology of the disease as well as in the renal trafficking of cystine and the dibasic amino acids. In our review we will summarize the current knowledge on the physiological and the genetic basis of cystinuria as an inborn cause of kidney stones, and the application of this knowledge in genetic testing strategies.