The locus for combined factor V-factor VIII deficiency (F5F8D) maps to 18q21, between D18S849 and D18S1103.
ABSTRACT: Combined factor V-factor VIII deficiency (F5F8D) is a rare, autosomal recessive coagulation disorder in which the levels of both coagulation factor V and coagulation factor VIII are diminished. In order to map and subsequently clone the gene responsible for this phenotype, DNAs from 19 families (16 from Iran, 2 from Pakistan, and 1 from Algeria) with a total of 32 affected individuals were collected for a genomewide linkage search using genotypes of highly informative DNA polymorphisms. All pedigrees except two contained at least one consanguineous marriage. A maximum LOD score (Zmax) of 14.82 for theta = .02 was generated with marker D18S1129 in 18q21; LOD scores > 9 were obtained for several other markers-D18S849, D18S1103, D18S64, and D18S862. Multipoint analysis resulted in Zmax = 18.91 for the interval between D18S1129 and D18S64. Informative recombinants placed the locus for F5F8D between D18S849 and D18S1103, in an interval of approximately 1 cM. These results are similar to the recently reported linkage of this disease to chromosome 18q in Jewish families (Nichols et al. 1997) and provide evidence that the same gene is responsible for all F5F8D among human populations. The difference in clinical severity of the phenotype in unrelated families, as well as the failure to detect a specific haplotype of DNA polymorphisms in the consanguineous Iranian families, suggests the existence of different molecular defects in the F5F8D gene. There exists an apparently gap-free contig with CEPH YACs linking the two markers on either side of the critical region. Positional cloning efforts are now in progress to clone the F5F8D gene.
Project description:Mutations in LMAN1 (ERGIC-53) or MCFD2 cause combined deficiency of factor V and factor VIII (F5F8D). LMAN1 and MCFD2 form a protein complex that functions as a cargo receptor ferrying FV and FVIII from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi. In this study, we analyzed 10 previously reported and 10 new F5F8D families. Mutations in the LMAN1 or MCFD2 genes accounted for 15 of these families, including 3 alleles resulting in no LMAN1 mRNA accumulation. Combined with our previous reports, we have identified LMAN1 or MCFD2 mutations as the causes of F5F8D in 71 of 76 families. Among the 5 families in which no mutations were identified, 3 were due to misdiagnosis, with the remaining 2 likely carrying LMAN1 or MCFD2 mutations that were missed by direct sequencing. Our results suggest that mutations in LMAN1 and MCFD2 may account for all cases of F5F8D. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis detected a low level of LMAN1-MCFD2 complex in lymphoblasts derived from patients with missense mutations in LMAN1 (C475R) or MCFD2 (I136T), suggesting that complete loss of the complex may not be required for clinically significant reduction in FV and FVIII.
Project description:Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), or Jeune syndrome, is a multisystem autosomal recessive disorder associated with a characteristic skeletal dysplasia and variable renal, hepatic, pancreatic, and retinal abnormalities. We have performed a genome wide linkage search using autozygosity mapping in a cohort of four consanguineous families with ATD, three of which originate from Pakistan, and one from southern Italy. In these families, as well as in a fifth consanguineous family from France, we localised a novel ATD locus (ATD) to chromosome 15q13, with a maximum cumulative two point lod score at D15S1031 (Zmax=3.77 at theta=0.00). Five consanguineous families shared a 1.2 cM region of homozygosity between D15S165 and D15S1010. Investigation of a further four European kindreds, with no known parental consanguinity, showed evidence of marker homozygosity across a similar interval. Families with both mild and severe forms of ATD mapped to 15q13, but mutation analysis of two candidate genes, GREMLIN and FORMIN, did not show pathogenic mutations.
Project description:Combined deficiency of factor V and factor VIII (F5F8D) is caused by mutations in one of 2 genes, either LMAN1 or MCFD2. Here we report the identification of mutations for 11 additional F5F8D families, including 4 novel mutations, 2 in MCFD2 and 2 in LMAN1. We show that a novel MCFD2 missense mutation identified here (D81Y) and 2 previously reported mutations (D89A and D122V) abolish MCFD2 binding to LMAN1. Measurement of platelet factor V (FV) levels in 7 F5F8D patients (4 with LMAN1 and 3 with MCFD2 mutations) demonstrated similar reductions to those observed for plasma FV. Combining the current data together with all previous published reports, we performed a genotype-phenotype analysis comparing patients with MCFD2 mutations with those with LMAN1 mutations. A previously unappreciated difference is observed between these 2 classes of patients in the distribution of plasma levels for FV and factor VIII (FVIII). Although there is considerable overlap, the mean levels of plasma FV and FVIII in patients with MCFD2 mutations are significantly lower than the corresponding levels in patients with LMAN1 mutations. No differences in distribution of factor levels are observed by sex. These data suggest that MCFD2 may play a primary role in the export of FV and FVIII from the ER, with the impact of LMAN1 mediated indirectly through its interaction with MCFD2.
Project description:Combined deficiency of coagulation factors V and VIII (F5F8D) is an autosomal recessive bleeding disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in either LMAN1 or MCFD2. The latter genes encode 2 components of a mammalian cargo receptor that facilitates secretion of coagulation factor V (FV) and factor VIII (FVIII) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi via coat protein complex II vesicles. F5F8D patients exhibit FV and FVIII levels that are ?10% to 15% of normal. We report herein a comparative analysis for a series of murine Lman1 alleles. Consistent with previous reports, mice completely deficient in LMAN1 (Lman1-/-) exhibit ?50% FV and FVIII levels. In contrast, mice carrying a hypomorphic Lman1 allele (Lman1cgt/cgt) that expresses ?6% to 8% of wild-type Lman1 mRNA levels exhibit intermediate plasma FV and FVIII reductions (?70% of wild-type levels). Lman1-/- mice exhibit ER accumulation of another LMAN1 cargo, alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT), with an intermediate level of A1AT ER retention observed in Lman1cgt/cgt mice. Finally, the previously reported strain-specific, partially penetrant, perinatal lethality of LMAN1-deficient mice (Lman1gt1/gt1) was confirmed in Lman1-/- mice, although it was not observed in Lman1cgt/cgt mice. Taken together, these results show a dose-dependent effect of residual LMAN1 on the secretion of its cargo proteins. The results also suggest that human subjects with hypomorphic LMAN1 mutations might present with mild bleeding phenotypes resulting from more modest reductions in FV and FVIII, which could be missed by routine clinical evaluation. Finally, these findings suggest that therapeutic targeting of LMAN1 to reduce FV and FVIII as an anticoagulant strategy may only require partial inhibition of LMAN1 function.
Project description:Combined deficiency of coagulation factors V and VIII (F5F8D), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by coordinate reduction in the plasma levels of factor V (FV) and factor VIII (FVIII), is genetically linked to mutations in the transmembrane lectin ERGIC-53 and the soluble calcium-binding protein MCFD2. Growing evidence indicates that these two proteins form a complex recycling between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and thereby function as a cargo receptor in the early secretory pathway of FV and FVIII. For better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the functional coordination of ERGIC-53 and MCFD2, we herein characterize their interaction by x-ray crystallographic analysis in conjunction with NMR and ultracentrifugation analyses. Inspection of the combined data reveals that ERGIC-53-CRD binds MCFD2 through its molecular surface remote from the sugar-binding site, giving rise to a 11 complex in solution. The interaction is independent of sugar-binding of ERGIC-53 and involves most of the missense mutation sites of MCFD2 so far reported in F5F8D. Comparison with the previously reported uncomplexed structure of each protein indicates that MCFD2 but not ERGIC-53-CRD undergoes significant conformational alterations upon complex formation. Our findings provide a structural basis for the cooperative interplay between ERGIC-53 and MCFD2 in capturing FV and FVIII.
Project description:Four DNA markers on the distal long arm of chromosome 4 have been analyzed for their linkage relationship to facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) in a series of 23 families with this disease. Two hypervariable markers, pH30 (D4S139) and EFD 139.1 (D4S184), both show close linkage with the disorder, with a maximum recombination fraction (theta max) of .02 and a maximum lod score (Zmax) of 36.77 and 34.50, respectively; two other markers, the locus for factor XI (F11) and the microsatellite marker Mfd22 (D4S171), both show less close linkage, with respective theta max of .16 (Zmax = 3.40) for F11 and .24 (Zmax = 1.61) for D4S171. While the relative ordering and orientation of the loci on the chromosome remain provisional, analysis of 15 individual recombination events in seven families supports the order D4S171-F11-D4S184-D4S139-FSHD, with the disease locus telomeric to all four markers.
Project description:Myxomatous mitral-valve prolapse (MMVP), also called Barlow disease, is a common cardiac abnormality and affects up to 5% of the population. It is characterized by an excess of tissue that leads to billowing of the mitral leaflets, sometimes complicated by prolapse. Typical histological findings include myxomatous degeneration and degradation of collagen and elastin. Previous reports have proposed an autosomal dominant inheritance of the trait, with age- and sex-dependent expression. By systematic echocardiographic screening of the first-degree relatives of 17 patients who underwent mitral-valve repair, we have identified four pedigrees showing such an inheritance. Genomewide linkage analysis of the most informative pedigree (24 individuals, three generations) showed a significant linkage for markers mapping to chromosome 16p, with a two-point maximum LOD score for D16S3068 (Zmax=3.30 at straight theta=0). Linkage to D16S3068 was confirmed in a second family (Zmax=2.02 at straight theta=0) but was excluded for the two remaining families, thus demonstrating the genetic heterogeneity of the disease. Multipoint linkage analysis performed, with nine additional markers, on the two families with linkage gave maximum multipoint LOD scores of 5.45 and 5.68 for D16S3133, according to a conservative and a stringent model, respectively. Haplotype analysis defined a 5-cM minimal MMVP-1 locus between D16S3068 (16p11.2) and D16S420 (16p12. 1) and a 34-cM maximal interval between D16S404 and D16S3068 when recombination events were taken into account only in affected individuals. The identification of this locus represents a first step toward a new molecular classification of mitral-valve prolapse.
Project description:Brachydactyly type A-1 (BDA1) was, in 1903, the first recorded example of a human anomaly with Mendelian autosomal dominant inheritance. Two large families, the affected members of which were radiographed, were recruited in the study we describe here. Two-point linkage analysis for pedigree 1 (maximum LOD score [Zmax] 6.59 at recombination fraction [theta] 0.00) and for pedigree 2 (Zmax=5.53 at straight theta=0.00) mapped the locus for BDA1 in the two families to chromosome 2q. Haplotype analysis of pedigree 1 confined the locus for family 1 within an interval of <8.1 cM flanked by markers D2S2248 and D2S360, which was mapped to chromosome 2q35-q36 on the cytogenetic map. Haplotype analysis of pedigree 2 confined the locus for family 2 within an interval of <28. 8 cM flanked by markers GATA30E06 and D2S427, which was localized to chromosome 2q35-q37. The two families had no identical haplotype within the defined region, which suggests that the two families were not related.
Project description:Combined deficiency of factor V (FV) and FVIII (F5F8D) is an autosomal recessive bleeding disorder characterized by simultaneous decreases of both coagulation factors. This review summarizes recent reports on the clinical presentations, treatments, and molecular mechanism of F5F8D. Genetic studies identified LMAN1 and MCFD2 as causative genes for this disorder, revealing a previously unknown intracellular transport pathway shared by the two important blood coagulation factors. LMAN1 and MCFD2 form a Ca2+-dependent cargo receptor complex that functions in the transport of FV/FVIII from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi. Disrupting the LMAN1-MCFD2 receptor, complex formation is the primary molecular defect of missense mutations leading to F5F8D. The EF-hand domains of MCFD2 are necessary and sufficient for the interactions with both LMAN1 and FV/FVIII. Similarly, the carbohydrate recognition domain of LMAN1 contains distinct and separable binding sites for both MCFD2 and FV/FVIII. Therefore, FV and FVIII likely carry duel sorting signals that are separately recognized by LMAN1 and MCFD2 and necessary for the efficient ER-to-Golgi transport. FV and FVIII likely bind LMAN1 through the high-mannose N-linked glycans under the higher Ca2+ conditions in the ER and dissociate in the lower Ca2+ environment of the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment.
Project description:Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized seizures in the first hours of life and responding only to pyridoxine hydrochloride. The pathogenesis of PDE is unknown, but an alteration in the binding of pyridoxal 5-phosphate to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) has been postulated in patients with PDE. Results are reported for genetic linkage analyses in four families with consanguineous parents and in one family with nonconsanguineous parents. The GAD1 (2q31) and GAD2 genes (10p23) were tested and excluded. A genomewide search was subsequently performed, using microsatellite markers at an average distance of 10 cM, and the search revealed linkage of the disease-causing gene to markers on chromosome 5q31.2-q31.3 (maximum LOD score [Z(max)] 8.43 at recombination fraction [theta] 0 and Zmax=7.58 at straight theta=0 at loci D5S2017 and D5S1972, respectively). A recombination event, between loci D5S638 and D5S463, in one family defined the distal boundary, and a second recombination event between loci D5S2011 and D5S2017 in another family defined the proximal boundary of the genetic interval encompassing the PDE gene (5.1 cM). Ongoing studies may lead to the identification of the disease-causing gene.