Mapping of functional regions on the transferrin-binding protein (TfbA) of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.
ABSTRACT: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae can use porcine transferrin as the sole source of iron. Two proteins with molecular masses of approximately 60 kDa (TfbA) and 110 kDa have been shown to specifically bind porcine transferrin; from the TfbA protein, three isoforms from A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 5, and 7 have been identified and characterized by nucleotide sequence analysis. Here we defined the transferrin-binding region(s) of the TfbA protein of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 by TnphoA mutagenesis, random mutagenesis, and peptide spot synthesis. The amino-terminal half of the TfbA molecule, which has only 36% amino acid sequence identity among the three isoforms, was shown to be responsible for transferrin binding by TnphoA mutagenesis. This result was confirmed by analysis of six random mutants with decreased transferrin binding affinity. The subsequent analysis of overlapping 16-mer peptides comprising the amino-terminal half of the TfbA molecule revealed three domains of 13 or 14 amino acids in length with transferrin-binding activity. They overlapped, or were very close to, point mutations decreasing transferrin-binding ability. The first and third domains were unique to the TfbA protein of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 7. In contrast, the sequence of the second domain was present in almost identical forms (12 of 14 residues) in the TfbA proteins of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 and 5; in addition, a sequence consisting of functionally homologous amino acids was present in the otherwise completely distinct small transferrin-binding proteins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (TbpB), N. meningitidis (Tbp2), and Haemophilus influenzae (Tbp2).
Project description:The gene encoding the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 transferrin-binding protein (tfbA) was cloned, and the carboxy-terminal 70% of the protein was expressed as an aggregate protein in Escherichia coli. The nucleotide sequences of the tfbA genes from A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 7 (G.-F. Gerlach, C. Anderson, A. A. Potter, S. Klashinsky, and P. J. Willson, Infect. Immun. 60:892-898, 1992) and 1 were determined, and a comparison revealed that they had 65% sequence identity. The deduced amino acid sequences showed a sequence agreement of 55%, and both proteins possessed a lipoprotein-like signal sequence. The serotype 1 TfbA protein had a predicted molecular mass of 65 kDa, compared with 60 kDa for the serotype 7 TfbA protein, and both proteins were immunologically distinct as assessed in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Southern hybridization and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of the 13 A. pleuropneumoniae type strains revealed that serotypes 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, and 11 encode and express a TfbA protein highly homologous to that of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 whereas the TfbA proteins and the encoding genes of serotypes 6 and 12 were highly homologous to that found in A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. The tfbA genes of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 5A and 5B were recognized, under medium-stringency hybridization conditions, by the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1-derived tfbA probe, and the respective proteins were weakly reactive with the antibody raised against the A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 TfbA protein.
Project description:Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae synthesizes a serotype-specific capsular polysaccharide that acts as a protective barrier to phagocytosis and complement-mediated killing. To begin understanding the role of A. pleuropneumoniae capsule in virulence, we sought to identify the genes involved in capsular polysaccharide export and biosynthesis. A 5.3-kb XbaI fragment of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 5a J45 genomic DNA that hybridized with DNA probes specific for the Haemophilus influenzae type b cap export region was cloned and sequenced. This A. pleuropneumoniae DNA fragment encoded four open reading frames, designated cpxDCBA. The nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of cpxDCBA contained a high degree of homology to the capsule export genes of H. influenzae type b bexDCBA, Neisseria meningitidis group B ctrABCD, and, to a lesser extent, Escherichia coli K1 and K5 kpsE and kpsMT. When present in trans, the cpxDCBA gene cluster complemented kpsM::TnphoA or kpsT::TnphoA mutations, determined by enzyme immunoassay and by restored sensitivity to a K5-specific bacteriophage. A cpxCB probe hybridized to genomic DNA from all A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes tested, indicating that this DNA was conserved among serotypes. These data suggest that A. pleuropneumoniae produces a group II family capsule similar to those of related mucosal pathogens.
Project description:An expression library was constructed from an Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 clinical isolate using a plasmid vector. The library was screened with serum raised against the culture supernatant of this strain. One Escherichia coli transformant which also reacted with convalescent serum was isolated and found to express a protein with an electrophoretic mobility of approximately 50,000. The A. pleuropneumoniae-derived DNA encoding the protein was localized and characterized by nucleotide sequence analysis and primer extension mapping. One open reading frame of 1,095 bases was detected and confirmed by TnphoA insertion mutagenesis. It encoded a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 40 kDa which was lipid modified and present in the outer membrane and in membrane blebs of A. pleuropneumoniae. This protein was designated as outer membrane lipoprotein A (OmlA), and the encoding gene as omlA. Southern blotting under low-stringency conditions revealed the presence of hybridizing sequences in all A. pleuropneumoniae type strains, and a specific serum detected a homologous protein in serotypes 2, 8, 9, 11, and 12 type strains. Pigs immunized with this recombinant protein preparation were protected from death in an aerosol challenge experiment with an A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 isolate.
Project description:The pathogenic Neisseria species are capable of utilizing transferrin as their sole source of iron. A neisserial transferrin receptor has been identified and its characteristics defined; however, the biochemical identities of proteins which are required for transferrin receptor function have not yet been determined. We identified two iron-repressible transferrin-binding proteins in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, TBP1 and TBP2. Two approaches were taken to clone genes required for gonococcal transferrin receptor function. First, polyclonal antiserum raised against TBP1 was used to identify clones expressing TBP1 epitopes. Second, a wild-type gene copy was cloned that repaired the defect in a transferrin receptor function (trf) mutant. The clones obtained by these two approaches were shown to overlap by DNA sequencing. Transposon mutagenesis of both clones and recombination of mutagenized fragments into the gonococcal chromosome generated mutants that showed reduced binding of transferrin to whole cells and that were incapable of growth on transferrin. No TBP1 was produced in these mutants, but TBP2 expression was normal. The DNA sequence of the gene encoding gonococcal TBP1 (tbpA) predicted a protein sequence homologous to the Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida TonB-dependent outer membrane receptors. Thus, both the function and the predicted protein sequence of TBP1 were consistent with this protein serving as a transferrin receptor.
Project description:Haemophilus influenzae, a strict human pathogen, acquires iron in vivo through the direct binding and removal of iron from human transferrin by an as yet uncharacterized process at the bacterial cell surface. In this study, the tbpA and tbpB genes of H. influenzae, encoding the transferrin-binding proteins Tbp1 and Tbp2, respectively, were cloned and sequenced. Alignments of the H. influenzae Tbp1 and Tbp2 protein sequences with those of related proteins from heterologous species were analyzed. On the basis of similarities between these and previously characterized proteins, Tbp1 appears to be a member of the TonB-dependent family of outer membrane proteins while Tbp2 is lipid modified by signal peptidase II. Isogenic mutants deficient in expression of Tbp1 or Tbp2 or both proteins were prepared by insertion of the Tn903 kanamycin resistance cassette into cloned sequences and reintroduction of the interrupted sequences into the wild-type chromosome. Binding assays with the mutants showed that a significant reduction in transferrin-binding ability resulted from the loss of either of the Tbps and a complete loss of binding was evident when neither protein was expressed. Loss of either Tbp2 or both proteins correlated with an inability to grow on media supplemented with transferrin-bound iron as the sole source of iron, whereas the Tbp1+ Tbp2- mutant was able to grow only at high transferrin concentrations.
Project description:Two outer-membrane proteins are involved in the uptake of iron from transferrin by certain Gram-negative bacteria, transferrin-binding proteins 1 and 2. The gene encoding transferrin-binding protein 1 from a serotype 1 isolate of the Gram-negative pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was cloned, and a fragment encoding 700 amino acids of Tbp1 was expressed in Escherichia coli. We also report here sequencing of the tbpl gene and a comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with Tbpls from related species. The predicted polypeptide product of tbpl is a 106 kDa protein with a 22-residue signal peptide.
Project description:The genetic organization of the gene involved in the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 has been determined. The DNA region for the CPS biosynthesis of serotype 14 (cps14) comprised 9 open reading frames, designated as cps14AB1B2B3CDEFG genes, encoding Cps14A to Cps14G protein, respectively. Cps14A was similar to CpsA of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12; the Cps14B1 and Cps14B2 were similar to CpsB of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4 and 12, suggesting that CPS structure of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 14 would belong to Group I including A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1, 4, 12 and 15. Surprisingly, the overall nucleotide sequence, deduced amino acid sequence, and the genetic organization of the cps14 were nearly identical to those of Actinobacillus suis. This study will provide the molecular basic knowledge for development of diagnostics and vaccine of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 14.
Project description:We isolated a Vibrio vulnificus TnphoA mutant that was unable to produce catechol siderophores or to acquire iron from transferrin. This mutant showed reduced virulence in an infant mouse model. The TnphoA insertion was in an open reading frame designated venB. The venB gene cloned on a plasmid restored catechol production to the mutant. The deduced amino acid sequence of venB is 41% identical to the enzyme isochorismatase of Escherichia coli (EntB), an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the catechol siderophore enterobactin.
Project description:Pathogenic members of the family Neisseriaceae produce specific receptors facilitating iron acquisition from transferrin (Tf) and lactoferrin (Lf) of their mammalian host. Tf receptors are composed of two outer membrane proteins, Tf-binding proteins A and B (TbpA and TbpB; formerly designated Tbp1 and Tbp2, respectively). Although only a single Lf-binding protein, LbpA (formerly designated Lbp1), had previously been recognized, we recently identified additional bacterial Lf-binding proteins in the human pathogens Neisseria meningitidis and Moraxella catarrhalis and the bovine pathogen Moraxella bovis by a modified affinity isolation technique (R. A. Bonnah, R.-H. Yu, and A. B. Schryvers, Microb. Pathog. 19:285-297, 1995). In this report, we characterize an open reading frame (ORF) located immediately upstream of the N. meningitidis B16B6 lbpA gene. Amino acid sequence comparisons of various TbpBs with the product of the translated DNA sequence from the upstream ORF suggests that the region encodes the Lf-binding protein B homolog (LbpB). The LbpB from strain B16B6 has two large stretches of negatively charged amino acids that are not present in the various transferrin receptor homologs (TbpBs). Expression of the recombinant LbpB protein as a fusion with maltose binding protein demonstrated functional Lf-binding activity. Studies with N. meningitidis isogenic mutants in which the lbpA gene and the ORF immediately upstream of lbpA (putative lbpB gene) were insertionally inactivated demonstrated that LbpA, but not LbpB, is essential for iron acquisition from Lf in vitro.
Project description:Upon iron restriction, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae has been shown to express the transferrin-binding proteins TbpB and TbpA, both of which have been implied to be important virulence factors. In order to identify additional iron-regulated proteins, we cloned and analyzed the region upstream of the transferrin-binding protein genes in an A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 strain. We located immediately upstream of the tbpB gene two open reading frames which were 43% homologous to the neisserial ExbBD protein genes. By raising specific antibodies, we showed that ExbB is expressed under iron-limiting growth conditions only, and RT-PCR analysis revealed that the exbBD genes and the tbpB gene are transcribed on a single polycistronic mRNA. By constructing an isogenic and nonpolar exbBD mutant, we showed that the exbBD genes are required by A. pleuropneumoniae for utilization of transferrin-bound iron. Using PCR and Western blotting, we showed that the genetic organization found in A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 is similar in all 12 A. pleuropneumoniae serotype reference strains.