RAR1, a central player in plant immunity, is targeted by Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrB.
ABSTRACT: Pathogenic bacterial effectors suppress pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered host immunity, thereby promoting parasitism. In the presence of cognate resistance genes, it is proposed that plants detect the virulence activity of bacterial effectors and trigger a defense response, referred to here as effector-triggered immunity (ETI). However, the link between effector virulence and ETI at the molecular level is unknown. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrB suppresses PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) through RAR1, a co-chaperone of HSP90 required for ETI. AvrB expressed in plants lacking the cognate resistance gene RPM1 suppresses cell wall defense induced by the flagellar peptide flg22, a well known PAMP, and promotes the growth of nonpathogenic bacteria in a RAR1-dependent manner. rar1 mutants display enhanced cell wall defense in response to flg22, indicating that RAR1 negatively regulates PTI. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicated that RAR1 and AvrB interact in the plant. The results demonstrate that RAR1 molecularly links PTI, effector virulence, and ETI. The study supports that both pathogen virulence and plant disease resistance have evolved around PTI.
Project description:Plant-pathogen interactions involve sophisticated action and counteraction strategies from both parties. Plants can recognize pathogen derived molecules, such as conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and effector proteins, and subsequently activate PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), respectively. However, pathogens can evade such recognitions and suppress host immunity with effectors, causing effector-triggered susceptibility (ETS). The differences among PTI, ETS, and ETI have not been completely understood. Toward a better understanding of PTI, ETS, and ETI, we systematically examined various defense-related phenotypes of Arabidopsis infected with different Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326 strains, using the virulence strain DG3 to induce ETS, the avirulence strain DG34 that expresses avrRpm1 (recognized by the resistance protein RPM1) to induce ETI, and HrcC(-) that lacks the type three secretion system to activate PTI. We found that plants infected with different strains displayed dynamic differences in the accumulation of the defense signaling molecule salicylic acid, expression of the defense marker gene PR1, cell death formation, and accumulation/localization of the reactive oxygen species, H2O2. The differences between PTI, ETS, and ETI are dependent on the doses of the strains used. These data support the quantitative nature of PTI, ETS, and ETI and they also reveal qualitative differences between PTI, ETS, and ETI. Interestingly, we observed the induction of large cells in the infected leaves, most obviously with HrcC(-) at later infection stages. The enlarged cells have increased DNA content, suggesting a possible activation of endoreplication. Consistent with strong induction of abnormal cell growth by HrcC(-), we found that the PTI elicitor flg22 also activates abnormal cell growth, depending on a functional flg22-receptor FLS2. Thus, our study has revealed a comprehensive picture of dynamic changes of defense phenotypes and cell fate determination during Arabidopsis-P. syringae interactions, contributing to a better understanding of plant defense mechanisms.
Project description:In the current study, we identified a transcription factor, MYB14, from Chinese wild grape, Vitis quinquangularis-Pingyi (V. quinquangularis-PY), which could enhance the main stilbene contents and expression of stilbene biosynthesis genes (StSy/RS) by overexpression of VqMYB14. The promoter of VqMYB14 (pVqMYB14) was shown to be induced as part of both basal immunity (also called pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity, PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), triggered by the elicitors flg22 and harpin, respectively. This was demonstrated by expression of pVqMYB14 in Nicotiana benthamiana and Vitis. We identified sequence differences, notably an 11 bp segment in pVqMYB14 that is important for the PTI/ETI, and particularly for the harpin-induced ETI response. In addition, we showed that activation of the MYB14 promoter correlates with differences in the expression of MYB14 and stilbene pattern induced by flg22 and harpin. An experimental model of upstream signaling in V. quinquangularis-PY is presented, where early defense responses triggered by flg22 and harpin partially overlap, but where the timing and levels differ. This translates into a qualitative difference with respect to patterns of stilbene accumulation.
Project description:Plant innate immunity is composed of two layers. Basal immunity is triggered by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as the flagellin-peptide flg22 and is termed PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). In addition, effector-triggered immunity (ETI) linked with programmed cell death and cytoskeletal reorganization can be induced by pathogen-derived factors, such as the Harpin proteins originating from phytopathogenic bacteria. To get insight into the link between cytoskeleton and PTI or ETI, this study followed the responses of actin filaments and microtubules to flg22 and HrpZ in vivo by spinning-disc confocal microscopy in GFP-tagged marker lines of tobacco BY-2. At a concentration that clearly impairs mitosis, flg22 can induce only subtle cytoskeletal responses. In contrast, HrpZ causes a rapid and massive bundling of actin microfilaments (completed in ~20 min, i.e. almost simultaneously with extracellular alkalinization), which is followed by progressive disintegration of actin cables and cytoplasmic microtubules, a loss of cytoplasmic structure, and vacuolar disintegration. Cytoskeletal disruption is proposed as an early event that discriminates HrpZ-triggered ETI-like defence from flg22-triggered PTI.
Project description:Plant immunity can be induced by two major classes of pathogen-associated molecules. Pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or MAMPs) are conserved molecular components of microbes that serve as "non-self" features to induce PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Pathogen effector proteins used to promote virulence can also be recognized as "non-self" features or induce a "modified-self" state that can induce effector-triggered immunity (ETI). The Arabidopsis protein RIN4 plays an important role in both branches of plant immunity. Three unrelated type III secretion effector (TTSE) proteins from the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae, AvrRpm1, AvrRpt2, and AvrB, target RIN4, resulting in ETI that effectively restricts pathogen growth. However, no pathogenic advantage has been demonstrated for RIN4 manipulation by these TTSEs. Here, we show that the TTSE HopF2(Pto) also targets Arabidopsis RIN4. Transgenic plants conditionally expressing HopF2(Pto) were compromised for AvrRpt2-induced RIN4 modification and associated ETI. HopF2(Pto) interfered with AvrRpt2-induced RIN4 modification in vitro but not with AvrRpt2 activation, suggestive of RIN4 targeting by HopF2(Pto). In support of this hypothesis, HopF2 (Pto) interacted with RIN4 in vitro and in vivo. Unlike AvrRpm1, AvrRpt2, and AvrB, HopF2(Pto) did not induce ETI and instead promoted P. syringae growth in Arabidopsis. This virulence activity was not observed in plants genetically lacking RIN4. These data provide evidence that RIN4 is a major virulence target of HopF2(Pto) and that a pathogenic advantage can be conveyed by TTSEs that target RIN4.
Project description:Plants can activate defence to pathogen attack by two layers of innate immunity: basal immunity triggered by pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) linked with programmed cell death. Flg22 and Harpin are evolutionary distinct bacterial PAMPs. We have previously shown that Harpin triggers hypersensitive cell death mimicking ETI in Vitis rupestris, but not in the Vitis vinifera cultivar 'Pinot Noir'. In contrast, the bacterial PAMP flg22 activating PTI does not trigger cell death. To get insight into the defence signalling triggered by flg22 and Harpin, we compared cellular responses upon flg22 and Harpin treatment in the two Vitis cell lines. We found that extracellular alkalinisation was blocked by inhibition of calcium influx, and modulated by pharmacological manipulation of the cytoskeleton and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity with quantitative differences between cell lines and type of PAMPs. In addition, an oxidative burst was detected that was much stronger and faster in response to Harpin as compared to flg22. In V. rupestris, both flg22 and Harpin induced transcripts of defence-related genes including stilbene synthase, microtubule disintegration and actin bundling in a similar way, whereas they differed in V. vinifera cv. 'Pinot Noir'. In contrast to Harpin, flg22 failed to trigger significant levels of the stilbene trans-resveratrol, and did not induce hypersensitive cell death even in the highly responsive V. rupestris. We discuss these data in a model, where flg22- and Harpin-triggered defence shares a part of early signal components, but differs in perception, oxidative burst, and integration into a qualitatively different stilbene output, such that for flg22 a basal PTI is elicited in both cell lines, while Harpin induces cell death mimicking an ETI-like pattern of defence.
Project description:Plants have responded to microbial pathogens by evolving a two-tiered immune system, involving pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Malectin/malectin-like domain-containing receptor-like kinases (MRLKs) have been reported to participate in many biological functions in plant including immunity and resistance. However, little is known regarding the role of MRLKs in soybean immunity. This is a crucial question to address because soybean is an important source of oil and plant proteins, and its production is threatened by various pathogens. Here, we systematically identified 72 <i>Glycine max</i> MRLKs (GmMRLKs) and demonstrated that many of them are transcriptionally induced or suppressed in response to infection with microbial pathogens. Next, we successfully cloned 60 <i>GmMRLKs</i> and subsequently characterized their roles in plant immunity by transiently expressing them in <i>Nicotiana benthamiana</i>, a model plant widely used to study host-pathogen interactions. Specifically, we examined the effect of GmMRLKs on PTI responses and noticed that a number of GmMRLKs negatively regulated the reactive oxygen species burst induced by flg22 and chitin, and cell death triggered by XEG1 and INF1. We also analyzed the microbial effectors AvrB- and XopQ-induced hypersensitivity response and identified several GmMRLKs that suppressed ETI activation. We further showed that GmMRLKs regulate immunity probably by coupling to the immune receptor complexes. Furthermore, transient expression of several selected GmMRLKs in soybean hairy roots conferred reduced resistance to soybean pathogen <i>Phytophthora sojae.</i> In summary, we revealed the common and specific roles of GmMRLKs in soybean immunity and identified a number of <i>GmMRLKs</i> as candidate susceptible genes that may be useful for improving soybean resistance.
Project description:Two modes of plant immunity against biotrophic pathogens, Effector Triggered Immunity (ETI) and Pattern-Triggered Immunity (PTI), are triggered by recognition of pathogen effectors and Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs), respectively. Although the jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) and salicylic acid (SA) signaling sectors are generally antagonistic and important for immunity against necrotrophic and biotrophic pathogens, respectively, their precise roles and interactions in ETI and PTI have not been clear. We constructed an Arabidopsis dde2/ein2/pad4/sid2-quadruple mutant. DDE2, EIN2, and SID2 are essential components of the JA, ET, and SA sectors, respectively. The pad4 mutation affects the SA sector and a poorly characterized sector. Although the ETI triggered by the bacterial effector AvrRpt2 (AvrRpt2-ETI) and the PTI triggered by the bacterial MAMP flg22 (flg22-PTI) were largely intact in plants with mutations in any one of these genes, they were mostly abolished in the quadruple mutant. For the purposes of this study, AvrRpt2-ETI and flg22-PTI were measured as relative growth of Pseudomonas syringae bacteria within leaves. Immunity to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola was also severely compromised in the quadruple mutant. Quantitative measurements of the immunity levels in all combinatorial mutants and wild type allowed us to estimate the effects of the wild-type genes and their interactions on the immunity by fitting a mixed general linear model. This signaling allocation analysis showed that, contrary to current ideas, each of the JA, ET, and SA signaling sectors can positively contribute to immunity against both biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. The analysis also revealed that while flg22-PTI and AvrRpt2-ETI use a highly overlapping signaling network, the way they use the common network is very different: synergistic relationships among the signaling sectors are evident in PTI, which may amplify the signal; compensatory relationships among the sectors dominate in ETI, explaining the robustness of ETI against genetic and pathogenic perturbations.
Project description:Plant immunity consists of two arms: pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI), induced by surface-localized receptors, and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), induced by intracellular receptors. Despite the little structural similarity, both receptor types activate similar responses with different dynamics. To better understand phosphorylation events during ETI, we employed a phosphoproteomic screen using an inducible expression system of the bacterial effector avrRpt2 in Arabidopsis thaliana, and identified 109 differentially phosphorylated residues of membrane-associated proteins on activation of the intracellular RPS2 receptor. Interestingly, several RPS2-regulated phosphosites overlap with sites that are regulated during PTI, suggesting that these phosphosites may be convergent points of both signaling arms. Moreover, some of these sites are residues of important defense components, including the NADPH oxidase RBOHD, ABC-transporter PEN3, calcium-ATPase ACA8, noncanonical G? protein XLG2 and H+ -ATPases. In particular, we found that S343 and S347 of RBOHD are common phosphorylation targets during PTI and ETI. Our mutational analyses showed that these sites are required for the production of reactive oxygen species during both PTI and ETI, and immunity against avirulent bacteria and a virulent necrotrophic fungus. We provide, for the first time, large-scale phosphoproteomic data of ETI, thereby suggesting crucial roles of common phosphosites in plant immunity.
Project description:The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae injects about 30 different virulence proteins, so-called effectors, via a type III secretion system into plant cells to promote disease. Although some of these effectors are known to suppress either pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) or effector-triggered immunity (ETI), the mode of action of most of them remains unknown. Here, we used transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, to test the abilities of type III effectors of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (Pta) 11528 to interfere with plant immunity. We monitored the sequential and rapid bursts of cytoplasmic Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species (ROS), the subsequent induction of defense gene expression, and promotion of cell death. We found that several effector proteins caused cell death, but independently of the known plant immune regulator NbSGT1, a gene essential for ETI. Furthermore, many effectors delayed or blocked the cell death-promoting activity of other effectors, thereby potentially contributing to pathogenesis. Secondly, a large number of effectors were able to suppress PAMP-induced defense responses. In the majority of cases, this resulted in suppression of all studied PAMP responses, suggesting that these effectors target common elements of PTI. However, effectors also targeted different steps within defense pathways and could be divided into three major groups based on their suppressive activities. Finally, the abilities of effectors of both Pto DC3000 and Pta 11528 to suppress plant immunity was conserved in most but not all cases. Overall, our data present a comprehensive picture of the mode of action of these effectors and indicate that most of them suppress plant defenses in various ways.
Project description:Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) causes cassava bacterial blight, the most important bacterial disease of cassava. Xam, like other Xanthomonas species, requires type III effectors (T3Es) for maximal virulence. Xam strain CIO151 possesses 17 predicted T3Es belonging to the Xanthomonas outer protein (Xop) class. This work aimed to characterize nine Xop effectors present in Xam CIO151 for their role in virulence and modulation of plant immunity. Our findings demonstrate the importance of XopZ, XopX, XopAO1 and AvrBs2 for full virulence, as well as a redundant function in virulence between XopN and XopQ in susceptible cassava plants. We tested their role in pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) using heterologous systems. AvrBs2, XopR and XopAO1 are capable of suppressing PTI. ETI suppression activity was only detected for XopE4 and XopAO1. These results demonstrate the overall importance and diversity in functions of major virulence effectors AvrBs2 and XopAO1 in Xam during cassava infection.