Structure of a bacterial pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase complex.
ABSTRACT: Vitamin B6 is an essential metabolic cofactor that has more functions in humans than any other single nutrient. Its de novo biosynthesis occurs through two mutually exclusive pathways that are absent in animals. The predominant pathway found in most prokaryotes, fungi, and plants has only recently been discovered. It is distinguished by a glutamine amidotransferase, which is remarkable in that it alone can synthesize the cofactor form, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), directly from a triose and a pentose saccharide and glutamine. Here we report the 3D structure of the PLP synthase complex with substrate glutamine bound as well as those of the individual synthase and glutaminase subunits Pdx1 and Pdx2, respectively. The complex is made up of 24 protein units assembled like a cogwheel, a dodecameric Pdx1 to which 12 Pdx2 subunits attach. In contrast to the architecture of previously determined glutamine amidotransferases, macromolecular assembly is directed by an N-terminal alpha-helix on the synthase. Interaction with the synthase subunit leads to glutaminase activation, resulting in formation of an oxyanion hole, a prerequisite for catalysis. Mutagenesis permitted identification of the remote glutaminase and synthase catalytic centers and led us to propose a mechanism whereby ammonia shuttles between these active sites through a methionine-rich hydrophobic tunnel.
Project description:Vitamin B(6) is essential in all organisms, due to its requirement as a cofactor in the form of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) for key metabolic enzymes. It can be synthesized de novo by either of two pathways known as deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate (DXP)-dependent and DXP-independent. The DXP-independent pathway is the predominant pathway and is found in most microorganisms and plants. A glutamine amidotransferase consisting of the synthase Pdx1 and its glutaminase partner, Pdx2, form a complex that directly synthesizes PLP from ribose 5-phosphate, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, and glutamine. The protein complex displays an ornate architecture consisting of 24 subunits, two hexameric rings of 12 Pdx1 subunits to which 12 Pdx2 subunits attach, with the glutaminase and synthase active sites remote from each other. The multiple catalytic ability of Pdx1, the remote glutaminase and synthase active sites, and the elaborate structure suggest regulation of activity on several levels. A missing piece in deciphering this intricate puzzle has been information on the Pdx1 C-terminal region that has thus far eluded structural characterization. Here we use fluorescence spectrophotometry and protein chemistry to demonstrate that the Pdx1 C terminus is indispensable for PLP synthase activity and mediates intersubunit cross-talk within the enzyme complex. We provide evidence that the C terminus can act as a flexible lid, bridging as well as shielding the active site of an adjacent protomer in Pdx1. We show that ribose 5-phosphate binding triggers strong cooperativity in Pdx1, and the affinity for this substrate is substantially enhanced upon interaction with the Michaelis complex of Pdx2 and glutamine.
Project description:Plasmodium species are protozoan parasites causing the deadly malaria disease. They have developed effective resistance mechanisms against most antimalarial medication, causing an urgent need to identify new antimalarial drug targets. Ideally, new drugs would be generated to specifically target the parasite with minimal or no toxicity to humans, requiring these drug targets to be distinctly different from the host's metabolic processes or even absent in the host. In this context, the essential presence of vitamin B6 biosynthesis enzymes in Plasmodium, the pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) biosynthesis enzyme complex, and its absence in humans is recognized as a potential drug target. To characterize the PLP enzyme complex in terms of initial drug discovery investigations, we performed structural analysis of the Plasmodium vivax PLP synthase domain (Pdx1), glutaminase domain (Pdx2), and Pdx1-Pdx2 (Pdx) complex (PLP synthase complex) by utilizing complementary bioanalytical techniques, such as dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray solution scattering (SAXS), and electron microscopy (EM). Our investigations revealed a dodecameric Pdx1 and a monodispersed Pdx complex. Pdx2 was identified in monomeric and in different oligomeric states in solution. Interestingly, mixing oligomeric and polydisperse Pdx2 with dodecameric monodisperse Pdx1 resulted in a monodispersed Pdx complex. SAXS measurements revealed the low-resolution dodecameric structure of Pdx1, different oligomeric structures for Pdx2, and a ring-shaped dodecameric Pdx1 decorated with Pdx2, forming a heteromeric 24-meric Pdx complex.
Project description:The prevalent de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B6 involves only two enzymes (Pdx1 and Pdx2) that form an ornate multisubunit complex functioning as a glutamine amidotransferase. The synthase subunit, Pdx1, utilizes ribose 5-phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, as well as ammonia derived from the glutaminase activity of Pdx2 to directly form the cofactor vitamer, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Given the fact that a single enzyme performs the majority of the chemistry behind this reaction, a complicated mechanism is anticipated. Recently, the individual steps along the reaction co-ordinate are beginning to be unraveled. In particular, the binding of the pentose substrate and the first steps of the reaction have been elucidated but it is not known if the latter part of the chemistry, involving the triose sugar, takes place in the same or a disparate site. Here, we demonstrate through the use of enzyme assays, enzyme kinetics, and mutagenesis studies that indeed a second site is involved in binding the triose sugar and moreover, is the location of the final vitamin product, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Furthermore, we show that product release is triggered by the presence of a PLP-dependent enzyme. Finally, we provide evidence that a single arginine residue of the C terminus of Pdx1 is responsible for coordinating co-operativity in this elaborate protein machinery.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Plants, fungi, bacteria and the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum are able to synthesize vitamin B6 de novo, whereas mammals depend upon the uptake of this essential nutrient from their diet. The active form of vitamin B6 is pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP). For its synthesis two enzymes, Pdx1 and Pdx2, act together, forming a multimeric complex consisting of 12 Pdx1 and 12 Pdx2 protomers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report amino acid residues responsible for stabilization of the structural and enzymatic integrity of the plasmodial PLP synthase, identified by using distinct mutational analysis and biochemical approaches. Residues R85, H88 and E91 (RHE) are located at the Pdx1:Pdx1 interface and play an important role in Pdx1 complex assembly. Mutation of these residues to alanine impedes both Pdx1 activity and Pdx2 binding. Furthermore, changing D26, K83 and K151 (DKK), amino acids from the active site of Pdx1, to alanine obstructs not only enzyme activity but also formation of the complex. In contrast to the monomeric appearance of the RHE mutant, alteration of the DKK residues results in a hexameric assembly, and does not affect Pdx2 binding or its activity. While the modelled position of K151 is distal to the Pdx1:Pdx1 interface, it affects the assembly of hexameric Pdx1 into a functional dodecamer, which is crucial for PLP synthesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our data suggest that the assembly of a functional Pdx1:Pdx2 complex follows a defined pathway and that inhibition of this assembly results in an inactive holoenzyme.
Project description:PLP synthase (PLPS) is a remarkable single-enzyme biosynthetic pathway that produces pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) from glutamine, ribose 5-phosphate, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The intact enzyme includes 12 synthase and 12 glutaminase subunits. PLP synthesis occurs in the synthase active site by a complicated mechanism involving at least two covalent intermediates at a catalytic lysine. The first intermediate forms with ribose 5-phosphate. The glutaminase subunit is a glutamine amidotransferase that hydrolyzes glutamine and channels ammonia to the synthase active site. Ammonia attack on the first covalent intermediate forms the second intermediate. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate reacts with the second intermediate to form PLP. To investigate the mechanism of the synthase subunit, crystal structures were obtained for three intermediate states of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus intact PLPS or its synthase subunit. The structures capture the synthase active site at three distinct steps in its complicated catalytic cycle, provide insights into the elusive mechanism, and illustrate the coordinated motions within the synthase subunit that separate the catalytic states. In the intact PLPS with a Michaelis-like intermediate in the glutaminase active site, the first covalent intermediate of the synthase is fully sequestered within the enzyme by the ordering of a generally disordered 20-residue C-terminal tail. Following addition of ammonia, the synthase active site opens and admits the Lys-149 side chain, which participates in formation of the second intermediate and PLP. Roles are identified for conserved Asp-24 in the formation of the first intermediate and for conserved Arg-147 in the conversion of the first to the second intermediate.
Project description:Glutamate synthase (GltS) is a complex iron-sulfur flavoprotein that catalyzes the reductive transfer of L-glutamine amide group to the C2 carbon of 2-oxoglutarate yielding two molecules of L-glutamate. Molecular dynamics calculations in explicit solvent were carried out to gain insight into the conformational flexibility of GltS and into the role played by the enzyme substrates in regulating the catalytic cycle. We have modelled the free (unliganded) form of Azospirillum brasilense GltS alpha subunit and the structure of the reduced enzyme in complex with the L-glutamine and 2-oxoglutarate substrates starting from the crystallographically determined coordinates of the GltS alpha subunit in complex with L-methionine sulphone and 2-oxoglutarate. The present 4-ns molecular dynamics calculations reveal that the GltS glutaminase site may exist in a catalytically inactive conformation unable to bind glutamine, and in a catalytically competent conformation, which is stabilized by the glutamine substrate. Substrates binding also induce (1) closure of the loop formed by residues 263-271 with partial shielding of the glutaminase site from solvent, and (2) widening of the ammonia tunnel entrance at the glutaminase end to allow for ammonia diffusion toward the synthase site. The Q-loop of glutamate synthase, which acts as an active site lid in other amidotransferases, seems to maintain an open conformation. Finally, binding of L-methionine sulfone, a glutamine analog that mimics the tetrahedral transient species occurring during its hydrolysis, causes a coordinated rigid-body motion of segments of the glutaminase domain that results in the inactive conformation observed in the crystal structure of GltS alpha subunit.
Project description:Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is the biologically active form of vitamin B6 and is an important cofactor for several of the enzymes involved in the metabolism of amine-containing natural products such as amino acids and amino sugars. The PLP synthase holoenzyme consists of two subunits: YaaD catalyzes the condensation of ribulose 5-phosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, and ammonia, and YaaE catalyzes the production of ammonia from glutamine. Here we describe the structure of the PLP synthase complex (YaaD-YaaE) from Thermotoga maritima at 2.9 A resolution. This complex consists of a core of 12 YaaD monomers with 12 noninteracting YaaE monomers attached to the core. Compared with the previously published structure of PdxS (a YaaD ortholog in Geobacillus stearothermophilus), the N-terminus (1-18), which includes helix alpha0, the beta2-alpha2 loop (46-56), which includes new helix alpha2a, and the C-terminus (270-280) of YaaD are ordered in the complex but disordered in PdxS. A ribulose 5-phosphate is bound to YaaD via an imine with Lys82. Previous studies have demonstrated a similar imine at Lys149 and not at Lys81 (equivalent to Lys150 and Lys82 in T. maritima) for the Bacillus subtilis enzyme suggesting the possibility that two separate sites on YaaD are involved in PLP formation. A phosphate from the crystallization solution is found bound to YaaD and also serves as a marker for a possible second active site. An ammonia channel that connects the active site of YaaE with the ribulose 5-phosphate binding site was identified. This channel is similar to one found in imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase; however, when the beta-barrels of the two complexes are superimposed, the glutaminase domains are rotated by about 180 degrees with respect to each other.
Project description:NAD is a ubiquitous and essential metabolic redox cofactor which also functions as a substrate in certain regulatory pathways. The last step of NAD synthesis is the ATP-dependent amidation of deamido-NAD by NAD synthetase (NADS). Members of the NADS family are present in nearly all species across the three kingdoms of Life. In eukaryotic NADS, the core synthetase domain is fused with a nitrilase-like glutaminase domain supplying ammonia for the reaction. This two-domain NADS arrangement enabling the utilization of glutamine as nitrogen donor is also present in various bacterial lineages. However, many other bacterial members of NADS family do not contain a glutaminase domain, and they can utilize only ammonia (but not glutamine) in vitro. A single-domain NADS is also characteristic for nearly all Archaea, and its dependence on ammonia was demonstrated here for the representative enzyme from Methanocaldococcus jannaschi. However, a question about the actual in vivo nitrogen donor for single-domain members of the NADS family remained open: Is it glutamine hydrolyzed by a committed (but yet unknown) glutaminase subunit, as in most ATP-dependent amidotransferases, or free ammonia as in glutamine synthetase? Here we addressed this dilemma by combining evolutionary analysis of the NADS family with experimental characterization of two representative bacterial systems: a two-subunit NADS from Thermus thermophilus and a single-domain NADS from Salmonella typhimurium providing evidence that ammonia (and not glutamine) is the physiological substrate of a typical single-domain NADS. The latter represents the most likely ancestral form of NADS. The ability to utilize glutamine appears to have evolved via recruitment of a glutaminase subunit followed by domain fusion in an early branch of Bacteria. Further evolution of the NADS family included lineage-specific loss of one of the two alternative forms and horizontal gene transfer events. Lastly, we identified NADS structural elements associated with glutamine-utilizing capabilities.
Project description:In this paper we describe the isolation of a second gene in the newly identified pyridoxine biosynthesis pathway of archaebacteria, some eubacteria, fungi, and plants. Although pyridoxine biosynthesis has been thoroughly examined in Escherichia coli, recent characterization of the Cercospora nicotianae biosynthesis gene PDX1 led to the discovery that most organisms contain a pyridoxine synthesis gene not found in E. coli. PDX2 was isolated by a degenerate primer strategy based on conserved sequences of a gene specific to PDX1-containing organisms. The role of PDX2 in pyridoxine biosynthesis was confirmed by complementation of two C. nicotianae pyridoxine auxotrophs not mutant in PDX1. Also, targeted gene replacement of PDX2 in C. nicotianae results in pyridoxine auxotrophy. Comparable to PDX1, PDX2 homologues are not found in any of the organisms with homologues to the E. coli pyridoxine genes, but are found in the same archaebacteria, eubacteria, fungi, and plants that contain PDX1 homologues. PDX2 proteins are less well conserved than their PDX1 counterparts but contain several protein motifs that are conserved throughout all PDX2 proteins.
Project description:Plasticity of cancer metabolism can be a major obstacle to efficient targeting of tumour-specific metabolic vulnerabilities. Here, we identify the compensatory mechanisms following the inhibition of major pathways of central carbon metabolism in c-MYC-induced liver tumours. We find that, while inhibition of both glutaminase isoforms (Gls1 and Gls2) in tumours considerably delays tumourigenesis, glutamine catabolism continues, owing to the action of amidotransferases. Synergistic inhibition of both glutaminases and compensatory amidotransferases is required to block glutamine catabolism and proliferation of mouse and human tumour cells in vitro and in vivo. Gls1 deletion is also compensated for by glycolysis. Thus, co-inhibition of Gls1 and hexokinase 2 significantly affects Krebs cycle activity and tumour formation. Finally, the inhibition of biosynthesis of either serine (Psat1-KO) or fatty acid (Fasn-KO) is compensated for by uptake of circulating nutrients, and dietary restriction of both serine and glycine or fatty acids synergistically suppresses tumourigenesis. These results highlight the high flexibility of tumour metabolism and demonstrate that either pharmacological or dietary targeting of metabolic compensatory mechanisms can improve therapeutic outcomes.