Standardised work-up programme for fever of unknown origin and contribution of magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of hidden systemic vasculitis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is a diagnostic challenge. Rheumatologists are often in charge of patients with FUO because the vasculitides, especially, are potential and common causes of FUO. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of a standardised investigation to identify the cause of FUO. METHODS: A standardised work-up programme for patients with FUO was started at the beginning of September 1999. The rate of identified causes of FUO was compared between all patients with FUO admitted to a tertiary care centre of rheumatology between January 1996 and August 1999 (control group) and September 1999 and January 2003 (work-up group). In January 2002 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was added to the investigation. RESULTS: 67 patients with FUO were identified--32 before and 35 after institution of the work-up programme. Before implementation 25% of all patients with FUO remained undiagnosed, after implementation 37%. After institution of the investigation the percentage of patients with vasculitides increased significantly from 6% (n = 2) to 26% (n = 9, p = 0.047, Fisher's exact test). This increase could be attributed to the addition of MRI in 2002. When all patients with FUO before 2002 (n = 55) and thereafter (n = 12) were compared the prevalence of systemic vasculitis increased from 11% (n = 6) to 42% (n = 5, p = 0.021). CONCLUSION: Implementation of a standardised work-up programme for FUO did not improve the overall rate of diagnosis. Addition of MRI significantly increased the diagnosis of systemic vasculitis as the underlying cause of FUO. MRI should be included in the investigation of patients with FUO when vasculitis is suspected.
Project description:Fever of unknown origin (FUO) presents a diagnostic challenge. Giant cell arteritis (GCA) may present with FUO and this entity should be included in the differential of elderly patients who present with constitutional symptoms. While a temporal artery biopsy is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of GCA, a subset of patients with large vessel involvement by GCA may have a negative temporal artery biopsy and no cranial symptoms. We present a 79 year-old woman with FUO and negative temporal artery biopsies in whom diagnosis of GCA was delayed. Further imaging with CT-angiogram and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan showed diffuse extensive active vasculitis. The above case underscores the value of imaging studies in the evaluation of patients with FUO from occult large vessel vasculitis.
Project description:To quantify the occurrence of features of vasculitis that initially present after diagnosis in 6 types of primary vasculitis.Standardized collection of data on 95 disease manifestations in 6 vasculitides, including granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss; EGPA), polyarteritis nodosa (PAN), giant cell arteritis (GCA), and Takayasu arteritis (TAK), was obtained within a set of multicenter longitudinal, observational cohorts. For each form of vasculitis, the frequency of disease-specific manifestations at diagnosis was compared to the cumulative frequency of each manifestation. The percentage of patients who initially developed severe manifestations after diagnosis, defined as organ- or life-threatening in the small and medium vessel vasculitides (GPA, MPA, EGPA, PAN) and as ischemic/vascular in the large vessel vasculitides (GCA, TAK), was reported.Out of 838 patients with vasculitis, 490 (59%) experienced ? 1 new disease manifestation after diagnosis. On average, patients with vasculitis experienced 1.3 new manifestations after diagnosis (GPA = 1.9, MPA = 1.2, EGPA = 1.5, PAN = 1.2, GCA = 0.7, and TAK = 1.0). New severe manifestations occurred after diagnosis in 224 (27%) out of 838 patients (GPA = 26%, MPA = 19%, EGPA = 21%, PAN = 23%, GCA = 24%, and TAK = 44%). Timing of onset of new manifestations was not significantly associated with disease duration.A majority of patients with vasculitis develop new disease features after diagnosis, including a substantial number of new, severe manifestations. Ongoing assessment of patients with established vasculitis should remain broad in scope.
Project description:Published small case series suggest that inflammatory bowel disease [IBD; Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC)] and vasculitis co-occur more frequently than would be expected by chance.To describe this association by an analysis of a large cohort of carefully studied patients and through a systematic literature review.Patients with both IBD and vasculitis enrolled in the Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium (VCRC) Longitudinal Studies, followed in Canadian Vasculitis research network (CanVasc) centers and/or in the University of Toronto's IBD clinic were included in this case series. A systematic literature review of patients with IBD and vasculitis involved a PubMed search through February 2014. The main characteristics of patients with Takayasu arteritis (TAK) and IBD were compared to those in patients with TAK without IBD followed in the VCRC.The study identified 32 patients with IBD and vasculitis: 13 with large-vessel vasculitis [LVV; 12 with TAK, 1 with giant cell arteritis (GCA); 8 with CD, 5 with UC]; 8 with ANCA-associated vasculitis [AAV; 6 granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), 2 with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA)]; 5 with isolated cutaneous vasculitis; and 6 with other vasculitides. Patients with LVV and AAV were mostly female (18/21). The diagnosis of IBD preceded that of vasculitis in 12/13 patients with LVV and 8/8 patients with AAV. The review of the literature identified 306 patients with IBD and vasculitis: 144 with LVV (133 TAK; 87 with IBD preceding LVV), 19 with AAV [14 GPA, 1 EGPA, 4 microscopic polyangiitis (MPA)], 66 with isolated cutaneous vasculitis, and 77 with other vasculitides. Patients with IBD and TAK were younger and had more frequent headaches, constitutional symptoms, or gastrointestinal symptoms compared to those patients in the VCRC who had TAK without IBD.These findings highlight the risk of vasculitis, especially TAK, in patients with IBD (both CD and UC).
Project description:OBJETIVE:Systemic vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of rare complex diseases of the blood vessels with a poorly understood aetiology. To investigate the shared genetic component underlying their predisposition, we performed the first cross-phenotype meta-analysis of genetic data from different clinically distinct patterns of vasculitis. METHODS:Immunochip genotyping data from 2465 patients diagnosed with giant cell arteritis, Takayasu's arteritis, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis or IgA vasculitis as well as 4632 unaffected controls were analysed to identify common susceptibility loci for vasculitis development. The possible functional consequences of the associated variants were interrogated using publicly available annotation data. RESULTS:The strongest association signal corresponded with an intergenic polymorphism located between HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DQA2 (rs6932517, P=4.16E-14, OR=0.74). This single nucleotide polymorphism is in moderate linkage disequilibrium with the disease-specific human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II associations of each type of vasculitis and could mark them. Outside the HLA region, we identified the KDM4C gene as a common risk locus for vasculitides (highest peak rs16925200, P=6.23E-07, OR=1.75). This gene encodes a histone demethylase involved in the epigenetic control of gene expression. CONCLUSIONS:Through a combined analysis of Immunochip data, we have identified KDM4C as a new risk gene shared between systemic vasculitides, consistent with the increasing evidences of the crucial role that the epigenetic mechanisms have in the development of complex immune-mediated conditions.
Project description:Systemic vasculitides frequently affect the pulmonary vasculature. As the signs and symptoms of pulmonary vasculitis are variable and nonspecific, diagnosis and treatment represent a real challenge. Vasculitides should be given consideration, as these diseases present severe manifestations of rapidly progressing pulmonary disease. Examining other organs usually affected by vasculitides (e.g., the skin and kidneys) and determining autoantibody levels are essential to a better management of the disease. A radiological study would also contribute to establishing a diagnosis. The lungs are commonly involved in small-vessel vasculitis, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, and vasculitides associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. Associated life-threatening diffuse alveolar haemorrhages and irreversible damage to other organs-usually the kidneys-are severe complications that require early diagnosis. Vasculitides are rare diseases that affect multiple organs. An increasing number of treatments-including biological agent-based therapies-requiring cooperation between specialists and centers have become available in the recent years. In the same way, clinicians should be familiar with the complications associated with immunosuppressive therapies.
Project description:Vasculitides are classified by the size, type and location of the predominantly involved vessels and by their primary or secondary nature. Their treatment depends on the type of vasculitis, its etiology (when known), and its severity and must be further adjusted by the individual characteristics and comorbidities of patients. In this paper, we review how the classification and definition of vasculitides have evolved over the past years and how it has affected therapeutic changes. As new genetic markers are being discovered and the pathogenesis of vasculitides continues to be elucidated, further modifications in classification and treatment can be expected.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To describe the prevalence of depression among patients with primary systemic vasculitides (PSV); compare prevalence according to vasculitis type and against controls; and examine the impact of depression on PSV outcomes. METHODS:We searched Medline, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science using a predefined protocol in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. We included all studies that reported the prevalence or impact of depression in PSV. We also included polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) given its association with giant cell arteritis (GCA). Meta-analyses of prevalence estimates were performed using random-effects models and reported as percentages (95% confidence interval). RESULTS:We reviewed a total of 15 studies that described the prevalence of depression, categorised into small (n?=?10) and large vessel vasculitis (n?=?7). Pooled prevalence estimate for depression in a small vessel (predominantly ANCA-associated) vasculitis was 28% (95% CI 20-38%) with significant heterogeneity (I2?=?93%). Depression prevalence in large-vessel vasculitis (Takayasu and GCA/PMR) was 24% (95% CI 17-34%), again with significant heterogeneity (I2?=?96%). One study reported 56% prevalence of depression in medium vessel disease. The prevalence of depression in small vessel vasculitis was higher than healthy controls. In these patients, depression and depressive symptoms were associated with poorer quality of life, adherence, and work disability, but not disease activity or damage. CONCLUSION:Depression is highly prevalent among patients with primary systemic vasculitis and associated with poorer outcomes across a range of measures in studies of small vessel disease. Further studies are needed for depression in medium and large vessel vasculitides.
Project description:The antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody- (ANCA-) associated vasculitides (AAVs), which include fever of unknown origin (FUO), are rare diseases characterized by necrotizing inflammation of small blood vessels and the presence of ANCAs. Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is a subtype of the AAVs. Although the prevalence of AAVs has generally increased over the last 20 years, there have been rare reports from the dental and oral surgery field. In this article, we present a case of MPA suspected to be infective endocarditis (IE) following tooth extraction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The vasculitides are a group of rare diseases with different manifestations and outcomes. New therapeutic options have led to the need for long-term registries. The Rheumatic Diseases Portuguese Register, Reuma.pt, is a web-based electronic clinical record, created in 2008, which currently includes specific modules for 12 diseases and?>?20,000 patients registered from 79 rheumatology centres. On October 2014, a dedicated module for vasculitis was created as part of the European Vasculitis Society collaborative network, enabling prospective collection and central storage of encrypted data from patients with this condition. All Portuguese rheumatology centres were invited to participate. Data regarding demographics, diagnosis, classification criteria, assessment tools, and treatment were collected. We aim to describe the structure of Reuma.pt/vasculitis and characterize the patients registered since its development. RESULTS:A total of 687 patients, with 1945 visits, from 13 centres were registered; mean age was 53.4?±?19.3?years at last visit and 68.7% were females. The most common diagnoses were Behçet's disease (BD) (42.5%) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) (17.8%). Patients with BD met the International Study Group criteria and the International Criteria for BD in 85.3 and 97.2% of cases, respectively. Within the most common small- and medium-vessel vasculitides registered, median [interquartile range] Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) at first visit was highest in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) (17.0 [12.0]); there were no differences in the proportion of patients with AAV or polyarteritis nodosa who relapsed (BVAS?1) or had a major relapse (?1 major BVAS item) during prospective assessment (p?=?1.00, p?=?0.479). Biologic treatment was prescribed in 0.8% of patients with GCA, 26.7% of patients with AAV, and 7.6% of patients with BD. There were 34 (4.9%) deaths reported. CONCLUSIONS:Reuma.pt/vasculitis is a bespoke web-based registry adapted for routine care of patients with this form of rare and complex diseases, allowing an efficient data-repository at a national level with the potential to link with other international databases. It facilitates research, trials recruitment, service planning and benchmarking.
Project description:Objectives:Advances in diagnostic techniques have led to better distinction between types of vasculitis, potentially affecting the utility of the 1990 ACR classification criteria for vasculitis. This study tested the performance of these criteria in a contemporary vasculitis cohort. Methods:The Diagnosis and Classification in Vasculitis Study provided detailed clinical, serological, pathological and radiological data from patients with primary systemic vasculitis and clinical context-specific comparator conditions. Fulfilment of six ACR criteria sets and their diagnostic performance was evaluated in patients with a given type of vasculitis and its comparator conditions. Results:Data from 1095 patients with primary systemic vasculitis and 415 with comparator conditions were available. For classification, sensitivities and specificities for ACR classification criteria were, respectively, 81.1% and 94.9% for GCA; 73.6% and 98.3% for Takayasu's arteritis; 65.6% and 88.7% for granulomatosis with polyangiitis; 57.0% and 99.8% for eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis; 40.6% and 87.8% for polyarteritis nodosa; 28.9% and 88.5% for microscopic polyangiitis; and 72.7% and 96.3% for IgA-vasculitis. Overall sensitivity was 67.1%. Of cases identified by their respective criteria, 16.9% also met criteria for other vasculitides. Diagnostic specificity ranged from 64.2 to 98.9%; overall, 113/415 comparators (27.2%) fulfilled at least one of the ACR classification criteria sets. Conclusion:Since publication of the ACR criteria for vasculitis, the sensitivity for each type of vasculitis, except GCA, has diminished, although the specificities have remained high, highlighting the need for updated classification criteria.