Structure of the yeast histone H3-ASF1 interaction: implications for chaperone mechanism, species-specific interactions, and epigenetics.
ABSTRACT: The histone H3/H4 chaperone Asf1 (anti-silencing function 1) is required for the establishment and maintenance of proper chromatin structure, as well as for genome stability in eukaryotes. Asf1 participates in both DNA replication-coupled (RC) and replication-independent (RI) histone deposition reactions in vitro and interacts with complexes responsible for both pathways in vivo. Asf1 is known to directly bind histone H3, however, high-resolution structural information about the geometry of this interaction was previously unknown.Here we report the structure of a histone/histone chaperone interaction. We have solved the 2.2 A crystal structure of the conserved N-terminal immunoglobulin fold domain of yeast Asf1 (residues 2-155) bound to the C-terminal helix of yeast histone H3 (residues 121-134). The structure defines a histone-binding patch on Asf1 consisting of both conserved and yeast-specific residues; mutation of these residues abrogates H3/H4 binding affinity. The geometry of the interaction indicates that Asf1 binds to histones H3/H4 in a manner that likely blocks sterically the H3/H3 interface of the nucleosomal four-helix bundle.These data clarify how Asf1 regulates histone stoichiometry to modulate epigenetic inheritance. The structure further suggests a physical model in which Asf1 contributes to interpretation of a "histone H3 barcode" for sorting H3 isoforms into different deposition pathways.
Project description:Nucleosome assembly following DNA replication and gene transcription is important to maintain genome stability and epigenetic information. Newly synthesized histones H3-H4 first bind histone chaperone Asf1 and are then transferred to other chaperones for nucleosome assembly. However, it is unknown how H3-H4 is transferred from the Asf1-H3-H4 complex to other chaperones because Asf1 binds H3-H4 with high affinity. Here, we show that yeast Rtt101(Mms1) E3 ubiquitin ligase preferentially binds and ubiquitylates new histone H3 acetylated at lysine 56. Inactivation of Rtt101 or mutating H3 lysine residues ubiquitylated by the Rtt101(Mms1) ligase impairs nucleosome assembly and promotes Asf1-H3 interactions. Similar phenotypes occur in human cells in which the ortholog of Rtt101(Mms1), Cul4A(DDB1), is depleted. These results indicate that the transfer of H3-H4 from the Asf1-H3-H4 complex to other histone chaperones is regulated by a conserved E3 ligase and provide evidence for crosstalk between histone acetylation and ubiquitylation in nucleosome assembly.
Project description:Rtt109 is a unique histone acetyltransferase acetylating histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56), a modification critical for DNA replication-coupled nucleosome assembly and genome stability. In cells, histone chaperone Asf1 is essential for H3K56 acetylation, yet the mechanisms for H3K56 specificity and Asf1 requirement remain unknown. We have determined the crystal structure of the Rtt109-Asf1-H3-H4 complex and found that unwinding of histone H3 ?N, where K56 is normally located, and stabilization of the very C-terminal ? strand of histone H4 by Asf1 are prerequisites for H3K56 acetylation. Unexpectedly, an interaction between Rtt109 and the central helix of histone H3 is also required. The observed multiprotein, multisite substrate recognition mechanism among histone modification enzymes provides mechanistic understandings of Rtt109 and Asf1 in H3K56 acetylation, as well as valuable insights into substrate recognition by histone modification enzymes in general.
Project description:The central histone H3/H4 chaperone Asf1 comprises a highly conserved globular core and a divergent C-terminal tail. While the function and structure of the Asf1 core are well known, the function of the tail is less well understood. Here, we have explored the role of the yeast (yAsf1) and human (hAsf1a and hAsf1b) Asf1 tails in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show, using a photoreactive, unnatural amino acid, that Asf1 tail residue 210 cross-links to histone H3 in vivo and, further, that loss of C-terminal tail residues 211 to 279 weakens yAsf1-histone binding affinity in vitro nearly 200-fold. Via several yAsf1 C-terminal truncations and yeast-human chimeric proteins, we found that truncations at residue 210 increase transcriptional silencing and that the hAsf1a tail partially substitutes for full-length yAsf1 with respect to silencing but that full-length hAsf1b is a better overall substitute for full-length yAsf1. In addition, we show that the C-terminal tail of Asf1 is phosphorylated at T270 in yeast. Loss of this phosphorylation site does not prevent coimmunoprecipitation of yAsf1 and Rad53 from yeast extracts, whereas amino acid residue substitutions at the Asf1-histone H3/H4 interface do. Finally, we show that residue substitutions in yAsf1 near the CAF-1/HIRA interface also influence yAsf1's function in silencing.
Project description:Anti-silencing function 1 (Asf1) is a highly conserved chaperone of histones H3/H4 that assembles or disassembles chromatin during transcription, replication, and repair. The structure of the globular domain of Asf1 bound to H3/H4 determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.7 Angstroms shows how Asf1 binds the H3/H4 heterodimer, enveloping the C terminus of histone H3 and physically blocking formation of the H3/H4 heterotetramer. Unexpectedly, the C terminus of histone H4 that forms a mini-beta sheet with histone H2A in the nucleosome undergoes a major conformational change upon binding to Asf1 and adds a beta strand to the Asf1 beta sheet sandwich. Interactions with both H3 and H4 were required for Asf1 histone chaperone function in vivo and in vitro. The Asf1-H3/H4 structure suggests a "strand-capture" mechanism whereby the H4 tail acts as a lever to facilitate chromatin disassembly/assembly that may be used ubiquitously by histone chaperones.
Project description:Asf1 is a conserved histone chaperone implicated in nucleosome assembly, transcriptional silencing, and the cellular response to DNA damage. We solved the NMR solution structure of the N-terminal functional domain of the human Asf1a isoform, and we identified by NMR chemical shift mapping a surface of Asf1a that binds the C-terminal helix of histone H3. This binding surface forms a highly conserved hydrophobic groove surrounded by charged residues. Mutations within this binding site decreased the affinity of Asf1a for the histone H3/H4 complex in vitro, and the same mutations in the homologous yeast protein led to transcriptional silencing defects, DNA damage sensitivity, and thermosensitive growth. We have thus obtained direct experimental evidence of the mode of binding between a histone and one of its chaperones and genetic data suggesting that this interaction is important in both the DNA damage response and transcriptional silencing.
Project description:Acetylation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae histone H3 on K56 by the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) Rtt109 is important for repairing replication-associated lesions. Rtt109 purifies from yeast in complex with the histone chaperone Vps75, which stabilizes the HAT in vivo. A whole-genome screen to identify genes whose deletions have synthetic genetic interactions with rtt109Delta suggests Rtt109 has functions in addition to DNA repair. We show that in addition to its known H3-K56 acetylation activity, Rtt109 is also an H3-K9 HAT, and we show that Rtt109 and Gcn5 are the only H3-K9 HATs in vivo. Rtt109's H3-K9 acetylation activity in vitro is enhanced strongly by Vps75. Another histone chaperone, Asf1, and Vps75 are both required for acetylation of lysine 9 on H3 (H3-K9ac) in vivo by Rtt109, whereas H3-K56ac in vivo requires only Asf1. Asf1 also physically interacts with the nuclear Hat1/Hat2/Hif1 complex that acetylates H4-K5 and H4-K12. We suggest Asf1 is capable of assembling into chromatin H3-H4 dimers diacetylated on both H4-K5/12 and H3-K9/56.
Project description:Anti-silencing function 1 (Asf1) and Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) chaperone histones H3/H4 during the assembly of nucleosomes on newly replicated DNA. To understand the mechanism of histone H3/H4 transfer among Asf1, CAF-1 and DNA from a thermodynamic perspective, we developed and employed biophysical approaches using full-length proteins in the budding yeast system. We find that the C-terminal tail of Asf1 enhances the interaction of Asf1 with CAF-1. Surprisingly, although H3/H4 also enhances the interaction of Asf1 with the CAF-1 subunit Cac2, H3/H4 forms a tight complex with CAF-1 exclusive of Asf1, with an affinity weaker than Asf1-H3/H4 or H3/H4-DNA interactions. Unlike Asf1, monomeric CAF-1 binds to multiple H3/H4 dimers, which ultimately promotes the formation of (H3/H4)(2) tetramers on DNA. Thus, transition of H3/H4 from the Asf1-associated dimer to the DNA-associated tetramer is promoted by CAF-1-induced H3/H4 oligomerization.
Project description:Vps75 is a histone chaperone that has been historically characterized as homodimer by X-ray crystallography. In this study, we present a crystal structure containing two related tetrameric forms of Vps75 within the crystal lattice. We show Vps75 associates with histones in multiple oligomers. In the presence of equimolar H3-H4 and Vps75, the major species is a reconfigured Vps75 tetramer bound to a histone H3-H4 tetramer. However, in the presence of excess histones, a Vps75 dimer bound to a histone H3-H4 tetramer predominates. We show the Vps75-H3-H4 interaction is compatible with the histone chaperone Asf1 and deduce a structural model of the Vps75-Asf1-H3-H4 (VAH) co-chaperone complex using the Pulsed Electron-electron Double Resonance (PELDOR) technique and cross-linking MS/MS distance restraints. The model provides a molecular basis for the involvement of both Vps75 and Asf1 in Rtt109 catalysed histone H3 K9 acetylation. In the absence of Asf1 this model can be used to generate a complex consisting of a reconfigured Vps75 tetramer bound to a H3-H4 tetramer. This provides a structural explanation for many of the complexes detected biochemically and illustrates the ability of Vps75 to interact with dimeric or tetrameric H3-H4 using the same interaction surface.
Project description:RbAp46 and RbAp48 (pRB-associated proteins p46 and p48, also known as RBBP7 and RBBP4, respectively) are highly homologous histone chaperones that play key roles in establishing and maintaining chromatin structure. We report here the crystal structure of human RbAp46 bound to histone H4. RbAp46 folds into a seven-bladed beta propeller structure and binds histone H4 in a groove formed between an N-terminal alpha helix and an extended loop inserted into blade six. Surprisingly, histone H4 adopts a different conformation when interacting with RbAp46 than it does in either the nucleosome or in the complex with ASF1, another histone chaperone. Our structural and biochemical results suggest that when a histone H3/H4 dimer (or tetramer) binds to RbAp46 or RbAp48, helix 1 of histone H4 unfolds to interact with the histone chaperone. We discuss the implications of our findings for the assembly and function of RbAp46 and RbAp48 complexes.
Project description:The promoter activity of yeast genes can depend on lysine 56 (K56) acetylation of histone H3. This modification of H3 is performed by lysine acetylase Rtt109 acting in concert with histone chaperone Asf1. We have examined the contributions of Rtt109, Asf1, and H3 K56 acetylation to nutrient regulation of a well-studied metabolic gene, ARG1. As expected, Rtt109, Asf1, and H3 K56 acetylation are required for maximal transcription of ARG1 under inducing conditions. However, Rtt109 and Asf1 also inhibit ARG1 under repressing conditions. This inhibition requires Asf1 binding to H3-H4 and Rtt109 KAT activity, but not tail acetylation of H3-H4 or K56 acetylation of H3. These observations suggest the existence of a unique mechanism of transcriptional regulation by Rtt109. Indeed, chromatin immunoprecipitation and genetic interaction studies support a model in which promoter-targeted Rtt109 represses ARG1 by silencing a pathway of transcriptional activation that depends on ASF1. Collectively, our results show that ARG1 transcription intensity at its induced and repressed set points is controlled by different mechanisms of functional interplay between Rtt109 and Asf1.