Acetylation of the p53 DNA-binding domain regulates apoptosis induction.
ABSTRACT: The ability of p53 to induce apoptosis plays an important role in tumor suppression. Here, we describe a previously unknown posttranslational modification of the DNA-binding domain of p53. This modification, acetylation of lysine 120 (K120), occurs rapidly after DNA damage and is catalyzed by the MYST family acetyltransferases hMOF and TIP60. Mutation of K120 to arginine, as occurs in human cancer, debilitates K120 acetylation and diminishes p53-mediated apoptosis without affecting cell-cycle arrest. The K120R mutation selectively blocks the transcription of proapoptotic target genes such as BAX and PUMA while the nonapoptotic targets p21 and hMDM2 remain unaffected. Consistent with this, depletion of hMOF and/or TIP60 inhibits the ability of p53 to activate BAX and PUMA transcription. Furthermore, the acetyllysine 120 (acetyl-K120) form of p53 specifically accumulates at proapoptotic target genes. These data suggest that K120 acetylation may help distinguish the cell-cycle arrest and apoptotic functions of p53.
Project description:Activation of p53 by DNA damage results in either cell-cycle arrest, allowing DNA repair and cell survival, or induction of apoptosis. As these opposite outcomes are both mediated by p53 stabilization, additional mechanisms to determine this decision must exist. Here, we show that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is required for the p53-mediated induction of the proapoptotic BH3 only-protein PUMA, an essential mediator of p53-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of GSK-3 protected from cell death induced by DNA damage and promoted increased long-term cell survival. We demonstrate that GSK-3 phosphorylates serine 86 of the p53-acetyltransferase Tip60. A Tip60(S86A) mutant was less active to induce p53 K120 acetylation, histone 4 acetylation, and expression of PUMA. Our data suggest that GSK-3 mediated Tip60S86 phosphorylation provides a link between PI3K signaling and the choice for or against apoptosis induction by p53.
Project description:Posttranslational modifications of p53 integrate diverse stress signals and regulate its activity, but their combinatorial contribution to overall p53 function is not clear. We investigated the roles of lysine (K) acetylation and sumoylation on p53 and their relation to apoptosis and autophagy. Here we describe the collaborative role of the SUMO E3 ligase PIASy and the lysine acetyltransferase Tip60 in p53-mediated autophagy. PIASy binding to p53 and PIASy-activated Tip60 lead to K386 sumoylation and K120 acetylation of p53, respectively. Even though these two modifications are not dependent on each other, together they act as a "binary death signal" to promote cytoplasmic accumulation of p53 and execution of PUMA-independent autophagy. PIASy-induced Tip60 sumoylation augments p53 K120 acetylation and apoptosis. In addition to p14(ARF) inactivation, impairment in this intricate signaling may explain why p53 mutations are not found in nearly 50% of malignancies.
Project description:Tip60 is an essential acetyltransferase required for acetylation of nucleosomal histones and other nonhistone proteins. Tip60 acetylates the p53 tumor suppressor at lysine 120 (K120), a modification essential for p53-dependent induction of PUMA and apoptosis. It is known that Tip60 is turned over in cells by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, the deubiquitinase activity for stabilizing Tip60 is unknown. Here we show that USP7 interacts with and deubiquitinates Tip60 both in vitro and in vivo. USP7 deubiquitinase activity is required for the stabilization of Tip60 in order to operate an effective p53-dependent apoptotic pathway in response to genotoxic stress. Inhibiting USP7 with the small-molecule inhibitor P22077 attenuates the p53-dependent apoptotic pathway by destabilizing Tip60. P22077, however, is still cytotoxic, and this is partly due to destabilization of Tip60.
Project description:Tumor cells often encounter hypoglycemic microenvironment due to rapid cell expansion. It remains elusive how tumors reprogram the genome to survive the metabolic stress. The tumor suppressor TIP60 functions as the catalytic subunit of the human NuA4 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) multi-subunit complex and is involved in many different cellular processes including DNA damage response, cell growth and apoptosis. Attenuation of TIP60 expression has been detected in various tumor types. The function of TIP60 in tumor development has not been fully understood. Here we found that suppressing TIP60 inhibited p53 K120 acetylation and thus rescued apoptosis induced by glucose deprivation in hepatocellular cancer cells. Excitingly, Lys-104 (K104), a previously identified lysine acetylation site of TIP60 with unknown function, was observed to be indispensable for inducing p53-mediated apoptosis under low glucose condition. Mutation of Lys-104 to Arg (K104R) impeded the binding of TIP60 to human NuA4 complex, suppressed the acetyltransferase activity of TIP60, and inhibited the expression of pro-apoptotic genes including NOXA and PUMA upon glucose starvation. These findings demonstrate the critical regulation of TIP60/p53 pathway in apoptosis upon metabolic stress and provide a novel insight into the down-regulation of TIP60 in tumor cells.
Project description:Exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation (IR) leads to debilitating and dose-limiting gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Using three-dimensional mouse crypt culture, we demonstrated that p53 target PUMA mediates radiation-induced apoptosis via a cell-intrinsic mechanism, and identified the GSK-3 inhibitor CHIR99021 as a potent radioprotector. CHIR99021 treatment improved Lgr5+ cell survival and crypt regeneration after radiation in culture and mice. CHIR99021 treatment specifically blocked apoptosis and PUMA induction and K120 acetylation of p53 mediated by acetyl-transferase Tip60, while it had no effect on p53 stabilization, phosphorylation or p21 induction. CHIR99021 also protected human intestinal cultures from radiation by PUMA but not p21 suppression. These results demonstrate that p53 posttranslational modifications play a key role in the pathological and apoptotic response of the intestinal stem cells to radiation and can be targeted pharmacologically.
Project description:Tip60 is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) involved in the acetyltransferase activity and the cellular response to DNA damage. Here, we show that programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5), a human apoptosis-related protein, binds to Tip60 and enhances the stability of Tip60 protein in unstressed conditions. The binding amount of PDCD5 and Tip60 is significantly increased after UV irradiation. Further, PDCD5 enhances HAT activity of Tip60 and Tip60-dependent histone acetylation in both basal and UV-induced levels. We also find that PDCD5 increases Tip60-dependent K120 acetylation of p53 and participates in the p53-dependent expression of apoptosis-related genes, such as Bax. Moreover, we demonstrate the biological significance of the PDCD5-Tip60 interaction; that is, they function in cooperation to accelerate DNA damage-induced apoptosis and knockdown of PDCD5 or Tip60 impairs their apoptosis-accelerating activity, mutually. Consistent with this, PDCD5 levels increase significantly on DNA damage in U2OS cells, as does Tip60. Together, our findings indicate that PDCD5 may play a dual role in the Tip60 pathway. Specifically, under normal growth conditions, PDCD5 contributes to maintaining a basal pool of Tip60 and its HAT activity. After DNA damage, PDCD5 functions as a Tip60 coactivator to promote apoptosis.
Project description:The tumour suppressor p53 is an important mediator of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage, acting mainly by transcriptional regulation of specific target genes. The exact details how p53 modulates this decision on a molecular basis is still incompletely understood. One mechanism of regulation is acetylation of p53 on lysine K120 by the histone-acetyltransferase Tip60, resulting in preferential transcription of proapoptotic target genes. PDCD5, a protein with reported pro-apoptotic function, has recently been identified as regulator of Tip60-dependent p53-acetylation. In an effort to clarify the role of PDCD5 upon DNA damage, we generated cell lines in which PDCD5 expression was conditionally ablated by shRNAs and investigated their response to genotoxic stress. Surprisingly, we failed to note a rate-limiting role of PDCD5 in the DNA damage response. PDCD5 was dispensable for DNA damage induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and we observed no significant changes in p53 target gene transcription. While we were able to confirm interaction of PDCD5 with p53, we failed to do so for Tip60. Altogether, our results suggest a role of PDCD5 in the regulation of p53 function but unrelated to cell cycle arrest or apoptosis, at least in the cell types investigated.
Project description:The p53 tumor suppressor is controlled by an interactive network of factors that stimulate or inhibit its transcriptional activity. Within that network, Mdm2 functions as the major antagonist of p53 by promoting its ubiquitylation and degradation. Conversely, Tip60 activates p53 through direct association on target promoters as well as acetylation of p53 at lysine 120 (K120). This study examines the functional relationship between Mdm2 and Tip60 with a novel p53 regulator, NIAM (nuclear interactor of ARF and Mdm2). Previous work showed NIAM can suppress proliferation and activate p53 independently of ARF, indicating that other factors mediate those activities. Here, we demonstrate that NIAM is a chromatin-associated protein that binds Tip60. NIAM can promote p53 K120 acetylation, although that modification is not required for NIAM to inhibit proliferation or induce p53 transactivation of the p21 promoter. Notably, Tip60 silencing showed it contributes to but is not sufficient for NIAM-mediated p53 activation, suggesting other mechanisms are involved. Indeed, growth-inhibitory forms of NIAM also bind to Mdm2, and increased NIAM expression levels disrupt p53-Mdm2 association, inhibit p53 polyubiquitylation, and prevent Mdm2-mediated inhibition of p53 transcriptional activity. Importantly, loss of NIAM significantly impairs p53 activation. Together, these results show that NIAM activates p53 through multiple mechanisms involving Tip60 association and Mdm2 inhibition. Thus, NIAM regulates 2 critical pathways that control p53 function and are altered in human cancers, implying an important role for NIAM in tumorigenesis.
Project description:It is widely accepted that different forms of stress activate a common target, p53, yet different outcomes are triggered in a stress-specific manner. For example, activation of p53 by genotoxic agents, such as camptothecin (CPT), triggers apoptosis, while non-genotoxic activation of p53 by Nutlin-3 (Nut3) leads to cell-cycle arrest without significant apoptosis. Such stimulus-specific responses are attributed to differential transcriptional activation of various promoters by p53. In this study, we demonstrate that CPT, but not Nut3, induces miR-203, which downregulates anti-apoptotic bcl-w and promotes cell death in a p53-dependent manner. We find that acetylation of K120 in the DNA-binding domain of p53 augments its association with the Drosha microprocessor and promotes nuclear primary miRNA processing. Knockdown of human orthologue of Males absent On the First (hMOF), the acetyltransferase that targets K120 in p53, abolishes induction of miR-203 and cell death mediated by CPT. Thus, this study reveals that p53 acetylation at K120 plays a critical role in the regulation of the Drosha microprocessor and that post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by p53 via miRNAs plays a role in determining stress-specific cellular outcomes.
Project description:Using the amber suppression approach, N? -(4-azidobenzoxycarbonyl)-?,?-dehydrolysine, an allysine precursor is genetically encoded in E. coli. Its genetic incorporation followed by two sequential biocompatible reactions allows convenient synthesis of proteins with site-specific lysine dimethylation. Using this approach, dimethyl-histone H3 and p53 proteins have been synthesized and used to probe functions of epigenetic enzymes including histone demethylase LSD1 and histone acetyltransferase Tip60. We confirmed that LSD1 is catalytically active toward H3K4me2 and H3K9me2 but inert toward H3K36me2, and methylation at p53 K372 directly activates Tip60 for its catalyzed acetylation at p53 K120.