Hemodialysis in children: general practical guidelines.
ABSTRACT: Over the past 20 years children have benefited from major improvements in both technology and clinical management of dialysis. Morbidity during dialysis sessions has decreased with seizures being exceptional and hypotensive episodes rare. Pain and discomfort have been reduced with the use of chronic internal jugular venous catheters and anesthetic creams for fistula puncture. Non-invasive technologies to assess patient target dry weight and access flow can significantly reduce patient morbidity and health care costs. The development of urea kinetic modeling enables calculation of the dialysis dose delivery, Kt/V, and an indirect assessment of the intake. Nutritional assessment and support are of major importance for the growing child. Even if the validity of these "urea only" data is questioned, their analysis provides information useful for follow-up. Newer machines provide more precise control of ultrafiltration by volumetric assessment and continuous blood volume monitoring during dialysis sessions. Buffered bicarbonate solutions are now standard and more biocompatible synthetic membranes and specific small size material dialyzers and tubing have been developed for young infants. More recently, the concept of "ultrapure" dialysate, i.e. free from microbiological contamination and endotoxins, has developed. This will enable the use of hemodiafiltration, especially with the on-line option, which has many theoretical advantages and should be considered in the case of maximum/optimum dialysis need. Although the optimum dialysis dose requirement for children remains uncertain, reports of longer duration and/or daily dialysis show they are more effective for phosphate control than conventional hemodialysis and should be considered at least for some high-risk patients with cardiovascular impairment. In children hemodialysis has to be individualized and viewed as an "integrated therapy" considering their long-term exposure to chronic renal failure treatment. Dialysis is seen only as a temporary measure for children compared with renal transplantation because this enables the best chance of rehabilitation in terms of educational and psychosocial functioning. In long term chronic dialysis, however, the highest standards should be applied to these children to preserve their future "cardiovascular life" which might include more dialysis time and on-line hemodiafiltration with synthetic high flux membranes if we are able to improve on the rather restricted concept of small-solute urea dialysis clearance.
Project description:We present the case of a kidney transplant patient (Cockroft-Gault estimated creatinine clearance 14 ml/min) who was inadvertently eight-fold overdosed with a single dose of 500 mg intravenous ganciclovir. To prevent the immunosuppressed patient from being exposed to severe risks of prolonged ganciclovir overdosing, including potentially fatal bone marrow suppression and severe neurotoxicity, the patient was treated with hemodiafiltration (HDF) to enhance drug elimination. Since the product label reports a 50% decrease of ganciclovir plasma concentrations after intermittent hemodialysis (HD), two HDF sessions were considered necessary to achieve a ?75% elimination of the drug by precaution, despite targeted intense HDF prescription. Ganciclovir plasma concentration data were obtained during both HDF sessions and were analyzed retrospectively. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that prescribed HDF successfully decreased drug plasma concentrations by ?90%. This ganciclovir reduction ratio matched the urea reduction ratio achieved (?92%). Model-based assessment of ganciclovir dialysis clearance (estimated to be 445 ml/min), accounting for its two-compartmental kinetics, was higher than urea dialysis clearance (estimated to be 310 ml/min). This suggests potential relevant accumulation of ganciclovir into blood cells, at least in this patient after overdosing. The amount (fraction) of drug removed by 1<sup>st</sup> HDF was estimated to 269 mg (93% of total amount of 288 mg eliminated during the 1<sup>st</sup> HDF session; estimated amount in the body prior to 1<sup>st</sup> HDF: 380 mg). A literature review was performed to summarize and systematically compare available information on ganciclovir elimination during intermittent renal replacement therapy. In conclusion, the high ganciclovir HDF clearance measured in our patient largely exceeded previously reported elimination during HD, meaning that HDF prescription was highly efficient in the present case, and that a second HDF session might not have been necessary. This finding may be considered to guide renal replacement therapy in the scope of drug overdosing. It may also be evaluated for ganciclovir dose adjustment in patients on chronic HD or HDF with high small solute clearance, since a strong correlation between ganciclovir and urea elimination efficiency was observed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Beta-2 Microglobulin (?2M) is a prototypical "middle molecule" uremic toxin that has been associated with a higher risk of death in hemodialysis patients. A quantitative description of the relative importance of factors determining ?2M concentrations among patients with impaired kidney function is currently lacking.<h4>Methods</h4>Herein we undertook a systematic review of existing studies reporting patient level data concerning generation, elimination and distribution of ?2M in order to develop a population model of ?2M kinetics. We used this model and previously determined relationships between predialysis ?2M concentration and survival, to simulate the population distribution of predialysis ?2M and the associated relative risk (RR) of death in patients receiving conventional thrice-weekly hemodialysis with low flux (LF) and high flux (HF) dialyzers, short (SD) and long daily (LD) HF hemodialysis sessions and on-line hemodiafiltration at different levels of residual renal function (RRF).<h4>Results</h4>We identified 9 studies of 106 individuals and 156 evaluations of or more compartmental kinetic parameters of ?2M. These studies used a variety of experimental methods to determine ?2M kinetics ranging from isotopic dilution to profiling of intra/inter dialytic concentration changes. Most of the patients (74/106) were on dialysis with minimal RRF, thus facilitating the estimation of non-renal elimination kinetics of ?2M. In large scale (N = 10,000) simulations of individuals drawn from the population of ?2M kinetic parameters, we found that, higher dialytic removal materially affects ?2M exposures only when RRF (renal clearance of ?2M) was below 2 ml/min. In patients initiating conventional HF hemodialysis, total loss of RRF was predicted to be associated with a RR of death of more than 20%. Hemodiafiltration and daily dialysis may decrease the high risk of death of anuric patients by 10% relative to conventional, thrice weekly HF dialysis. Only daily long sessions of hemodialysis consistently reduced mortality risk between 7-19% across the range of ?2M generation rate.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Preservation of RRF should be considered one of the therapeutic goals of hemodialysis practice. Randomized controlled trials of novel dialysis modalities may require large sample sizes to detect an effect on clinical outcomes even if they enroll anuric patients. The developed population model for ?2M may allow personalization of hemodialysis prescription and/or facilitate the design of such studies by identifying patients with higher ?2M generation rate.
Project description:Hemodialysis patients have high rates of mortality that may be related to aspects of the dialytic procedure. In prior studies, shorter length dialysis sessions have been associated with decreased survival, but these studies may have been confounded by body size differences. Here we tested whether in-center three-times-weekly hemodialysis patients with adequate urea clearances but shorter dialysis session length is associated with mortality independent of body size. Data were taken from a large national cohort of patients from a large dialysis organization undergoing three-times-weekly in-center hemodialysis. In the primary analysis, patients with prescribed dialysis sessions greater and less than 240 min were pair-matched on post-dialysis weight as well as on age, gender, and vascular access type. Compared to prescribed longer dialysis sessions, session lengths less than 240 min were significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.26). The association was consistent across strata of age, gender, and dialysis post-weight. Secondary analyses found a dose-response between prescribed session length and survival. Thus, among patients with adequate urea clearance, shorter dialysis session lengths are associated with increased mortality independent of body weight.
Project description:In patients with ESRD, the effects of online hemodiafiltration on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events are unclear. In this prospective study, we randomly assigned 714 chronic hemodialysis patients to online postdilution hemodiafiltration (n=358) or to continue low-flux hemodialysis (n=356). The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. The main secondary endpoint was a composite of major cardiovascular events, including death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, therapeutic coronary intervention, therapeutic carotid intervention, vascular intervention, or amputation. After a mean 3.0 years of follow-up (range, 0.4-6.6 years), we did not detect a significant difference between treatment groups with regard to all-cause mortality (121 versus 127 deaths per 1000 person-years in the online hemodiafiltration and low-flux hemodialysis groups, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.20). The incidences of cardiovascular events were 127 and 116 per 1000 person-years, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.39). Receiving high-volume hemodiafiltration during the trial associated with lower all-cause mortality, a finding that persisted after adjusting for potential confounders and dialysis facility. In conclusion, this trial did not detect a beneficial effect of hemodiafiltration on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events compared with low-flux hemodialysis. On-treatment analysis suggests the possibility of a survival benefit among patients who receive high-volume hemodiafiltration, although this subgroup finding requires confirmation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The optimal intensity of renal-replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury is controversial.<h4>Methods</h4>We randomly assigned critically ill patients with acute kidney injury and failure of at least one nonrenal organ or sepsis to receive intensive or less intensive renal-replacement therapy. The primary end point was death from any cause by day 60. In both study groups, hemodynamically stable patients underwent intermittent hemodialysis, and hemodynamically unstable patients underwent continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration or sustained low-efficiency dialysis. Patients receiving the intensive treatment strategy underwent intermittent hemodialysis and sustained low-efficiency dialysis six times per week and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration at 35 ml per kilogram of body weight per hour; for patients receiving the less-intensive treatment strategy, the corresponding treatments were provided thrice weekly and at 20 ml per kilogram per hour.<h4>Results</h4>Baseline characteristics of the 1124 patients in the two groups were similar. The rate of death from any cause by day 60 was 53.6% with intensive therapy and 51.5% with less-intensive therapy (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.86 to 1.40; P=0.47). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the duration of renal-replacement therapy or the rate of recovery of kidney function or nonrenal organ failure. Hypotension during intermittent dialysis occurred in more patients randomly assigned to receive intensive therapy, although the frequency of hemodialysis sessions complicated by hypotension was similar in the two groups.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Intensive renal support in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury did not decrease mortality, improve recovery of kidney function, or reduce the rate of nonrenal organ failure as compared with less-intensive therapy involving a defined dose of intermittent hemodialysis three times per week and continuous renal-replacement therapy at 20 ml per kilogram per hour. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00076219.)
Project description:Retrospective studies suggest that online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) may reduce the risk of mortality compared with standard hemodialysis in patients with ESRD. We conducted a multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial in which we assigned 906 chronic hemodialysis patients either to continue hemodialysis (n=450) or to switch to high-efficiency postdilution OL-HDF (n=456). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, and secondary outcomes included cardiovascular mortality, all-cause hospitalization, treatment tolerability, and laboratory data. Compared with patients who continued on hemodialysis, those assigned to OL-HDF had a 30% lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.53-0.92; P=0.01), a 33% lower risk of cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.44-1.02; P=0.06), and a 55% lower risk of infection-related mortality (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.21-0.96; P=0.03). The estimated number needed to treat suggested that switching eight patients from hemodialysis to OL-HDF may prevent one annual death. The incidence rates of dialysis sessions complicated by hypotension and of all-cause hospitalization were lower in patients assigned to OL-HDF. In conclusion, high-efficiency postdilution OL-HDF reduces all-cause mortality compared with conventional hemodialysis.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are small enough to pass large pore dialysis membranes. Removal of LMWH if injected before the start of the session is possible during high-flux dialysis and hemodiafiltration. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal mode (place and time) of tinzaparin administration during postdilution hemodiafiltration. STUDY DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS:In 13 chronic hemodiafiltration patients, 3 approaches of injection were compared in a randomised cross over trial: i) before the start of the session at the inlet blood line filled with rinsing solution (IN0), ii) 5 min after the start at the inlet line filled with blood (IN5) and iii) before the start of the session at the outlet blood line (OUT0). Anti-Xa activity, thrombin generation, visual clotting score and reduction ratios of urea and beta2microglobulin were measured. RESULTS:Anti-Xa activity was lower with IN0 compared with IN5 and OUT0, and also more thrombin generation was observed with IN0. No differences were observed in visual clotting scores and no clinically relevant differences were observed in solute reduction ratio. An anti-Xa of 0.3 IU/mL was discriminative for thrombin generation. Anti-Xa levels below 0.3 IU/mL at the end of the session were associated with worse clotting scores and lower reduction ratio of urea and beta2microglobulin. CONCLUSIONS:Injection of tinzaparin at the inlet line before the start of postdilution hemodiafiltration is associated with loss of anticoagulant activity and can therefore not be recommended. Additionally, we found that an anti-Xa above 0.3 IU/mL at the end of the session is associated with less clotting and higher dialysis adequacy. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00756145.
Project description:Hemodiafiltration combines diffusive and convective solute removal in a single therapy by ultrafiltering 20% or more of the blood volume processed using a high-flux hemodialyzer and maintaining fluid balance by infusing sterile nonpyrogenic replacement fluid directly into the patient's blood. In online hemodiafiltration, the large volumes of replacement fluid required are obtained by online filtration of standard dialysate through a series of bacteria- and endotoxin-retaining filters. Currently available systems for online hemodiafiltration are on the basis of conventional dialysis machines with added features to safely prepare and infuse replacement fluid and closely control fluid balance. Hemodiafiltration provides greater removal of higher molecular weight uremic retention solutes than conventional high-flux hemodialysis, and recently completed randomized, controlled clinical trials suggest better patient survival with online hemodiafiltration compared with standard high-flux hemodialysis when a high convection volume is delivered. Hemodiafiltration is also associated with improvements in other clinical outcomes, such as a reduction in intradialytic hypotension, and it is now used routinely to treat >100,000 patients, mainly in Europe and Japan.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Residual renal function (RRF) is an important determinant of mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Different dialysis types may have different effects on RRF. We therefore conducted this meta-analysis to examine the RRF protective effect of different dialysis types for hemodialysis patients. METHODS:A systematic search was performed on PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Wanfang database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure for randomized controlled trials and cohort studies. Dialysis types included low-flux hemodialysis (LFHD), high-flux hemodialysis (HFHD), hemodiafiltration (HDF), and hemodialysis and hemoperfusion (HD+HP). The mean of endogenous creatinine clearance rate (CCR) and urea clearance rate (Curea), or urine volume was used to estimate RRF [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 6.05-16.80]. RESULTS:There were 12 articles involving 1224 patients, including 11 random controlled trials and 1 cohort study. Meta-analysis showed that the RRF protective effect of HFHD [mean difference (MD)?=?1.48, 95% CI (2.11 to 0.86), P?<?.01] and HD+HP [MD?=?0.41, 95% CI (0.69 to 0.12), P?=?.005] was better than that of LFHD, and the RRF decline rate was the lowest in HFHD group [MD?=?0.13, 95% CI (0.17 to 0.09), P?<?.01]. Descriptive analysis showed that HDF could better protect RRF when compared with LFHD. However, there was no consistency among other interventions when removing LFHD due to limited data. CONCLUSION:For patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis, the HFHD, HD+HP and HDF may better protect RRF, compared with LFHD.
Project description:Two dialysis patients developed recurrent restless legs syndrome. The clinical courses and the association between the ?1-microglobulin removal rate and the therapeutic effects of hemodiafiltration were analyzed. Case 1: a middle-aged woman was switched from predilution online hemodiafiltration to hemodialysis, following which the ?1-microglobulin removal rate decreased from 39.1 to 29.9%. A month later, the severe restless legs syndrome occurred. The treatment was then switched to high-efficiency hemodiafiltration and 2 weeks later, these symptoms were resolved. The ?1-microglobulin removal rate increased to 41.9%. Her symptoms recurred 5 years later with severity; thus, the hemodiafiltration treatment conditions were changed. Under revised conditions, the ?1-microglobulin removal rate was 42.6%, and her symptoms were alleviated. Continuation of high-efficiency hemodiafiltration led to the resolution of the syndrome at 1 month after recurrence. Case 2: a middle-aged man on hemodialysis developed the restless legs syndrome in the second year of treatment. The ?1-microglobulin removal rate was 23.8%. After switching to a month-long high-efficiency hemodiafiltration with a removal rate of???40%, his symptoms were resolved. However, the syndrome recurred after a year with severity. The symptoms were alleviated using various measures. The hemodiafilters were changed, and hemodiafiltration with an ?1-microglobulin removal rate of???40% was continued; 2 months later, his symptoms resolved. High-efficiency online hemodiafiltration is an effective therapeutic strategy for restless legs syndrome in dialysis patients. We found, for the first time, that target removal efficiency is an ?1-microglobulin removal rate of 40% or higher.