Long QT syndrome and life threatening arrhythmia in a newborn: molecular diagnosis and treatment response.
ABSTRACT: Intrauterine and neonatal manifestations of congenital long QT syndrome are associated with a high cardiac risk, particularly when atrioventricular block and excessive QT prolongation (> 600 ms(1/2)) are present. In a female newborn with these features, treatment with propranolol and mexiletine led to complete reduction of arrhythmia that was maintained 1.5 years later. High throughput genetic analysis found a sodium channel gene (LQT3) mutation. Disappearance of the 2:1 atrioventricular block and QTc shortening (from 740 ms(1/2) to 480 ms(1/2)), however, was achieved when mexiletine was added to propranolol. This effect was considered to be possibly genotype related. Early onset forms of long QT syndrome may benefit from advanced genotyping.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Long QT3 syndrome type 3 (LQT3) is a gain of function mutation of the SCN5A gene that is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Long QT3 syndrome type 3 results in an increase in arrhythmic events during rest, sleep, and bradycardia by extending the QT interval and inducing Torsades de pointes and sudden cardiac death. Attempting to block the sodium channel with Class I anti-arrhythmics or blocking adrenergic tone with beta-blockers especially in women has shown to be beneficial. There have been few large-scale studies on treating patients with LQT3 due to its lethality and underreported number of cases. Specifically, the safety and efficacy of pharmacologic treatment in pregnant LQT3 patients are unknown.<h4>Case summary</h4>This case demonstrates the safe use of Mexiletine and Propranolol in a 3rd-trimester pregnant LQT3 patient after a presumed ventricular arrhythmia and device-lead electrical short from therapy rendered her implantable cardioverter defibrillator inoperable in a VVI mode (venticular demand pacing). With appropriate medications, the patient was safely monitored through the remainder of her pregnancy and safely delivered at 36 weeks of pregnancy a healthy baby girl. The daughter, heterozygous for LQT3, showed no evidence of intrauterine growth restriction or other side effects from the medications.<h4>Discussion</h4>There are many variants of the SCN5A gene mutations that can lead to different phenotypes and not all mutations are responsive to the same medications. In this case, Mexiletine and Propranolol, both of which have only recently shown to benefit certain variants or LQT3 respectively, were safely started during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy without harming the foetus.
Project description:Inherited cardiac arrhythmia susceptibility contributes to sudden death during infancy and may contribute to perinatal and neonatal mortality, but the molecular basis of this risk and the relationship to genetic disorders presenting later in life is unclear. We studied the functional and pharmacological properties of a novel de novo cardiac sodium channel gene (SCN5A) mutation associated with an extremely severe perinatal presentation of long-QT syndrome in unrelated probands of different ethnicity.Two subjects exhibiting severe fetal and perinatal ventricular arrhythmias were screened for SCN5A mutations, and the functional properties of a novel missense mutation (G1631D) were determined by whole-cell patch clamp recording. In vitro electrophysiological studies revealed a profound defect in sodium channel function characterized by approximately 10-fold slowing of inactivation, increased persistent current, slowing of recovery from inactivation, and depolarized voltage dependence of activation and inactivation. Single-channel recordings demonstrated increased frequency of late openings, prolonged mean open time, and increased latency to first opening for the mutant. Subjects carrying this mutation responded clinically to the combination of mexiletine with propranolol and survived. Pharmacologically, the mutant exhibited 2-fold greater tonic and use-dependent mexiletine block than wild-type channels. The mutant also exhibited enhanced tonic (2.4-fold) and use-dependent block ( approximately 5-fold) by propranolol, and we observed additive effects of the 2 drugs on the mutant.Our study demonstrates the molecular basis for a malignant perinatal presentation of long-QT syndrome, illustrates novel functional and pharmacological properties of SCN5A-G1631D, which caused the disorder, and reveals therapeutic benefits of propranolol block of mutant sodium channels in this setting.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Early diagnosis of long QT type 3 (LQT3) syndrome during the neonatal period is of paramount clinical importance. LQT3 syndrome results in increased mortality and a mutation-specific response to treatment compared to other more common types of LQT syndrome. Mexiletine, a sodium channel blocker, demonstrates a mutation-specific QTc shortening effect in LQT3 syndrome patients. <b>Case Presentation:</b> A neonate manifested marked QTc prolongation after birth. An electrocardiogram (ECG) recording was performed due to positive family history of genetically confirmed LQT3 syndrome (SCN5A gene missense mutation Tyr1795Cys), and an association with sudden cardiac death was found in family members. The mexiletine QTc normalizing effect (QTc shortening from 537 to 443 ms), practical issues related to oral mexiletine treatment of our young patient, along with a literature review regarding identification and mexiletine treatment in infants with LQT3 syndrome are presented. <b>Conclusions:</b> Mexiletine could be considered in the treatment of high-risk LQT3 patients already in the neonatal period in addition to b-blocker therapy. Availability of standardized commercial mexiletine pediatric formulas, serum mexiletine level analyses, and future prospective studies are needed to evaluate the potential beneficial effect of early mexiletine treatment on the incidence of future acute cardiac events in these high-risk LQT syndrome patients.
Project description:Fetal arrhythmias characteristic of long QT syndrome (LQTS) include torsades de pointes (TdP) and/or 2° atrioventricular block, but sinus bradycardia, defined as fetal heart rate<3% for gestational age, is most common. We hypothesized that prenatal rhythm phenotype might predict LQTS genotype and facilitate improved risk stratification and management.Records of subjects exhibiting fetal LQTS arrhythmias were reviewed. Fetal echocardiograms, neonatal ECG, and genetic testing were evaluated. We studied 43 subjects exhibiting fetal LQTS arrhythmias: TdP±2° atrioventricular block (group 1, n=7), isolated 2° atrioventricular block (group 2, n=4), and sinus bradycardia (group 3, n=32). Mutations in known LQTS genes were found in 95% of subjects tested. SCN5A mutations occurred in 71% of group 1, whereas 91% of subjects with KCNQ1 mutations were in group 3. Small numbers of subjects with KCNH2 mutations (n=4) were scattered in all 3 groups. Age at presentation did not differ among groups, and most subjects (n=42) were live-born with gestational ages of 37.5±2.8 weeks (mean±SD). However, those with TdP were typically delivered earlier. Prenatal treatment in group 1 terminated (n=2) or improved (n=4) TdP. The neonatal heart rate-corrected QT interval (mean±SE) of group 1 (664.7±24.9) was longer than neonatal heart rate-corrected QT interval in both group 2 (491.2±27.6; P=0.004) and group 3 (483.1±13.7; P<0.001). Despite medical and pacemaker therapy, postnatal cardiac arrest (n=4) or sudden death (n=1) was common among subjects with fetal/neonatal TdP.Rhythm phenotypes of fetal LQTS have genotype-suggestive features that, along with heart rate-corrected QT interval duration, may risk stratify perinatal management.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>This study sought to determine the relationship between long QT syndrome (LQTS) subtype (LTQ1, LTQ2, LTQ3) and postnatal cardiac events (CEs).<h4>Background</h4>LQTS presenting with 2:1 atrioventricular block or torsades de pointes in the fetus and/or neonate has been associated with risk for major CEs, but overall outcomes and predictors remain unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>A retrospective study involving 25 international centers evaluated the course of fetuses/newborns diagnosed with congenital LQTS and either 2:1 atrioventricular block or torsades de pointes. The primary outcomes were age at first CE after dismissal from the newborn hospitalization and death and/or cardiac transplantation during follow-up. CE was defined as aborted cardiac arrest, appropriate shock from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, or sudden cardiac death.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 84 fetuses and/or neonates were identified with LQTS (12 as LQT1, 35 as LQT2, 37 as LQT3). Median gestational age at delivery was 37 weeks (interquartile range: 35 to 39 weeks) and age at hospital discharge was 3 weeks (interquartile range: 2 to 5 weeks). Fetal demise occurred in 2 and pre-discharge death in 1. Over a median of 5.2 years, there were 1 LQT1, 3 LQT2, and 23 LQT3 CEs (13 aborted cardiac arrests, 5 sudden cardiac deaths, and 9 appropriate shocks). One patient with LQT1 and 11 patients with LQT3 died or received cardiac transplant during follow-up. The only multivariate predictor of post-discharge CEs was LQT3 status (LQT3 vs. LQT2: hazard ratio: 8.4; 95% confidence interval: 2.6 to 38.9; p < 0.001), and LQT3, relative to LQT2, genotype predicted death and/or cardiac transplant (p < 0.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this large multicenter study, fetuses and/or neonates with LQT3 but not those with LQT1 or LQT2 presenting with severe arrhythmias were at high risk of not only frequent, but lethal CEs.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a heterogeneous collection of inherited cardiac ion channelopathies characterized by a prolonged electrocardiogram QT interval and increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Beta-adrenergic blockers are the mainstay of treatment for LQTS. While their efficacy has been demonstrated in LQTS patients harbouring potassium channel mutations, studies of beta-blockers in subtype 3 (LQT3), which is caused by sodium channel mutations, have produced ambiguous results. In this modelling study, we explore the effects of beta-adrenergic drugs on the LQT3 phenotype.<h4>Methods and results</h4>In order to investigate the effects of beta-adrenergic activity and to identify sources of ambiguity in earlier studies, we developed a computational model incorporating the effects of beta-agonists and beta-blockers into an LQT3 mutant guinea pig ventricular myocyte model. Beta-activation suppressed two arrhythmogenic phenomena, transmural dispersion of repolarization and early after depolarizations, in a dose-dependent manner. However, the ability of beta-activation to prevent cardiac conduction block was pacing-rate-dependent. Low-dose beta-blockade by propranolol reversed the beneficial effects of beta-activation, while high dose (which has off-target sodium channel effects) decreased arrhythmia susceptibility.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These results demonstrate that beta-activation may be protective in LQT3 and help to reconcile seemingly conflicting results from different experimental models. They also highlight the need for well-controlled clinical investigations re-evaluating the use of beta-blockers in LQT3 patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The basic defect in long-QT syndrome type III (LQT3) is an excessive inflow of sodium current during phase 3 of the action potential caused by mutations in the SCN5A gene. Most sodium channel blockers reduce the early (peak) and late components of the sodium current (INa and INaL), but ranolazine preferentially reduces INaL. We, therefore, evaluated the effects of ranolazine in LQT3 caused by the D1790G mutation in SCN5A. METHODS AND RESULTS:We performed an experimental study of ranolazine in TSA201 cells expressing the D1790G mutation. We then performed a long-term clinical evaluation of ranolazine in LQT3 patients carrying the D1790G mutation. In the experimental study, INaL was significantly higher in D1790G than in wild-type channels expressed in the TSA201 cells. Ranolazine exerted a concentration-dependent block of INaL of the SCN5A-D1790G channel without reducing peak INa significantly. In the clinical study, among 8 patients with LQT3 and confirmed D1790G mutation, ranolazine had no effects on the sinus rate or QRS width but shortened the QTc from 509±41 to 451±26 ms, a mean decrease of 56±52 ms (10.6%; P=0.012). The QT-shortening effect of ranolazine remained effective throughout the entire study period of 22.8±12.8 months. Ranolazine reduced the QTc at all heart rates but less so during extreme nocturnal bradycardia. A type I Brugada ECG was never noticed. CONCLUSIONS:Ranolazine blocks INaL in experimental models of LQT3 harboring the SCN5A-D1790G mutation and shortened the QT interval of LQT3 patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01728025.
Project description:RATIONALE:Mutations in the SCN5A gene, encoding the ? subunit of the Nav1.5 channel, cause a life-threatening form of cardiac arrhythmia, long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3). Mexiletine, which is structurally related to the Na+ channel-blocking anesthetic lidocaine, is used to treat LQT3 patients. However, the patient response is variable, depending on the genetic mutation in SCN5A. OBJECTIVE:The goal of this study is to understand the molecular basis of patients' variable responses and build a predictive statistical model that can be used to personalize mexiletine treatment based on patient's genetic variant. METHODS AND RESULTS:We monitored the cardiac Na+ channel voltage-sensing domain (VSD) conformational dynamics simultaneously with other gating properties for the LQT3 variants. To systematically identify the relationship between mexiletine block and channel biophysical properties, we used a system-based statistical modeling approach to connect the multivariate properties to patient phenotype. We found that mexiletine altered the conformation of the Domain III VSD, which is the same VSD that many tested LQT3 mutations affect. Analysis of 15 LQT3 variants showed a strong correlation between the activation of the Domain III-VSD and the strength of the inhibition of the channel by mexiletine. Based on this improved molecular-level understanding, we generated a systems-based model based on a dataset of 32 LQT3 patients, which then successfully predicted the response of 7 out of 8 patients to mexiletine in a blinded, retrospective trial. CONCLUSIONS:Our results imply that the modulated receptor theory of local anesthetic action, which confines local anesthetic binding effects to the channel pore, should be revised to include drug interaction with the Domain III-VSD. Using an algorithm that incorporates this mode of action, we can predict patient-specific responses to mexiletine, improving therapeutic decision making.
Project description:Drug-induced long QT syndrome has resulted in many drugs being withdrawn from the market. At the same time, the current regulatory paradigm for screening new drugs causing long QT syndrome is preventing drugs from reaching the market, sometimes inappropriately. In this study, we report the results of a first-of-a-kind clinical trial studying late sodium (mexiletine and lidocaine) and calcium (diltiazem) current blocking drugs to counteract the effects of hERG potassium channel blocking drugs (dofetilide and moxifloxacin). We demonstrate that both mexiletine and lidocaine substantially reduce heart-rate corrected QT (QTc) prolongation from dofetilide by 20 ms. Furthermore, all QTc shortening occurs in the heart-rate corrected J-Tpeak (J-Tpeak c) interval, the biomarker we identified as a sign of late sodium current block. This clinical trial demonstrates that late sodium blocking drugs can substantially reduce QTc prolongation from hERG potassium channel block and assessment of J-Tpeak c may add value beyond only assessing QTc.
Project description:Congenital long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3) is the third in frequency compared to the 15 forms known currently of congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS). Cardiac events are less frequent in LQT3 when compared with LQT1 and LQT2, but more likely to be lethal; the likelihood of dying during a cardiac event is 20% in families with an LQT3 mutation and 4% with either an LQT1 or an LQT2 mutation. LQT3 is consequence of mutation of gene SCN5A which codes for the Nav1.5 Na+ channel ?-subunit and electrocardiographically characterized by a tendency to bradycardia related to age, prolonged QT/QTc interval (mean QTc value 478 ± 52 ms), accentuated QT dispersion consequence of prolonged ST segment, late onset of T wave and frequent prominent U wave because of longer repolarization of the M cell across left ventricular wall.