Phosphate concentration regulates transcription of the Acinetobacter polyhydroxyalkanoic acid biosynthetic genes.
ABSTRACT: The polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) biosynthetic gene locus was cloned and characterized from an Acinetobacter sp. isolated from activated sludge. Nucleotide sequence analysis identified three clustered genes, phaAAc (encoding a beta-ketothiolase), phaBAc (encoding an acetoacetyl coenzyme A reductase), and phaCAc (encoding a PHA synthase). In addition, an open reading frame (ORF1) with potential to encode a 13-kDa protein was identified within this locus. The sequence of the putative translational product of ORF1 does not show significant similarity to any sequences in the database. A plasmid containing the Acinetobacter pha locus conferred the ability to accumulate poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate on its Escherichia coli host. These genes appear to lie in an operon transcribed by two promoters upstream of phaBAc, an apparent constitutive promoter, and a second promoter induced by phosphate starvation and under pho regulon control. These as well as a number of additional potential transcription start points were identified by a combination of primer extension and promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene fusion studies carried out in Acinetobacter or E. coli transformants.
Project description:The polyhydroxyalkanoic acid synthase gene from Chromobacterium violaceum (phaC(Cv)) was cloned and characterized. A 6.3-kb BamHI fragment was found to contain both phaC(Cv) and the polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA)-specific 3-ketothiolase (phaA(Cv)). Escherichia coli strains harboring this fragment produced significant levels of PHA synthase and 3-ketothiolase, as judged by their activities. While C. violaceum accumulated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) or poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) when grown on a fatty acid carbon source, Klebsiella aerogenes and Ralstonia eutropha (formerly Alcaligenes eutrophus), harboring phaC(Cv), accumulated the above-mentioned polymers and, additionally, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) when even-chain-length fatty acids were utilized as the carbon source. This finding suggests that the metabolic environments of these organisms are sufficiently different to alter the product range of the C. violaceum PHA synthase. Neither recombinant E. coli nor recombinant Pseudomonas putida harboring phaC(Cv) accumulated significant levels of PHA. Sequence analysis of the phaC(Cv) product shows homology with several PHA synthases, most notably a 48% identity with that of Alcaligenes latus (GenBank accession no. AAD10274).
Project description:Two types of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biosynthesis gene loci (phb and pha) of Pseudomonas sp. strain 61-3, which produces a blend of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] homopolymer and a random copolymer (poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyalkanoate) [P(3HB-co-3HA]) consisting of 3HA units of 4 to 12 carbon atoms, were cloned and analyzed at the molecular level. In the phb locus, three open reading frames encoding polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthase (PhbCPs), beta-ketothiolase (PhbAPs), and NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl coenzyme A reductase (PhbBPs) were found. The genetic organization showed a putative promoter region, followed by phbBPs-phbAPs-phbCPs. Upstream from phbBPs was found the phbRPs gene, which exhibits significant similarity to members of the AraC/XylS family of transcriptional activators. The phbRPs gene was found to be transcribed in the opposite direction from the three structural genes. Cloning of phbRPs in a relatively high-copy vector in Pseudomonas sp. strain 61-3 elevated the levels of beta-galactosidase activity from a transcriptional phb promoter-lacZ fusion and also enhanced the 3HB fraction in the polyesters synthesized by this strain, suggesting that PhbRPs is a positive regulatory protein controlling the transcription of phbBACPs in this bacterium. In the pha locus, two genes encoding PHA synthases (PhaC1Ps and PhaC2Ps) were flanked by a PHA depolymerase gene (phaZPs), and two adjacent open reading frames (ORF1 and phaDPs), and the gene order was ORF1, phaC1Ps, phaZPs, phaC2Ps, and phaDPs. Heterologous expression of the cloned fragments in PHA-negative mutants of Pseudomonas putida and Ralstonia eutropha revealed that PHB synthase and two PHA synthases of Pseudomonas sp. strain 61-3 were specific for short chain length and both short and medium chain length 3HA units, respectively.
Project description:Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 possesses a polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-specific beta-ketothiolase encoded by phaA(Syn) and an acetoacetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) reductase encoded by phaB(Syn). A similarity search of the entire Synechocystis genome sequence identified a cluster of two putative open reading frames (ORFs) for these genes, slr1993 and slr1994. Sequence analysis showed that the ORFs encode proteins having 409 and 240 amino acids, respectively. The two ORFs are colinear and most probably coexpressed, as revealed by sequence analysis of the promoter regions. Heterologous transformation of Escherichia coli with the two genes and the PHA synthase of Synechocystis resulted in accumulation of PHAs that accounted for up to 12.3% of the cell dry weight under high-glucose growth conditions. Targeted disruption of the above gene cluster in Synechocystis eliminated the accumulation of PHAs. ORFs slr1993 and slr1994 thus encode the PHA-specific beta-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase of Synechocystis and, together with the recently characterized PHA synthase genes in this organism (S. Hein, H. Tran, and A. Steinbüchel, Arch. Microbiol. 170:162-170, 1998), form the first complete PHA biosynthesis pathway known in cyanobacteria. Sequence alignment of all known short-chain-length PHA-specific acetoacetyl-CoA reductases also suggests an extended signature sequence, VTGXXXGIG, for this group of proteins. Phylogenetic analysis further places the origin of phaA(Syn) and phaB(Syn) in the gamma subdivision of the division Proteobacteria.
Project description:Polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHAs) are a class of polyesters stored in inclusion bodies and found in many bacteria and in some archaea. The terminal step in the synthesis of PHA is catalyzed by PHA synthase. Genes encoding this enzyme have been cloned, and the primary sequence of the protein, PhaC, is deduced from the nucleotide sequences of more than 30 organisms. PHA synthases are grouped into three classes based on substrate range, molecular mass, and whether or not there is a requirement for phaE in addition to the phaC gene product. Here we report the results of an analysis of a PHA synthase that does not fit any of the described classes. This novel PHA synthase from Bacillus megaterium required PhaC (PhaC(Bm)) and PhaR (PhaR(Bm)) for activity in vivo and in vitro. PhaC(Bm) showed greatest similarity to the PhaCs of class III in both size and sequence. Unlike those in class III, the 40-kDa PhaE was not required, and furthermore, the 22-kDa PhaR(Bm) had no obvious homology to PhaE. Previously we showed that PhaC(Bm), and here we show that PhaR(Bm), is localized to inclusion bodies in living cells. We show that two forms of PHA synthase exist, an active form in PHA-accumulating cells and an inactive form in nonaccumulating cells. PhaC was constitutively produced in both cell types but was more susceptible to protease degradation in the latter type. Our data show that the role of PhaR is posttranscriptional and that it functions directly or indirectly with PhaC(Bm) to produce an active PHA synthase.
Project description:The polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) granule-associated 16-kDa protein (GA16 protein) of Paracoccus denitrificans was identified, and its corresponding gene was cloned and analyzed at the molecular level. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of GA16 protein revealed that its structural gene is located downstream from the PHA synthase gene (phaCPd) cloned recently (S. Ueda, T. Yabutani, A. Maehara, and T. Yamane, J. Bacteriol. 178:774-779, 1996). Gene walking around phaCPd revealed two new open reading frames (ORFs) possibly related to PHA synthesis, one of which was the phaPPd gene, encoding GA16 protein, and the other was the phaRPd gene, encoding a protein that is putatively involved in the regulation of the expression of phaPPd. Overproduction of PhaPPd was observed in Escherichia coli carrying phaPPd, but the overproduction was not observed in the presence of phaRPd. Coexpression of phaPPd and PHA biosynthesis genes in E. coli caused increases in both the number of poly-(3-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) granules and PHB content and caused decreases in both the size of the granules and the molecular weight of PHB. GA16 protein was considered a phasin protein. The phaRPd gene had significant similarities to stdC, a possible transcriptional factor of Comamonas testosteroni, as well as to other ORFs of unknown function previously found in other PHA-synthetic bacteria.
Project description:A 5.0-kbp genomic EcoRI restriction fragment which complemented a third subclass of polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA)-leaky mutants of A. eutrophus that accumulated PHA at a lower rate than the wild type was cloned from Alcaligenes eutrophus H16. A 687-bp phaPAe gene on this fragment encoded a 24-kDa protein (M(r) = 23,963), which was referred to as the GA24 protein. The GA24 protein was solubilized from the granules and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity, and antibodies against the GA24 protein were obtained. The GA24 protein bound to the surface of PHA granules, as revealed by immunoelectron microscopy of whole cells and of artificial PHA granules. The GA24 protein contributed approximately 5% (wt/wt) of the total cellular protein, and it was the predominant protein present in the granules. It was synthesized only in cells accumulating PHA and only in amounts that could be bound to the granules; no soluble GA24 protein was detected. Tn5::mob-induced phaPAe mutants which were unable to synthesize intact GA24 protein formed only one large PHA granule per cell. The amino acid sequence of the GA24 protein revealed two closely related stretches consisting exclusively of nonhydrophilic amino acids at the C-terminal region, which are presumably involved in the binding of GA24 to the granules, as was recently proposed for a similar protein in Rhodococcus ruber. The GA24 protein seems to be a representative of phasins, which are a new class of protein that form a layer at the surface of PHA granules, like oleosins, which form a layer at the surface of triacylglycerol inclusions in oilseed plants.
Project description:The nutrition-versatility of Burkholderia sp. strain USM (JCM 15050) has initiated the studies on the use of this bacterium for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production. To date, the Burkholderia sp. has been reported to synthesize 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxyvalerate and 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate monomers. In this study, the PHA biosynthetic genes of this strain were successfully cloned and characterized. The PHA biosynthetic cluster of this strain consisted of a PHA synthase (phaC), ?-ketothiolase (phaA), acetoacetyl-CoA reductase (phaB) and PHA synthesis regulator (phaR). The translated products of these genes revealed identities to corresponding proteins of Burkholderia vietnamiensis (99-100?%) and Cupriavidus necator H16 (63-89%). Heterologous expression of phaCBs conferred PHA synthesis to the PHA-negative Cupriavidus necator PHB¯4, confirming that phaCBs encoded functionally active protein. PHA synthase activity measurements revealed that the crude extracts of C. necator PHB¯4 transformant showed higher synthase activity (243 U/g) compared to that of wild-types Burkholderia sp. (151 U/g) and C. necator H16 (180 U/g). Interestingly, the transformant C. necator PHB¯4 harbouring Burkholderia sp. PHA synthase gene accumulated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) with 4-hydroxybutyrate monomer as high as up to 87?mol% from sodium 4-hydroxybutyrate. The wild type Burkholderia sp. did not have the ability to produce this copolymer.
Project description:A psychrotrophic bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens BM07, which is able to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) containing large amounts of 3-hydroxy-cis-5-dodecenoate unit up to 35 mol% in the cell from unrelated substrates such as fructose, succinate, etc., was isolated from an activated sludge in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. When it was grown on heptanoic acid (C(7)) to hexadecanoic acid (C(16)) as the sole carbon source, the monomer compositional characteristics of the synthesized PHA were similar to those observed in other fluorescent pseudomonads belonging to rRNA homology group I. However, growth on stearic acid (C(18)) led to no PHA accumulation, but instead free stearic acid was stored in the cell. The existence of the linkage between fatty acid de novo synthesis and PHA synthesis was confirmed by using inhibitors such as acrylic acid and two other compounds, 2-bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid, which are known to inhibit beta-oxidation enzymes in animal cells. Acrylic acid completely inhibited PHA synthesis at a concentration of 4 mM in 40 mM octanoate-grown cells, but no inhibition of PHA synthesis occurred in 70 mM fructose-grown cells in the presence of 1 to 5 mM acrylic acid. 2-Bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid were found to much inhibit PHA synthesis much more strongly in fructose-grown cells than in octanoate-grown cells over concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 mM. However, 2-bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid did not inhibit cell growth at all in the fructose media. Especially, with the cells grown on fructose, 2-bromooctanoic acid exhibited a steep rise in the percent PHA synthesis inhibition over a small range of concentrations below 100 microM, a finding indicative of a very specific inhibition, whereas 4-pentenoic acid showed a broad, featureless concentration dependence, suggesting a rather nonspecific inhibition. The apparent inhibition constant K(i) (the concentration for 50% inhibition of PHA synthesis) for 2-bromooctanoic acid was determined to be 60 microM, assuming a single-site binding of the inhibitor at a specific inhibition site. Thus, it seems likely that a coenzyme A thioester derivative of 2-bromooctanoic acid specifically inhibits an enzyme linking the two pathways, fatty acid de novo synthesis and PHA synthesis. We suggest that 2-bromooctanoic acid can substitute for the far more expensive (2,000 times) and cell-growth-inhibiting PHA synthesis inhibitor, cerulenin.
Project description:The polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene of Comamonas acidovorans DS-17 (phaCCa) was cloned by using the synthase gene of Alcaligenes eutrophus as a heterologous hybridization probe. Complete sequencing of a 4.0-kbp SmaI-HindIII (SH40) subfragment revealed the presence of a 1,893-bp PHA synthase coding region which was followed by a 1,182-bp beta-ketothiolase gene (phaACa). Both the translated products of these genes showed significant identity, 51.1 and 74.2%, respectively, to the primary structures of the products of the corresponding genes in A. eutrophus. The arrangement of PHA biosynthesis genes in C. acidovorans was also similar to that in A. eutrophus except that the third gene, phaB, coding for acetoacetyl-coenzyme A reductase, was not found in the region downstream of phaACa. The cloned fragment complemented a PHA-negative mutant of A. eutrophus, PHB-4, resulting in poly-3-hydroxybutyrate accumulation of up to 73% of the dry cell weight when fructose was the carbon source. The heterologous expression enabled the incorporation of 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) and 3-hydroxyvalerate monomers. The PHA synthase of C. acidovorans does not appear to show any preference for 4-hydroxybutyryl-coenzyme A as a substrate. This leads to the suggestion that in C. acidovorans, it is the metabolic pathway, and not the specificity of the organism's PHA synthase, that drives the incorporation of 4HB monomers, resulting in the efficient accumulation of PHA with a high 4HB content.
Project description:1. The enzymes beta-ketothiolase, acetoacetyl-CoA reductase, acetoacetate-succinate CoA-transferase (;thiophorase') and d(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase have been partially purified from crude extracts of glucose-grown nitrogen-fixing batch cultures of Azotobacter beijerinckii. The condensation of acetyl-CoA to acetoacetyl-CoA catalysed by beta-ketothiolase is inhibited by CoASH, and the reverse reaction is inhibited by acetoacetyl-CoA. Acetoacetyl-CoA reductase has K(m) for acetoacetyl-CoA of 1.8mum and is inhibited by acetoacetyl-CoA above 10mum. The enzyme utilizes either NADH or NADPH as electron donor. The second enzyme of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate degradation, d(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, is NAD(+)-specific and is inhibited by NADH, pyruvate and alpha-oxoglutarate. CoA transferase is inhibited by acetoacetate, the product of hydroxybutyrate oxidation. In continuous cultures poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis ceased on relaxation of oxygen-limitation and the rates in situ of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution of such cultures increased without a concomitant increase in glucose uptake. 2. On the basis of these and other findings a cyclic mechanism for the biosynthesis and degradation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate is proposed, together with a regulatory scheme suggesting that poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate metabolism is controlled by the redox state of the cell and the availability of CoASH, pyruvate and alpha-oxoglutarate. beta-Ketothiolase plays a key role in the regulatory process. Similarities to the pathways of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis and degradation in Hydrogenomonas are discussed.