Cloning and characterization of the Streptomyces peucetius dnrQS genes encoding a daunosamine biosynthesis enzyme and a glycosyl transferase involved in daunorubicin biosynthesis.
ABSTRACT: The dnrQS genes from the daunorubicin producer Streptomyces peucetius were characterized by DNA sequencing, complementation analysis, and gene disruption. The dnrQ gene is required for daunosamine biosynthesis, and dnrS appears to encode a glycosyltransferase for the addition of the 2,3,6-trideoxy-3-aminohexose, daunosamine, to epsilon-rhodomycinone.
Project description:Sequence analysis of a 3.4-kb region Streptomyces peucetius daunorubicin (DNR) gene cluster established the presence of the dnrH and dnmT genes. In dnrH mutants, DNR production increased 8.5-fold, compared with that in the wild-type strain, while dnmT mutants accumulated epsilon-rhodomycinone (RHO), which normally becomes glycosylated in daunorubicin biosynthesis. Hence, dnmT may be involved in the biosynthesis or attachment of daunosamine to RHO or in the regulation of this process. Since the DnrH protein is similar to known glycosyl transferases, this protein may catalyze the conversion of DNR to its polyglycosylated forms, known as baumycins. Overexpression of dnmT in the wild-type and dnrH mutant strains resulted in a major decrease in RHO accumulation and increase in DNR production.
Project description:Two DNA segments, dnrR1 and dnrR2, from the Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 29050 genome were identified by their ability to stimulate secondary metabolite production and resistance. When introduced into the wild-type ATCC 29050 strain, the 2.0-kb dnrR1 segment caused a 10-fold overproduction of epsilon-rhodomycinone, a key intermediate of daunorubicin biosynthesis, whereas the 1.9-kb dnrR2 segment increased production of both epsilon-rhodomycinone and daunorubicin 10- and 2-fold, respectively. In addition, the dnrR2 segment restored high-level daunorubicin resistance to strain H6101, a daunorubicin-sensitive mutant of S. peucetius subsp. caesius ATCC 27952. Analysis of the sequence of the dnrR1 fragment revealed the presence of two closely situated open reading frames, dnrI and dnrJ, whose deduced products exhibit high similarity to the products of several other Streptomyces genes that have been implicated in the regulation of secondary metabolism. Insertional inactivation of dnrI in the ATCC 29050 strain with the Tn5 kanamycin resistance gene abolished epsilon-rhodomycinone and daunorubicin production and markedly decreased resistance to daunorubicin. Sequence comparison between the products of dnrIJ and the products of the Streptomyces coelicolor actII-orf4, afsR, and redD-orf1 genes and of the Streptomyces griseus strS, the Saccharopolyspora erythraea eryC1, and the Bacillus stearothermophilus degT genes reveals two families of putative regulatory genes. The members of the DegT, DnrJ, EryC1, and StrS family exhibit some of the features characteristic of the protein kinase (sensor) component of two-component regulatory systems from other bacteria (even though none of the sequences of these four proteins show a significant overall or regional similarity to such protein kinases) and have a consensus helix-turn-helix motif typical of DNA binding proteins. A helix-turn-helix motif is also present in two of the proteins of the other family, AfsR and RedD-Orf1. Both sets of Streptomyces proteins are likely to be trans-acting factors involved in regulating secondary metabolism.
Project description:Characterization of the dnmZ, dnmU, and dnmV genes from the daunorubicin-producer Streptomyces peucetius by DNA sequence analysis indicated that these genes encode a protein of unknown function plus a putative thymidine diphospho-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose-3(5)-epimerase and thymidine diphospho-4-ketodeoxyhexulose reductase, respectively. Inactivation of each of the three genes by gene disruption and replacement in the wild-type strain demonstrated that all of them are required for daunosamine biosynthesis.
Project description:The Streptomyces peucetius dpsY and dnrX genes govern early and late steps in the biosynthesis of the clinically valuable antitumor drugs daunorubicin (DNR) and doxorubicin (DXR). Although their deduced products resemble those of genes thought to be involved in antibiotic production in several other bacteria, this information could not be used to identify the functions of dpsY and dnrX. Replacement of dpsY with a mutant form disrupted by insertion of the aphII neomycin-kanamycin resistance gene resulted in the accumulation of UWM5, the C-19 ethyl homolog of SEK43, a known shunt product of iterative polyketide synthases involved in the biosynthesis of aromatic polyketides. Hence, DpsY must act along with the other components of the DNR-DXR polyketide synthase to form 12-deoxyaklanonic acid, the earliest known intermediate of the DXR pathway. Mutation of dnrX in the same way resulted in a threefold increase in DXR production and the disappearance of two acid-sensitive, unknown compounds from culture extracts. These results suggest that dnrX, analogous to the role of the S. peucetius dnrH gene (C. Scotti and C. R. Hutchinson, J. Bacteriol. 178:73167321, 1996), may be involved in the metabolism of DNR and/or DXR to acid-sensitive compounds, possibly related to the baumycins found in many DNR-producing bacteria.
Project description:D-Tetronitrose is a nitro-containing tetradeoxysugar found attached to the antitumor and antibacterial agent tetrocarcin A. The biosynthesis of this highly unusual sugar in Micromonospora chalcea requires 10 enzymes. The fifth step in the pathway involves the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to the C-3' carbon of dTDP-3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy-4-keto-D-glucose. The enzyme responsible for this transformation is referred to as TcaB9. It is a monomeric enzyme with a molecular architecture based around three domains. The N-terminal motif contains a binding site for a structural zinc ion. The middle- and C-terminal domains serve to anchor the SAM and dTDP-sugar ligands, respectively, to the protein, and the active site of TcaB9 is wedged between these two regions. For this investigation, the roles of Tyr 76, His 181, Tyr 222, Glu 224, and His 225, which form the active site of TcaB9, were probed by site-directed mutagenesis, kinetic analyses, and X-ray structural studies. In addition, two ternary complexes of the enzyme with bound S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and either dTDP-3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy-4-keto-D-glucose or dTDP-3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy-D-galactose were determined to 1.5 or 1.6 Å resolution, respectively. Taken together, these investigations highlight the important role of His 225 in methyl transfer. In addition, the structural data suggest that the methylation reaction occurs via retention of configuration about the C-3' carbon of the sugar.
Project description:Sequence analysis of the Streptomyces peucetius daunorubicin biosynthetic gene cluster revealed a partial (dnrQ) and two complete (dnrD and dnrP) open reading frames flanking dnrK. Bioconversion experiments showed that DnrD converts aklanonic acid methylester to aklaviketone and that DnrC is a methyltransferase that converts aklanonic acid to aklanonic acid methylester. The deduced dnrP gene product, homologous to known esterases, may catalyze the conversion of 10-carbomethoxy-13-deoxycarminomycin to its 10-carboxy derivative. The dnrKPQS genes may be transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA.
Project description:The drrC gene, cloned from the daunorubicin (DNR)- and doxorubicin-producing strain of Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 29050, encodes a 764-amino-acid protein with a strong sequence similarity to the Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus UvrA proteins involved in excision repair of DNA. Expression of drrC was correlated with the timing of DNR production in the growth medium tested and was not dependent on the presence of DNR. Since introduction of drrC into Streptomyces lividans imparted a DNR resistance phenotype, this gene is believed to be a DNR resistance gene. The drrC gene could be disrupted in the non-DNR-producing S. peucetius dnrJ mutant but not in the wild-type strain, and the resulting dnrJ drrC double mutant was significantly more sensitive to DNR in efficiency-of-plating experiments. Expression of drrC in an E. coli uvrA strain conferred significant DNR resistance to this highly DNR-sensitive mutant. However, the DrrC protein did not complement the uvrA mutation to protect the mutant from the lethal effects of UV or mitomycin even though it enhanced the UV resistance of a uvrA+ strain. We speculate that the DrrC protein mediates a novel type of DNR resistance, possibly different from the mechanism of DNR resistance governed by the S. peucetius drrAB genes, which are believed to encode a DNR antiporter.
Project description:Sequence analysis of the dnrR2 locus from the cluster of daunorubicin biosynthesis genes in Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 29050 has revealed the presence of two divergently transcribed open reading frames, dnrN and dnrO. The dnrN gene appears to encode a response regulator protein on the basis of conservation of the deduced amino acid sequence relative to those of known response regulators and the properties of the dnrN::aphII mutant. Surprisingly, amino acid substitutions (glutamate and asparagine) at the putative site of phosphorylation (aspartate 55) resulted in a reduction rather than a complete loss of DnrN activity. The deduced DnrO protein was found to be similar to the Streptomyces glaucescens tetracenomycin C resistance gene repressor (TcmR) and to two Escherichia coli repressors, the biotin operon repressor (BirA) and the tetracycline resistance gene repressor (TetR). The dnrN::aphII mutation was suppressed by introduction of the dnrI gene on a plasmid. Since the introduction of dnrN failed to restore antibiotic production to a dnrI::aphII mutant, these data suggest the presence of a regulatory cascade in which dnrN activates the transcription of dnrI, which in turn activates transcription of the daunorubicin biosynthesis genes.
Project description:Doxorubicin, one of the most widely used anticancer drugs, is composed of a tetracyclic polyketide aglycone and l-daunosamine as a deoxysugar moiety, which acts as an important determinant of its biological activity. This is exemplified by the fewer side effects of semisynthetic epirubicin (4'-epi-doxorubicin). An efficient combinatorial biosynthetic system that can convert the exogenous aglycone ?-rhodomycinone into diverse glycosylated derivatives of doxorubicin or its biosynthetic intermediates, rhodomycin D and daunorubicin, was developed through the use of Streptomyces venezuelae mutants carrying plasmids that direct the biosynthesis of different nucleotide deoxysugars and their transfer onto aglycone, as well as the postglycosylation modifications. This system improved epirubicin production from ?-rhodomycinone by selecting a substrate flexible glycosyltransferase, AknS, which was able to transfer the unnatural sugar donors and a TDP-4-ketohexose reductase, AvrE, which efficiently supported the biosynthesis of TDP-4-epi-l-daunosamine. Furthermore, a range of doxorubicin analogs containing diverse deoxysugar moieties, seven of which are novel rhodomycin D derivatives, were generated. This provides new insights into the functions of deoxysugar biosynthetic enzymes and demonstrates the potential of the S. venezuelae-based combinatorial biosynthetic system as a simple biological tool for modifying structurally complex sugar moieties attached to anthracyclines as an alternative to chemical syntheses for improving anticancer agents.