Cloning, purification, and properties of a phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).
ABSTRACT: We describe the isolation and characterization of a gene (ptpA) from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) that codes for a protein with a deduced M(r) of 17,690 containing significant amino acid sequence identity with mammalian and prokaryotic small, acidic phosphotyrosine protein phosphatases (PTPases). After expression of S. coelicolor ptpA in Escherichia coli with a pT7-7-based vector system, PtpA was purified to homogeneity as a fusion protein containing five extra amino acids. The purified fusion enzyme catalyzed the removal of phosphate from p-nitrophenylphosphate (PNPP), phosphotyrosine (PY), and a commercial phosphopeptide containing a single phosphotyrosine residue but did not cleave phosphoserine or phosphothreonine. The pH optima for PNPP and PY hydrolysis by PtpA were 6.0 and 6.5, respectively. The Km values for hydrolysis of PNPP and PY by PtpA were 0.75 mM (pH 6.0, 37 degrees C) and 2.7 mM (pH 6.5, 37 degrees C), respectively. Hydrolysis of PNPP by S. coelicolor PtpA were 0.75 mM (pH 6.0, 37 degrees C) and 2.7 mM (pH 6.5, 37 degrees C), respectively. Hydrolysis of PNPP by S. coelicolor PtpA was competitively inhibited by dephostatin with a Ki of 1.64 microM; the known PTPase inhibitors phenylarsine oxide, sodium vanadate, and iodoacetate also inhibited enzyme activity. Apparent homologs of ptpA were detected in other streptomycetes by Southern hybridization; the biological functions of PtpA and its putative homologs in streptomycetes are not yet known.
Project description:Genomic sequence analysis of Acinetobacter baumannii revealed the presence of a putative Acid Phosphatase (AcpA; EC 22.214.171.124). A plasmid construct was made, and recombinant protein (rAcpA) was expressed in E. coli. PAGE analysis (carried out under denaturing/reducing conditions) of nickel-affinity purified protein revealed the presence of a near-homogeneous band of approximately 37 kDa. The identity of the 37 kDa species was verified as rAcpA by proteomic analysis with a molecular mass of 34.6 kDa from the deduced sequence. The dependence of substrate hydrolysis on pH was broad with an optimum observed at 6.0. Kinetic analysis revealed relatively high affinity for PNPP (Km = 90 μM) with Vmax, kcat, and Kcat/Km values of 19.2 pmoles s-1, 4.80 s-1(calculated on the basis of 37 kDa), and 5.30 x 104 M-1s-1, respectively. Sensitivity to a variety of reagents, i.e., detergents, reducing, and chelating agents as well as classic acid phosphatase inhibitors was examined in addition to assessment of hydrolysis of a number of phosphorylated compounds. Removal of phosphate from different phosphorylated compounds is supportive of broad, i.e., 'nonspecific' substrate specificity; although, the enzyme appears to prefer phosphotyrosine and/or peptides containing phosphotyrosine in comparison to serine and threonine. Examination of the primary sequence indicated the absence of signature sequences characteristic of Type A, B, and C nonspecific bacterial acid phosphatases.
Project description:The major secreted isoenzyme of human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP) (EC 126.96.36.199), which catalyses p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP) hydrolysis at acid pH values, was found to have phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatase activity since it dephosphorylated three different phosphotyrosine-containing protein substrates. Several lines of evidence are presented to show that the phosphotyrosyl phosphatase and PAcP are the same enzyme. A highly purified PAcP enzyme preparation which contains a single N-terminal peptide sequence was used to test for the phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity. Both activities comigrated during gel filtration by high performance liquid chromatography. Phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity and PNPP acid phosphatase activity exhibited similar sensitivities to different effectors. Both phosphatase activities showed the same thermal stability. Specific anti-PAcP antibody reacted to the same extent with both phosphatase activities. PNPP acid phosphatase activity was competitively inhibited by the phosphotyrosyl phosphatase substrate. To characterize further the phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity, the Km values using different phosphoprotein substrates were determined. The apparent Km values for phosphorylated angiotensin II, anti-pp60src immunoglobulin G and casein were in the nM range for phosphotyrosine residues, which was about 50-fold lower than the Km for phosphoserine residues in casein.
Project description:4-Nitrophenyl phosphate (p-nitrophenyl phosphate, pNPP) is widely used as a small molecule phosphotyrosine-like substrate in activity assays for protein tyrosine phosphatases. It is a colorless substrate that upon hydrolysis is converted to a yellow 4-nitrophenolate ion that can be monitored by absorbance at 405 nm. Therefore, the pNPP assay has been widely adopted as a quick and simple method to assess phosphatase activity and is also commonly used in assays to screen for inhibitors. Here, the first crystal structure is presented of a dual-specificity phosphatase, human dual-specificity phosphatase 22 (DUSP22), in complex with pNPP. The structure illuminates the molecular basis for substrate binding and may also facilitate the structure-assisted development of DUSP22 inhibitors.
Project description:?-Neoagarobiose hydrolase plays an important role in saccharification processes of marine biomass. In this study, an ?-neoagarobiose hydrolase from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), designated as ScJC117, was identified, purified, and characterized. It has a sequence of 370 amino acids and belongs to the GH117 family. ScJC117 exhibited good activity under optimal hydrolysis conditions of pH 6.0 and 30°C, where it showed the K m and k cat for neoagarobiose of 11.57 mM and 0.48 s-1, respectively. ScJC117 showed the ability to hydrolyze neoagarooligosaccharides with the polymerization degrees of 2-14. A basis of catalytic activity toward the first ?-1,3-glycosidic bond of the neoagarooligosaccharides from the non-reducing end, ScJC117 can be classified as an exo-type ?-neoagarobiose hydrolase. These results suggested that ScJC117 could be used in the preparation of odd agarooligosaccharides (especially agaroheptaose-agaroundecaose) and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose, which has a functional food additive potential. Moreover, ScJC117 can be used for comprehensive utilization of red algae.
Project description:Phosphosignaling through pSer/pThr/pTyr is emerging as a common signaling mechanism in prokaryotes. The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces two low-molecular-weight protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), PtpA and PtpB, with unknown functions. To provide the structural context for understanding PtpA function and substrate recognition, establish PtpA's structural relations within the PTP family, and provide a framework for the design of specific inhibitors, we solved the crystal structure of PtpA at 1 Å resolution. While PtpA adopts the common, conserved PTP fold and shows close overall similarity to eukaryotic PTPs, several features in the active site and surface organization are unique and can be explored to design selective inhibitors. A peptide bound in the active site mimics a phosphotyrosine substrate, affords insight into substrate recognition, and provides a testable substrate prediction. Genetic deletion of ptpA or ptpB does not affect in vitro growth or cell wall integrity, raising the possibility that PtpA and PtpB have specialized functions during infection.
Project description:The biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharide (EPS) cepacian by Burkholderia cepacia complex strains requires the 16.2-kb bce cluster of genes. Two of the clustered genes, bceD and bceF, code for two proteins homologous to phosphotyrosine phosphatases and tyrosine kinases, respectively. We show experimental evidence indicating that BceF is phosphorylated on tyrosine and that the conserved lysine residue present at position 563 in the Walker A ATP-binding motif is required for this autophosphorylation. It was also proved that BceD is capable of dephosphorylating the phosphorylated BceF. Using the artificial substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP), BceD exhibited a V(max) of 8.8 mumol of PNPP min(-1) mg(-1) and a K(m) of 3.7 mM PNPP at 30 degrees C. The disruption of bceF resulted in the abolishment of cepacian accumulation in the culture medium, but 75% of the parental strain's EPS production yield was still registered for the bceD mutant. The exopolysaccharide produced by the bceD mutant led to less viscous solutions and exhibited the same degree of acetylation as the wild-type cepacian, suggesting a lower molecular mass for this mutant biopolymer. The size of the biofilm produced in vitro by bceD and bceF mutant strains is smaller than the size of the biofilm formed by the parental strain, and this phenotype was confirmed by complementation assays, indicating that BceD and BceF play a role in the establishment of biofilms of maximal size.
Project description:Proper activation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit is central for the complex PP2A regulation and is crucial for broad aspects of cellular function. The crystal structure of PP2A bound to PP2A phosphatase activator (PTPA) and ATP?S reveals that PTPA makes broad contacts with the structural elements surrounding the PP2A active site and the adenine moiety of ATP. PTPA-binding stabilizes the protein fold of apo-PP2A required for activation, and orients ATP phosphoryl groups to bind directly to the PP2A active site. This allows ATP to modulate the metal-binding preferences of the PP2A active site and utilize the PP2A active site for ATP hydrolysis. In vitro, ATP selectively and drastically enhances binding of endogenous catalytic metal ions, which requires ATP hydrolysis and is crucial for acquisition of pSer/Thr-specific phosphatase activity. Furthermore, both PP2A- and ATP-binding are required for PTPA function in cell proliferation and survival. Our results suggest novel mechanisms of PTPA in PP2A activation with structural economy and a unique ATP-binding pocket that could potentially serve as a specific therapeutic target.
Project description:The objective of this work was to evaluate the solution stability of the EC1 domain of E-cadherin under various conditions. The EC1 domain was incubated at various temperatures (4, 37, and 70 degrees C) and pH values (3.0, 7.0, and 9.0). At pH 9.0 and 37 or 70 degrees C, a significant loss of EC1 was observed due to precipitation and a hydrolysis reaction. The degradation was suppressed upon addition of dithiothreitol (DTT), suggesting that the formation of EC1 dimer facilitated the EC1 degradation. At 4 degrees C and various pH values, the EC1 secondary and tertiary showed changes upon incubation up to 28 days, and DTT prevented any structural changes upon 28 days of incubation. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the dimer of EC1 has higher mobility than does the monomer; this higher mobility of the EC1 dimer may contribute to instability of the EC1 domain.
Project description:Reversible protein-tyrosine phosphorylation is catalyzed by the antagonistic actions of protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and phosphatases (PTPs), and represents a major form of cell regulation. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematological malignancy that results from the acquisition of multiple genetic alterations, which in some instances are associated with deregulated protein-phosphotyrosine (pY) mediated signaling networks. However, although individual PTKs and PTPs have been linked to AML and other malignancies, analysis of protein-pY networks as a function of activated PTKs and PTPs has not been done. In this study, MS was used to characterize AML proteomes, and phospho-proteome-subsets including pY proteins, PTKs, and PTPs. AML proteomes resolved into two groups related to high or low degrees of maturation according to French-American-British classification, and reflecting differential expression of cell surface antigens. AML pY proteomes reflect canonical, spatially organized signaling networks, unrelated to maturation, with heterogeneous expression of activated receptor and nonreceptor PTKs. We present the first integrated analysis of the pY-proteome, activated PTKs, and PTPs. Every PTP and most PTKs have both positive and negative associations with the pY-proteome. pY proteins resolve into groups with shared PTK and PTP correlations. These findings highlight the importance of pY turnover and the PTP phosphatome in shaping the pY-proteome in AML.
Project description:Human liver 1-aspartamido-beta-N-acetylglucosamine amidohydrolase (aspartylglucosylaminase, EC 188.8.131.52) was purified 17 500-fold to apparent homogeneity as judged from polyacrylamide-gel disc electrophoresis. A pH optimum of 7.7-9.0 was found. The Km value was pH- and temperature-dependent. At 37 degrees C and pH 7.7, Km was 0.16 mM and it increased to 0.29 at pH 6.0 and 0.23 at pH 9.0. At 25 degrees C and pH 7.7, a Km value of 0.99 mM was obtained. When the substrate concentration was varied, apparent Michaelis-Menten kinetics were obtained. p-Hydroxymercuribenzoate, glutathione or cysteine had no effect on the enzyme activity; 5 mM-N-acetylcysteine inhibited about 47% of the total enzyme activity. Apart from Cu2+, other bivalent ions were virtually ineffective at 1 mM. The kinetic study differentiates this enzyme from aspartylglucosylaminase from other sources.