Dra-nupC-pdp operon of Bacillus subtilis: nucleotide sequence, induction by deoxyribonucleosides, and transcriptional regulation by the deoR-encoded DeoR repressor protein.
ABSTRACT: The genes encoding deoxyriboaldolase (dra), nucleoside uptake protein (nupC), and pyrimidine nucleoside sequences were determined. Sequence analysis showed that the genes were localized immediately downstream of the hut operon. Insertional gene disruption studies indicated that the three genes constitute an operon with the gene order dra-nupC-pdp. A promoter mapping immediately upstream of the dra gene was identified, and downstream of the pdp gene the nucleotide sequence indicated the existence of a factor-independent transcription terminator structure. In wild-type cells growing in succinate minimal medium, the pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase and deoxyriboaldolase levels were five- to eightfold higher in the presence of thymidine and fourfold higher in the presence of deoxyadenosine. By the use of lacZ fusions, the regulation was found to be at the level of transcription. The operon expression was subject to glucose repression. Upstream of the dra gene an open reading frame of 313 amino acids was identified. Inactivation of this gene led to an approximately 10-fold increase in the levels of deoxyriboaldolase and pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase, and no further induction was seen upon the addition of deoxyribonucleosides. The upstream gene most likely encodes the regulator for the dra-nupC-pdp operon and was designated deoR (stands for deoxyribonucleoside regulator).
Project description:Transcription of the Bacillus subtilis dra-nupC-pdp operon is repressed by the DeoR repressor protein. The DeoR repressor with an N-terminal His tag was overproduced with a plasmid under control of a phage T5 promoter in Escherichia coli and was purified to near homogeneity by one affinity chromatography step. Gel filtration experimental results showed that native DeoR has a mass of 280 kDa and appears to exist as an octamer. Binding of DeoR to the operator DNA of the dra-nupC-pdp operon was characterized by using an electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay. An apparent dissociation constant of 22 nM was determined for binding of DeoR to operator DNA, and the binding curve indicated that the binding of DeoR to the operator DNA was cooperative. In the presence of low-molecular-weight effector deoxyribose-5-phosphate, the dissociation constant was higher than 1,280 nM. The dissociation constant remained unchanged in the presence of deoxyribose-1-phosphate. DNase I footprinting exhibited a protected region that extends over more than 43 bp, covering a palindrome together with a direct repeat to one half of the palindrome and the nucleotides between them.
Project description:The reversible phosphorolysis of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides is an important biochemical reaction in the salvage pathway, which provides an alternative to the de novo purine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Structural studies in our laboratory and by others have revealed that only two folds exist that catalyse the phosphorolysis of all nucleosides, and provide the basis for defining two families of nucleoside phosphorylases. The first family (nucleoside phosphorylase-I) includes enzymes that share a common single-domain subunit, with either a trimeric or a hexameric quaternary structure, and accept a range of both purine and pyrimidine nucleoside substrates. Despite differences in substrate specificity, amino acid sequence and quaternary structure, all members of this family share a characteristic subunit topology. We have also carried out a sequence motif study that identified regions of the common subunit fold that are functionally significant in differentiating the various members of the nucleoside phosphorylase-I family. Although the substrate-binding sites are arranged similarly for all members of the nucleoside phosphorylase-I family, a comparison of the active sites from the known structures of this family indicates significant differences between the trimeric and hexameric family members. Sequence comparisons also suggest structural identity between the nucleoside phosphorylase-I family and both 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase and AMP nucleosidase. Members of the second family of nucleoside phosphorylases (nucleoside phosphorylase-II) share a common two-domain subunit fold and a dimeric quaternary structure, share a significant level of sequence identity (>30%) and are specific for pyrimidine nucleosides. Members of this second family accept both thymidine and uridine substrates in lower organisms, but are specific for thymidine in mammals and other higher organisms. A possible relationship between nucleoside phosphorylase-II and anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase has been identified through sequence comparisons. Initial studies in our laboratory suggested that members of the nucleoside phosphorylase-II family require significant domain movements in order for catalysis to proceed. A series of recent structures has confirmed our hypothesis and provided details of these conformational changes. Structural studies of the nucleoside phosphorylases have resulted in a wealth of information that begins to address fundamental biological questions, such as how Nature makes use of the intricate relationships between structure and function, and how biological processes have evolved over time. In addition, the therapeutic potential of suppressing the nucleoside phosphorylase activity in either family of enzymes has motivated efforts to design potent inhibitors. Several research groups have synthesized a variety of nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitors that are at various stages of preclinical and clinical evaluation.
Project description:Disilver(I) palladium(II) diphosphate, Ag(2)PdP(2)O(7), is isotypic with Na(2)PdP(2)O(7). It consists of infinite diphosphato-pallad-ate(II) [Pd(P(2)O(7))(2/2)](2-) ribbons with the Pd(II) ion in an almost square-planar coordination ( symmetry) and the P(2)O(7) group exhibiting 2 symmetry. The [Pd(P(2)O(7))(2/2)](2-) ribbons are linked by distorted [AgO(6)] octa-hedra. (31)P-MAS NMR studies on Ag(2)PdP(2)O(7) are in accordance with one independent site for phospho-rus; its isotropic chemical shift ?(iso) = 21.5?p.p.m. is similar to that of Pd(2)P(2)O(7).
Project description:The human SLC28 family of concentrative nucleoside transporter (CNT) proteins has three members: hCNT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3. Na+-coupled hCNT1 and hCNT2 transport pyrimidine and purine nucleosides, respectively, whereas hCNT3 transports both pyrimidine and purine nucleosides utilizing Na+ and/or H+ electrochemical gradients. Escherichia coli CNT family member NupC resembles hCNT1 in permeant selectivity but is H+-coupled. Using heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes and the engineered cysteine-less hCNT3 protein hCNT3(C-), substituted cysteine accessibility method analysis with the membrane-impermeant thiol reactive reagent p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate was performed on the transport domain (interfacial helix 2, hairpin 1, putative transmembrane domain (TM) 7, and TM8), as well as TM9 of the scaffold domain of the protein. This systematic scan of the entire C-terminal half of hCNT3(C-) together with parallel studies of the transport domain of wild-type hCNT1 and the corresponding TMs of cysteine-less NupC(C-) yielded results that validate the newly developed structural homology model of CNT membrane architecture for human CNTs, revealed extended conformationally mobile regions within transport-domain TMs, identified pore-lining residues of functional importance, and provided evidence of an emerging novel elevator-type mechanism of transporter function.
Project description:Purine nucleoside phosphorylases (PNPs) and uridine phosphorylases (UPs) are closely related enzymes involved in purine and pyrimidine salvage, respectively, which catalyze the removal of the ribosyl moiety from nucleosides so that the nucleotide base may be recycled. Parasitic protozoa generally are incapable of de novo purine biosynthesis; hence, the purine salvage pathway is of potential therapeutic interest. Information about pyrimidine biosynthesis in these organisms is much more limited. Though all seem to carry at least a subset of enzymes from each pathway, the dependency on de novo pyrimidine synthesis versus salvage varies from organism to organism and even from one growth stage to another. We have structurally and biochemically characterized a putative nucleoside phosphorylase (NP) from the pathogenic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei and find that it is a homodimeric UP. This is the first characterization of a UP from a trypanosomal source despite this activity being observed decades ago. Although this gene was broadly annotated as a putative NP, it was widely inferred to be a purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Our characterization of this trypanosomal enzyme shows that it is possible to distinguish between PNP and UP activity at the sequence level based on the absence or presence of a characteristic UP-specificity insert. We suggest that this recognizable feature may aid in proper annotation of the substrate specificity of enzymes in the NP family.
Project description:Nucleoside hydrolases catalyze the cleavage of N-glycosidic bonds in nucleosides, yielding ribose and the respective bases. While nucleoside hydrolase activity has not been detected in mammalian cells, many protozoan parasites rely on nucleoside hydrolase activity for salvage of purines and/or pyrimidines from their hosts. In contrast, uridine phosphorylase is the key enzyme of pyrimidine salvage in mammalian hosts and many other organisms. We show here that the open reading frame (ORF) YDR400w of Saccharomyces cerevisiae carries the gene encoding uridine hydrolase (URH1). Disruption of this gene in a conditionally pyrimidine-auxotrophic S. cerevisiae strain, which is also deficient in uridine kinase (urk1), leads to the inability of the mutant to utilize uridine as the sole source of pyrimidines. Protein extracts of strains overexpressing YDR400w show increased hydrolase activity only with uridine and cytidine, but no activity with inosine, adenosine, guanosine, and thymidine as substrates, demonstrating that ORF YDR400w encodes a uridine-cytidine N-ribohydrolase. Expression of a homologous cDNA from a protozoan parasite (Crithidia fasciculata) in a ura3 urk1 urh1 mutant is sufficient to restore growth on uridine. Growth can also be restored by expression of a human uridine phosphorylase cDNA. Yeast strains expressing protozoan N-ribohydrolases or host phosphorylases could therefore become useful tools in drug screens for specific inhibitors.
Project description:Parallel distributed processing (PDP) models have had a profound impact on the study of cognition. One domain in which they have been particularly influential is learning quasiregularity, in which mastery requires both learning regularities that capture the majority of the structure in the input plus learning exceptions that violate the regularities. How PDP models learn quasiregularity is still not well understood. Small- and large-scale analyses of a feedforward, 3-layer network were carried out to address 2 fundamental issues about network functioning: how the model can learn both regularities and exceptions without sacrificing generalizability and the nature of the hidden representation that makes this learning possible. Results show that capacity-limited learning pressures the network to form componential representations, which ensures good generalizability. Small and highly local perturbations of this representational system allow exceptions to be learned while minimally disrupting generalizability. Theoretical and methodological implications of the findings are discussed.
Project description:ADP-glucose is the precursor of glycogen biosynthesis in bacteria, and a compound abundant in the starchy plant organs ingested by many mammals. Here we show that the enteric species Escherichia coli is capable of scavenging exogenous ADP-glucose for use as a glycosyl donor in glycogen biosynthesis and feed the adenine nucleotide pool. To unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in this process, we screened the E. coli single-gene deletion mutants of the Keio collection for glycogen content in ADP-glucose-containing culture medium. In comparison to wild-type (WT) cells, individual ?nupC and ?nupG mutants lacking the cAMP/CRP responsive inner-membrane nucleoside transporters NupC and NupG displayed reduced glycogen contents and slow ADP-glucose incorporation. In concordance, ?cya and ?crp mutants accumulated low levels of glycogen and slowly incorporated ADP-glucose. Two-thirds of the glycogen-excess mutants identified during screening lacked functions that underlie envelope biogenesis and integrity, including the RpoE specific RseA anti-sigma factor. These mutants exhibited higher ADP-glucose uptake than WT cells. The incorporation of either ?crp, ?nupG or ?nupC null alleles sharply reduced the ADP-glucose incorporation and glycogen content initially witnessed in ?rseA cells. Overall, the data showed that E. coli incorporates extracellular ADP-glucose through a cAMP/CRP-regulated process involving the NupC and NupG nucleoside transporters that is facilitated under envelope stress conditions.