Beta3 integrin and Src facilitate transforming growth factor-beta mediated induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mammary epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta suppresses breast cancer formation by preventing cell cycle progression in mammary epithelial cells (MECs). During the course of mammary tumorigenesis, genetic and epigenetic changes negate the cytostatic actions of TGF-beta, thus enabling TGF-beta to promote the acquisition and development of metastatic phenotypes. The molecular mechanisms underlying this conversion of TGF-beta function remain poorly understood but may involve signaling inputs from integrins.beta3 Integrin expression or function in MECs was manipulated by retroviral transduction of active or inactive beta3 integrins, or by transient transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) against beta3 integrin. Altered proliferation, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) stimulated by TGF-beta in control and beta3 integrin manipulated MECs was determined. Src involvement in beta3 integrin mediated alterations in TGF-beta signaling was assessed by performing Src protein kinase assays, and by interdicting Src function pharmacologically and genetically.TGF-beta stimulation induced alphavbeta3 integrin expression in a manner that coincided with EMT in MECs. Introduction of siRNA against beta3 integrin blocked its induction by TGF-beta and prevented TGF-beta stimulation of EMT in MECs. beta3 integrin interacted physically with the TGF-beta receptor (TbetaR) type II, thereby enhancing TGF-beta stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and of Smad2/3-mediated gene transcription in MECs. Formation of beta3 integrin:TbetaR-II complexes blocked TGF-beta mediated growth arrest and increased TGF-beta mediated invasion and EMT. Dual beta3 integrin:TbetaR-II activation induced tyrosine phosphorylation of TbetaR-II, a phosphotransferase reaction mediated by Src in vitro. Inhibiting Src activity in MECs prevented the ability of beta3 integrin to induce TbetaR-II tyrosine phosphorylation, MAPK activation, and EMT stimulated by TGF-beta. Lastly, wild-type and D119A beta3 integrin expression enhanced and abolished, respectively, TGF-beta stimulation of invasion in human breast cancer cells.We show that beta3 integrin alters TGF-beta signaling in MECs via Src-mediated TbetaR-II tyrosine phosphorylation, which significantly enhanced the ability of TGF-beta to induce EMT and invasion. Our findings suggest that beta3 integrin interdiction strategies may represent an innovative approach to re-establishing TGF-beta mediated tumor suppression in progressing human breast cancers.
Project description:Mammary tumorigenesis is associated with the increased expression of several proteins in the focal adhesion complex, including focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and various integrins. Aberrant expression of these molecules occurs concomitant with the conversion of TGF-beta function from a tumor suppressor to a tumor promoter. We previously showed that interaction between beta3 integrin and TbetaR-II facilitates TGF-beta-mediated oncogenic signaling, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the focal adhesion complex contributes to beta3 integrin:TbetaR-II signaling and the oncogenic conversion of TGF-beta remain poorly understood.FAK expression and activity were inhibited in normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells (MECs) either genetically by using lentiviral-mediated delivery of shRNAs against FAK, or pharmacologically through in vitro and in vivo use of the FAK inhibitors, PF-562271 and PF-573228. Altered Smad2/3 and p38 MAPK activation, migration, EMT, and invasion in response to TGF-beta1 were monitored in FAK-manipulated cells. TbetaR-II expression was increased in metastatic breast cancer cells by retroviral transduction, and the metastasis of FAK- and TbetaR-II-manipulated tumors was monitored by using bioluminescent imaging.TGF-beta stimulation of MECs stabilized and activated FAK in a beta3 integrin- and Src-dependent manner. Furthermore, by using the human MCF10A breast cancer progression model, we showed that increased FAK expression in metastatic breast cancer cells mirrored the acquisition of enhanced activation of p38 MAPK by TGF-beta. Administering FAK inhibitors or rendering metastatic breast cancer cells FAK deficient abrogated the interaction between beta3 integrin and TbetaR-II, thereby preventing TGF-beta from (a) activating p38 MAPK; (b) stimulating MEC invasion, migration, and EMT; and (c) inducing early primary tumor dissemination to the lungs. Finally, in contrast to FAK depletion, adjuvant FAK chemotherapy of mammary tumors decreased their growth in part by diminished macrophage tumor infiltration.Our studies identify an essential function for FAK in mediating the interaction between beta3 integrin and TbetaR-II, and thus in facilitating the oncogenic conversion of TGF-beta required for mammary tumor metastasis. Furthermore, this study establishes chemotherapeutic targeting of FAK as an effective, two-pronged approach in preventing tumor progression both by decreasing innate immune cell infiltration, and by inhibiting early TGF-beta-dependent metastasis.
Project description:The TGF-beta isoforms, TGF-beta1, -beta2, and -beta3, share greater than 70% sequence identity and are almost structurally identical. TGF-beta2 differs from the others, however, in that it binds the TGF-beta type II receptor (TbetaR-II) with much lower affinity than either TGF-beta1 or -beta3. It has been previously shown that three conserved interfacial residues, Arg25, Val92, Arg94, in TGF-beta1 and -beta3 are responsible for their high-affinity interaction with TbetaR-II. In this study, the role of each of these residues was examined by creating single, double, and triple substitutions resulting in both TGF-beta3 loss-of-function and TGF-beta2 gain-of-function variants. One-dimensional 1H NMR spectra of the variants confirmed a lack of large structural perturbations. Affinities, kinetics, and thermodynamics for TbetaR-II binding were determined by surface plasmon resonance biosensor analysis. Double substitutions revealed that nearly all of the high-affinity binding is contributed by Arg25 and Arg94. Single site substitutions showed that Arg94 makes the greatest contribution. Substitution of Arg25 and Arg94 with alanine verified the requirement of the arginine guanidinium functional groups for the highly specific hydrogen-bonded ion pairs formed between Arg25 and Arg94 of TGF-beta1 and -beta3, and Glu119 and Asp32 of TbetaR-II. Further kinetic and thermodynamic analyses confirmed that Arg25 and Arg94 are primarily responsible for high-affinity binding and also revealed that noninterfacial longer range effects emanating from the TGF-beta structural framework contribute slightly to TbetaR-II binding. Growth inhibition assays showed that binding changes generally correlate directly with changes in function; however, a role Val92 in this cellular context was uncovered.
Project description:During breast cancer progression, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) switches from a tumor suppressor to a pro-metastatic molecule. Several recent studies suggest that this conversion in TGF-beta function depends upon fundamental changes in the TGF-beta signaling system. We show here that these changes in TGF-beta signaling are concomitant with aberrant expression of the focal adhesion protein, p130Cas. Indeed, elevating expression of either the full-length (FL) or just the carboxyl terminus (CT) of p130Cas in mammary epithelial cells (MECs) diminished the ability of TGF-beta1 to activate Smad2/3, but increased its coupling to p38 MAPK. This shift in TGF-beta signaling evoked (i) resistance to TGF-beta-induced growth arrest, and (ii) acinar filling upon three-dimensional organotypic cultures of p130Cas-FL or -CT expressing MECs. Furthermore, rendering metastatic MECs deficient in p130Cas enhanced TGF-beta-stimulated Smad2/3 activity, which restored TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition both in vitro and in mammary tumors produced in mice. Additionally, whereas elevating TbetaR-II expression in metastatic MECs had no affect on their phosphorylation of Smad2/3, this event markedly enhanced their activation of p38 MAPK, leading to increased MEC invasion and metastasis. Importantly, depleting p130Cas expression in TbetaR-II-expressing metastatic MECs significantly increased their activation of Smad2/3, which (i) reestablished the physiologic balance between canonical and noncanonical TGF-beta signaling, and (ii) reversed cellular invasion and early mammary tumor cell dissemination stimulated by TGF-beta. Collectively, our findings identify p130Cas as a molecular rheostat that regulates the delicate balance between canonical and noncanonical TGF-beta signaling, a balance that is critical to maintaining the tumor suppressor function of TGF-beta during breast cancer progression.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Gastric cancer cells frequently metastasise, partly because of their highly invasive nature. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor signalling is closely associated with the invasion of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of a TGF-beta receptor (TbetaR) phosphorylation inhibitor on the invasiveness of gastric cancer cells.<h4>Methods</h4>Four gastric cancer cell lines, including two scirrhous-type cell lines and two non-scirrhous-type cell lines, were used. A TbetaR type I (TbetaR-I) kinase inhibitor, Ki26894, inhibits the phosphorylation of Smad2 at an ATP-binding site of TbetaR-I. We investigated the expression levels of TbetaR and phospho-Smad2, and the effects of TGF-beta in the presence or absence of Ki26894 on Smad2 phosphorylation, invasion, migration, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), Ras homologue gene family member A (RhoA), ZO-2, myosin, and E-cadherin expression of gastric cancer cells.<h4>Results</h4>TbetaR-I, TbetaR-II, and phospho-Smad2 expressions were found in scirrhous gastric cancer cells, but not in non-scirrhous gastric cancer cells. Ki26894 decreased Smad2 phosphorylation induced by TGF-beta1 in scirrhous gastric cancer cells. Transforming growth factor-beta1 upregulated the invasion, migration, and EMT ability of scirrhous gastric cancer cells. Transforming growth factor-beta1 significantly upregulated the activity of RhoA and myosin phosphorylation, whereas TGF-beta1 decreased ZO-2 and E-cadherin expression in scirrhous gastric cancer cells. Interestingly, Ki26894 inhibited these characteristics in scirrhous gastric cancer cells. In contrast, non-scirrhous gastric cancer cells were not affected by TGF-beta1 or Ki26894 treatment.<h4>Conclusion</h4>A TbetaR-I kinase inhibitor decreases the invasiveness and EMT of scirrhous gastric cancer cells. Ki26894 is therefore considered to be a promising therapeutic compound for the metastasis of scirrhous gastric carcinoma.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a potent inhibitor of growth and proliferation of breast epithelial cells, and loss of sensitivity to its effects has been associated with malignant transformation and tumorigenesis. The biological effects of TGF-beta are mediated by the TGF-beta receptor complex, a multimer composed of TGF-beta receptor type I (TbetaR-I) and TGF-beta receptor type II (TbetaR-II) subunits. Evidence suggests that loss of expression of Tbeta3R-II is implicated in the loss of sensitivity of tumorigenic breast cell lines to TGF-beta-mediated growth inhibition. A panel of human breast cell lines, including the immortalized MCF-10F and tumorigenic MCF-7, ZR75-1, BT474, T47-D, MDA-MB231, BT20, and SKBR-3 cell lines, was characterized for responsiveness to TGF-beta-induced G1 growth arrest. Only the nontumorigenic MCF-10F and the tumorigenic MDA-MB231 cell lines demonstrated a significant inhibitory response to TGF-beta1 and a significant binding of 125I-labeled TGF-beta ligand. While expression of TbetaR-I mRNA was similar across the panel of cell lines, TbetaR-II mRNA expression was decreased significantly in all seven tumorigenic cell lines in comparison with the nontumorigenic MCF- 10F cell line. When total cellular protein was fractionated by centrifugation, TbetaR-I protein was observed in both the cytosolic and membrane fractions at similar levels in all cell lines; however, TbetaR-II protein was present in the cytosolic fraction in all cell lines, but was observed in the membrane fraction of only the TGF-beta-responsive MCF-10F and MDA-MB231 cells. Thus, lack of membrane-bound TbetaR-II protein appears to be an important determinant of resistance to TGF-beta-mediated growth inhibition in this group of breast cell lines.
Project description:Mammary tumorigenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) programs cooperate in converting transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) from a suppressor to a promoter of breast cancer metastasis. Although previous reports associated ?1 and ?3 integrins with TGF-? stimulation of EMT and metastasis, the functional interplay and plasticity exhibited by these adhesion molecules in shaping the oncogenic activities of TGF-? remain unknown. We demonstrate that inactivation of ?1 integrin impairs TGF-? from stimulating the motility of normal and malignant mammary epithelial cells (MECs) and elicits robust compensatory expression of ?3 integrin solely in malignant MECs, but not in their normal counterparts. Compensatory ?3 integrin expression also 1) enhances the growth of malignant MECs in rigid and compliant three-dimensional organotypic cultures and 2) restores the induction of the EMT phenotypes by TGF-?. Of importance, compensatory expression of ?3 integrin rescues the growth and pulmonary metastasis of ?1 integrin-deficient 4T1 tumors in mice, a process that is prevented by genetic depletion or functional inactivation of ?3 integrin. Collectively our findings demonstrate that inactivation of ?1 integrin elicits metastatic progression via a ?3 integrin-specific mechanism, indicating that dual ?1 and ?3 integrin targeting is necessary to alleviate metastatic disease in breast cancer patients.
Project description:Src tyrosine kinases transmit integrin-dependent signals pivotal for cell movement and proliferation. Here, we establish a mechanism for Src activation by integrins. c-Src is shown to bind constitutively and selectively to beta3 integrins through an interaction involving the c-Src SH3 domain and the carboxyl-terminal region of the beta3 cytoplasmic tail. Clustering of beta3 integrins in vivo activates c-Src and induces phosphorylation of Tyr-418 in the c-Src activation loop, a reaction essential for adhesion-dependent phosphorylation of Syk, a c-Src substrate. Unlike c-Src, Hck, Lyn, and c-Yes bind more generally to beta1A, beta2, and beta3 cytoplasmic tails. These results invoke a model whereby Src is primed for activation by direct interaction with an integrin beta tail, and integrin clustering stabilizes activated Src by inducing intermolecular autophosphorylation. The data provide a paradigm for integrin regulation of Src and a molecular basis for the similar functional defects of osteoclasts or platelets from mice lacking beta3 integrins or c-Src.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a ubiquitous cytokine with dual roles in tumor suppression and promotion, and these dichotomous functions have frustrated the development of therapies targeting oncogenic signaling by TGF-beta. In comparison, Abl is well established as an initiator of hematopoietic cancers; however, a clear role for Abl in regulating solid tumor development remains elusive. Here, we investigated the role of Abl in TGF-beta-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in normal and metastatic mammary epithelial cells (MECs). In doing so, we identified Abl as an essential regulator of MEC morphology and showed that Abl inactivation was sufficient to induce phenotypic and transcriptional EMT in normal MECs. Increasing Abl activity in metastatic MECs resulted in their complete morphological reversion, restored their cytostatic response to TGF-beta, and blocked their secretion of matrix metalloproteinases induced by TGF-beta. Constitutively active Abl expression blocked TGF-beta-responsive mammary tumor growth in mice, while Imatinib therapy afforded no clinical benefit in mice bearing mammary tumors. Collectively, this investigation establishes Abl as a potent mediator of MEC identity, and as a suppressor of oncogenic TGF-beta signaling during mammary tumorigenesis. Notably, our findings strongly caution against the use of pharmacological Abl antagonists in the treatment of developing and progressing mammary tumors.
Project description:Members of the Snail family of transcription factors have been shown to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a fundamental mechanism of embryogenesis and progressive disease. Here, we show that Snail and Slug promote formation of beta-catenin-T-cell factor (TCF)-4 transcription complexes that bind to the promoter of the TGF-beta3 gene to increase its transcription. Subsequent transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta3 signaling increases LEF-1 gene expression causing formation of beta-catenin-lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF)-1 complexes that initiate EMT. TGF-beta1 or TGF-beta2 stimulates this signaling mechanism by up-regulating synthesis of Snail and Slug. TGF-beta1- and TGF-beta2-induced EMT were found to be TGF-beta3 dependent, establishing essential roles for multiple TGF-beta isoforms. Finally, we determined that beta-catenin-LEF-1 complexes can promote EMT without upstream signaling pathways. These findings provide evidence for a unified signaling mechanism driven by convergence of multiple TGF-beta and TCF signaling molecules that confers loss of cell-cell adhesion and acquisition of the mesenchymal phenotype.
Project description:Salvianolic Acid B (Sal B) is a water-soluble component from Danshen (a traditional Chinese herb widely used for chronic renal diseases) with anti-oxidative and cell protective properties. Sal B also has potential protective effects on renal diseases. Tubular epithelial cells can undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) and is mainly regulated by TGF-beta1/Smads pathway. The aims of the study are to investigate the effect of Sal B on tubular EMT in vivo and in vitro, and to elucidate its underlying mechanism against EMT related to TGF-beta1/Smads pathway.For in vivo experiments, RIF was induced in rats by oral administration of HgCl2 and prophylaxised with Sal B and vitamin E. The protein expression of E-cadherin was down-regulated, while the expression of alpha-SMA, TGF-beta1, TbetaR-I, p-Smad2/3 and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were up-regulated in kidneys of model rats when compared with those of normal rats. In contrast, Sal B and vitamin E significantly attenuated the expression of alpha-SMA, TGF-beta1, TbetaR-I, p-Smad2/3, and MMP-2 activity, but increased E-cadherin expression. For in vitro experiments, HK-2 cells were incubated with TGF-beta1 to induce EMT, and the cells were co-cultured with 1 and 10 microM Sal B or SB-431542 (a specific inhibitor of TbetaR-I kinase). TGF-beta1 induced a typical EMT in HK-2 cells, while it was blocked by Sal B and SB-431542, as evidenced by blocking morphologic transformation, restoring E-cadherin and CK-18 expression, inhibiting alpha-SMA expression and F-actin reorganization, and down-regulating MMP-2/9 activities in TGF-beta1 mediated HK-2 cells. Furthermore, Sal B and SB-431542 profoundly down-regulated the expressions of TbetaR-I and p-Smad2/3 but prevented the decreased expression of Smad7 in TGF-beta1 stimulated HK-2 cells.Sal B can prevent tubular EMT in the fibrotic kidney induced by HgCl2 as well as HK-2 cells triggered by TGF-beta1, the mechanism of Sal B is closely related to the regulation of TGF-beta1/Smads pathway, manifested as the inhibition of TGF-beta1 expression, suppression of TbetaR-I expression and function, down-regulation of Smad2/3 phosphorylation, and restoration of the down-regulation of Smad7, as well as inhibition of MMP-2 activity.