Oxidative stress response and its role in sensitivity to isoniazid in mycobacteria: characterization and inducibility of ahpC by peroxides in Mycobacterium smegmatis and lack of expression in M. aurum and M. tuberculosis.
ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a natural mutant with inactivated oxidative stress regulatory gene oxyR. This characteristic has been linked to the exquisite sensitivity of M. tuberculosis to isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH). In the majority of mycobacteria tested, including M. tuberculosis, oxyR is divergently transcribed from ahpC, a gene encoding a homolog of the subunit of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase that carries out substrate peroxide reduction. Here we compared ahpC expression in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a mycobacterium less sensitive to INH, with that in two highly INH sensitive species, M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium aurum. The ahpC gene of M. smegmatis was cloned and characterized, and the 5' ends of ahpC mRNA were mapped by S1 nuclease protection analysis. M. smegmatis AhpC and eight other polypeptides were inducible by exposure to H2O2 or organic peroxides, as determined by metabolic labeling and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. In contrast, M. aurum displayed differential induction of only one 18-kDa polypeptide when exposed to organic peroxides. AhpC could not be detected in this organism by immunological means. AhpC was also below detection levels in M. tuberculosis H37Rv. These observations are consistent with the interpretation that ahpC expression and INH sensitivity are inversely correlated in the mycobacterial species tested. In further support of this conclusion, the presence of plasmid-borne ahpC reduced M. smegmatis susceptibility to INH. Interestingly, mutations in the intergenic region between oxyR and ahpC were identified and increased ahpC expression observed in deltakatG M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis INH(r) strains. We propose that mutations activating ahpC expression may contribute to the emergence of INH(r) strains.
Project description:The exceptional sensitivity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH) lacks satisfactory definition. M. tuberculosis is a natural mutant in oxyR, a central regulator of peroxide stress response. The ahpC gene, which encodes a critical subunit of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, is one of the targets usually controlled by oxyR in bacteria. Unlike in mycobacterial species less susceptible to INH, the expression of ahpC was below detection limits at the protein level in INH-sensitive M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis strains. In contrast, AhpC was detected in several series of isogenic INH-resistant (INHr) derivatives. In a demonstration of the critical role of ahpC in sensitivity to INH, insertional inactivation of ahpC on the chromosome of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a species naturally insensitive to INH, dramatically increased its susceptibility to this compound. These findings suggest that AhpC counteracts the action of INH and that the levels of its expression may govern the intrinsic susceptibility of mycobacteria to this front-line antituberculosis drug.
Project description:Automated DNA sequencing was used to analyze the oxyR-ahpC region in 229 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates recently recovered from diseased humans and animals. The entire 1,221-bp region was studied in 118 isolates, and 111 other isolates were sequenced for oxyR, ahpC, or the 105-bp oxyR-ahpC intergenic region. The sample included isoniazid (INH)-susceptible and -resistant organisms in which the katG gene and inhA locus had previously been sequenced in their entirety to identify polymorphisms. A total of 16 polymorphic sites was identified, including 5 located in oxyR, 2 in ahpC, and 9 in the 105-bp intergenic region. All polymorphic sites located in the intergenic region, and the two missense substitutions identified in ahpC, occurred in INH-resistant organisms. In contrast, there was no preferential association of polymorphisms in oxyR, a pseudogene, with INH-resistant organisms. Surprisingly, most INH-resistant strains with KatG codon 315 substitutions that substantially reduce catalase-peroxidase activity and confer high MICs of INH lacked alterations in the ahpC gene or oxyR-ahpC intervening region. Taken together, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that some polymorphisms located in the ahpC-oxyR intergenic region are selected for after reduction in catalase or peroxidase activity attributable to katG alterations arising with INH therapy. These mutations are uncommon in recently recovered clinically significant organisms, and hence, there is no strict association with INH-resistant patient isolates. The ahpC compensatory mutations are apparently uncommon because strains with a KatG null phenotype are relatively rare among epidemiologically independent INH-resistant organisms.
Project description:Nine structural genes (furA, katG, inhA, kasA, Rv0340, iniB, iniA, iniC, and efpA) and two regulatory regions (the oxyR-ahpC intergenic region and the promoter of mabA-inhA) in 87 isoniazid (INH)-monoresistant and 50 INH-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates collected from five provinces of China were analyzed by sequencing. Eighty-two (94.3%) INH-resistant isolates had mutations in the katG gene, with the katG Ser315Thr mutation predominant (55.2%). No mutation at codon 463 of katG was detected among the 50 INH-susceptible isolates with different IS6110 fingerprints. In addition, there were 35 (40.2%) INH-resistant isolates that had a mutation at codon 463 of katG. Of the INH-resistant strains, 20 (23.0%) isolates harbored double mutations at two separate loci of katG. Mutations in the inhA promoter region occurred in 13 (14.9%) isolates; 4.6% of the isolates had inhA structural gene mutations, and 11.5% harbored mutations in the oxyR-ahpC intergenic region. Drug resistance-associated mutations were detected in the iniBAC region and efpA.
Project description:We investigated mutations in the genes katG, inhA (regulatory and structural regions), and kasA and the oxyR-ahpC intergenic region of 97 isoniazid (INH)-resistant and 60 INH-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained in two states in Brazil: São Paulo and Paraná. PCR-single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) was evaluated for screening mutations in regions of prevalence, including codons 315 and 463 of katG, the regulatory region and codons 16 and 94 of inhA, kasA, and the oxyR-ahpC intergenic region. DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons was performed for all isolates with altered PCR-SSCP profiles. Mutations in katG were found in 83 (85.6%) of the 97 INH-resistant isolates, including mutations in codon 315 that occurred in 60 (61.9%) of the INH-resistant isolates and 23 previously unreported katG mutations. Mutations in the inhA promoter region occurred in 25 (25.8%) of the INH-resistant isolates; 6.2% of the isolates had inhA structural gene mutations, and 10.3% had mutations in the oxyR-ahpC intergenic region (one, nucleotide -48, previously unreported). Polymorphisms in the kasA gene occurred in both INH-resistant and INH-susceptible isolates. The most frequent polymorphism encoded a G(269)A substitution. Although KatG(315) substitutions are predominant, novel mutations also appear to be responsible for INH resistance in the two states in Brazil. Since ca. 90.7% of the INH-resistant isolates had mutations identified by SSCP electrophoresis, this method may be a useful genotypic screen for INH resistance.
Project description:Whole-genome sequencing was used to analyze the profiles of isoniazid (INH) resistance-related mutations among 188 multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and mono-INH-resistant isolates collected in a recent Chinese national survey. Mutations were detected in 18 structural genes and two promoter regions in 96.8% of 188 resistant isolates. There were high mutation frequencies in katG, the inhA promoter, and ahpC-oxyR regulator regions in INH-resistant isolates with frequencies of 86.2%, 19.6%, and 18.6%, respectively. Moreover, a high diversity of mutations was identified as 102 mutants contained various types of single or combined gene mutations in the INH-resistant group of isolates. The cumulative frequencies of katG 315 or inhA-P/inhA mutations was 68.1% (128/188) for the INH-resistant isolates. Of these isolates, 46 isolates (24.5% of 188) exhibited a high level of resistance. A high level of resistance was also observed in 21 isolates (11.2% of 188) with single ahpC-oxyR mutations or a combination of ahpC-oxyR and katG non-315 mutations. The remaining 17 mutations occurred sporadically and emerged in isolates with combined katG mutations. Such development of INH resistance is likely due to an accumulation of mutations under the pressure of drug selection. Thus, these findings provided insights on the levels of INH resistance and its correlation with the combinatorial mutation effect resulting from less frequent genes (inhA and/or ahpC). Such knowledge of other genes (apart from katG) in high-level resistance will aid in developing better strategies for the diagnosis and management of TB.
Project description:Isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) are the two most effective drugs in tuberculosis therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of resistance to these two drugs is essential to quickly diagnose multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis and extensive drug-resistant tuberculosis. Nine clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates resistant to only INH and RIF and 10 clinical pan-sensitive isolates were included to evaluate the expression of 20 putative drug efflux pump genes and sequence mutations in rpoB (RIF), katG (INH), the inhA promoter (INH), and oxyR-ahpC (INH). Nine and three MDR isolates were induced to overexpress efflux pump genes by INH and RIF, respectively. Eight and two efflux pump genes were induced to overexpress by INH and RIF in MDR isolates, respectively. drrA, drrB, efpA, jefA (Rv2459), mmr, Rv0849, Rv1634, and Rv1250 were overexpressed under INH or RIF stress. Most efflux pump genes were overexpressed under INH stress in a MDR isolates that carried the wild-type katG, inhA, and oxyR-ahpC associated with INH resistance than in those that carried mutations. The expression levels of 11 genes (efpA, Rv0849, Rv1250, P55 (Rv1410c), Rv1634, Rv2994, stp, Rv2459, pstB, drrA, and drrB) without drug inducement were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in nine MDR isolates than in 10 pan-sensitive isolates. In conclusion, efflux pumps may play an important role in INH acquired resistance in MDR M. tuberculosis, especially in those strains having no mutations in genes associated with INH resistance; basal expression levels of some efflux pump genes are higher in MDR isolates than in pan-sensitive isolates and the basal expressional differences may be helpful to diagnose and treat resistant tuberculosis.
Project description:Oxidative stress response in pathogenic mycobacteria is believed to be of significance for host-pathogen interactions at various stages of infection. It also plays a role in determining the intrinsic susceptibility to isoniazid in mycobacterial species. In this work, we characterized the oxyR-ahpC and furA-katG loci in the nontuberculous pathogen Mycobacterium marinum. In contrast to Mycobacterium smegmatis and like Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, M. marinum was shown to possess a closely linked and divergently oriented equivalents of the regulator of peroxide stress response oxyR and its subordinate gene ahpC, encoding a homolog of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase. Purified mycobacterial OxyR was found to bind to the oxyR-ahpC promoter region from M. marinum and additional mycobacterial species. Mobility shift DNA binding analyses using OxyR binding sites from several mycobacteria and a panel of in vitro-generated mutants validated the proposed consensus mycobacterial recognition sequence. M. marinum AhpC levels detected by immunoblotting, were increased upon treatment with H2O2, in keeping with the presence of a functional OxyR and its binding site within the promoter region of ahpC. In contrast, OxyR did not bind to the sequences upstream of the katG structural gene, and katG expression did not follow the pattern seen with ahpC. Instead, a new open reading frame encoding a homolog of the ferric uptake regulator Fur was identified immediately upstream of katG in M. marinum. The furA-katG linkage and arrangement are ubiquitous in mycobacteria, suggesting the presence of additional regulators of oxidative stress response and potentially explaining the observed differences in ahpC and katG expression. Collectively, these findings broaden our understanding of oxidative stress response in mycobacteria. They also suggest that M. marinum will be useful as a model system for studying the role of oxidative stress response in mycobacterial physiology, intracellular survival, and other host-pathogen interactions associated with mycobacterial diseases.
Project description:Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB), particularly multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), has been identified as a major challenge for effective TB control. For rapid detection and proper treatment, molecular assays based on the identification of mutations in genes associated with drug resistance have been established to determine drug resistance. However, there is as yet little information about drug resistance-associated mutations of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Hebei. In this study, four genetic loci katG, inhA, oxyR-ahpC intergenic region and rpoB were sequenced among 276 DR-TB isolates from Hebei to understand the association between specific mutations, drug resistance phenotypes and spoligotyping genotypes. Altogether, 83.8% of INH resistant isolates harbored at least one mutation of katG, inhA, and oxyR-ahpC intergenic region and 78.4% of RIF resistant isolates harbored one or more mutations in rpoB. The predominant mutation patterns of rpoB and katG in Hebei was Ser531Leu and Ser315Thr, respectively. Additionally, 91.2% of MDR isolates harbored at least one mutation in these four targeted fragments. Compared with the phenotypic data, the sensitivity and specificity of co-testing of katG, inhA promoter and oxyR-ahpC intergenic region for INH resistance were 83.8% and 96.8%, respectively and the rpoB exhibited a sensitivity of 78.4% and a specificity of 95.3% for RIF resistance. Furthermore, there was no association between drug resistance-conferring mutations and spoligotypes. This finding will be useful for the establishment of rapid molecular diagnostic methods in Hebei province, China.
Project description:To persist in macrophages and in granulomatous caseous lesions, pathogenic mycobacteria must be equipped to withstand the action of toxic oxygen metabolites. In Gram-negative bacteria, the OxyR protein is a critical component of the oxidative stress response. OxyR is both a sensor of reactive oxygen species and a transcriptional activator, inducing expression of detoxifying enzymes such as catalase/hydroperoxidase and alkyl hydroperoxidase. We have characterized the responses of various mycobacteria to hydrogen peroxide both phenotypically and at the levels of gene and protein expression. Only the saprophytic Mycobacterium smegmatis induced a protective oxidative stress response analogous to the OxyR response of Gram-negative bacteria. Under similar conditions, the pathogenic mycobacteria exhibited a limited, nonprotective response, which in the case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was restricted to induction of a single protein, KatG. We have also isolated DNA sequences homologous to oxyR and ahpC from M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium. While the M. avium oxyR appears intact, the oxyR homologue of M. tuberculosis contains numerous deletions and frameshifts and is probably nonfunctional. Apparently the response of pathogenic mycobacteria to oxidative stress differs significantly from the inducible OxyR response of other bacteria.
Project description:Isoniazid (INH) is a highly effective drug used in the treatment and prophylaxis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Resistance to INH in clinical isolates has been correlated with mutations in the inhA, katG, and ahpC genes. In this report, we describe a new mechanism for INH resistance in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Mutations that reduce NADH dehydrogenase activity (Ndh; type II) cause multiple phenotypes, including (i) coresistance to INH and a related drug, ethionamide; (ii) thermosensitive lethality; and (iii) auxotrophy. These phenotypes are corrected by expression of one of two enzymes: NADH dehydrogenase and the NADH-dependent malate dehydrogenase of the M. tuberculosis complex. The genetic data presented here indicate that defects in NADH oxidation cause all of the mutant traits and that an increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio confers INH resistance.