Regulation of glycerol metabolism in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: characterization of the glpR repressor gene.
ABSTRACT: The operons of the glp regulon encoding the glycerol metabolic enzymes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were hitherto believed to be positively regulated by the product of the glpR regulatory gene. During nucleotide sequence analysis of the region located upstream of the previously characterized glpD gene, encoding sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an open reading frame (glpR) was identified which encodes a protein of 251 amino acids that is 59% identical to the Glp repressor from Escherichia coli and could be expressed as a 28-kDa protein in a T7 expression system. Inactivation of chromosomal glpR by gene replacement resulted in constitutive expression of glycerol transport activity and glpD activity. These activities were strongly repressed after introduction of a multicopy plasmid containing the glpR gene; the same plasmid also efficiently repressed expression of a glpT-lacZ+ transcriptional fusion in an E. coli glpR mutant. Analysis of the glpD and glpF upstream region identified conserved palindromic sequences which were 70% identical to the E. coli glp operator consensus sequence. The results suggest that the operons of the glp regulon in P. aeruginosa are negatively regulated by the action of a glp repressor.
Project description:The growth of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 on glycerol as the sole carbon source is characterized by a prolonged lag phase, not observed with other carbon substrates. We examined the bacterial growth in glycerol cultures while monitoring the metabolic activity of individual cells. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, as well as the analysis of the temporal start of growth in single-cell cultures, revealed that adoption of a glycerol-metabolizing regime was not the result of a gradual change in the whole population but rather reflected a time-dependent bimodal switch between metabolically inactive (i.e., nongrowing) and fully active (i.e., growing) bacteria. A transcriptional ?(glpD-gfp) fusion (a proxy of the glycerol-3-phosphate [G3P] dehydrogenase activity) linked the macroscopic phenotype to the expression of the glp genes. Either deleting glpR (encoding the G3P-responsive transcriptional repressor that controls the expression of the glpFKRD gene cluster) or altering G3P formation (by overexpressing glpK, encoding glycerol kinase) abolished the bimodal glpD expression. These manipulations eliminated the stochastic growth start by shortening the otherwise long lag phase. Provision of glpR in trans restored the phenotypes lost in the ?glpR mutant. The prolonged nongrowth regime of P. putida on glycerol could thus be traced to the regulatory device controlling the transcription of the glp genes. Since the physiological agonist of GlpR is G3P, the arrangement of metabolic and regulatory components at this checkpoint merges a positive feedback loop with a nonlinear transcriptional response, a layout fostering the observed time-dependent shift between two alternative physiological states.Phenotypic variation is a widespread attribute of prokaryotes that leads, inter alia, to the emergence of persistent bacteria, i.e., live but nongrowing members within a genetically clonal population. Persistence allows a fraction of cells to avoid the killing caused by conditions or agents that destroy most growing bacteria (e.g., some antibiotics). Known molecular mechanisms underlying the phenomenon include genetic changes, epigenetic variations, and feedback-based multistability. We show that a prolonged nongrowing state of the bacterial population can be brought about by a distinct regulatory architecture of metabolic genes when cells face specific nutrients (e.g., glycerol). Pseudomonas putida may have adopted the resulting carbon source-dependent metabolic bet hedging as an advantageous trait for exploring new chemical and nutritional landscapes. Defeating such naturally occurring adaptive features of environmental bacteria is instrumental in improving the performance of these microorganisms as whole-cell catalysts in a bioreactor setup.
Project description:Directed mutation is a proposed process that allows mutations to occur at higher frequencies when they are beneficial. Until now, the existence of such a process has been controversial. Here we describe a novel mechanism of directed mutation mediated by the transposon, IS5 in Escherichia coli. crp deletion mutants mutate specifically to glycerol utilization (Glp(+)) at rates that are enhanced by glycerol or the loss of the glycerol repressor (GlpR), depressed by glucose or glpR overexpression, and RecA-independent. Of the four tandem GlpR binding sites (O1-O4) upstream of the glpFK operon, O4 specifically controls glpFK expression while O1 primarily controls mutation rate in a process mediated by IS5 hopping to a specific site on the E. coli chromosome upstream of the glpFK promoter. IS5 insertion into other gene activation sites is unaffected by the presence of glycerol or the loss of GlpR. The results establish an example of transposon-mediated directed mutation, identify the protein responsible and define the mechanism involved.
Project description:DeoR-type helix-turn-helix (HTH) domain proteins are transcriptional regulators of sugar and nucleoside metabolism in diverse bacteria and also occur in select archaea. In the model archaeon Haloferax volcanii, previous work implicated GlpR, a DeoR-type transcriptional regulator, in the transcriptional repression of glpR and the gene encoding the fructose-specific phosphofructokinase (pfkB) during growth on glycerol. However, the global regulon governed by GlpR remained unclear. Here, we compared transcriptomes of wild-type and ΔglpR mutant strains grown on glycerol and glucose to detect significant transcript level differences for nearly 50 new genes regulated by GlpR. By coupling computational prediction of GlpR binding sequences with in vivo and in vitro DNA binding experiments, we determined that GlpR directly controls genes encoding enzymes involved in fructose degradation, including fructose bisphosphate aldolase, a central control point in glycolysis. GlpR also directly controls other transcription factors. In contrast, other metabolic pathways appear to be under the indirect influence of GlpR. In vitro experiments demonstrated that GlpR purifies to function as a tetramer that binds the effector molecule fructose-1-phosphate (F1P). These results suggest that H. volcanii GlpR functions as a direct negative regulator of fructose degradation during growth on carbon sources other than fructose, such as glucose and glycerol, and that GlpR bears striking functional similarity to bacterial DeoR-type regulators.IMPORTANCE Many archaea are extremophiles, able to thrive in habitats of extreme salinity, pH and temperature. These biological properties are ideal for applications in biotechnology. However, limited knowledge of archaeal metabolism is a bottleneck that prevents the broad use of archaea as microbial factories for industrial products. Here, we characterize how sugar uptake and use are regulated in a species that lives in high salinity. We demonstrate that a key sugar regulatory protein in this archaeal species functions using molecular mechanisms conserved with distantly related bacterial species.
Project description:Aerobic sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a cytoplasmic membrane-associated respiratory enzyme encoded by the glpD gene of Escherichia coli. The glpD operon is tightly controlled by cooperative binding of the glp repressor to tandem operators (O(D)1 and O(D)2) that cover the -10 promoter element and 30 bp downstream of the transcription start site. In this work, two additional operators were identified within the glpD structural gene at positions 568 to 587 (0(D)3) and 609 to 628 (0(D)4). The two internal operators bound the glp repressor in the presence or absence of the tandem operators (O(D)1 and O(D)2) in vitro, as shown by DNase I footprinting. To assess a potential regulatory role for the two internal operators in vivo, a glpD-lacZ transcriptional fusion containing all four operators was constructed. The response of this fusion to the glp repressor was compared with those of fusion constructs in which O(D)3 and O(D)4 were inactivated by either deletion or site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that the repression conferred by binding of the glp repressor to O(D)1 and O(D)2 was increased five- to sevenfold upon introduction of the internal operators. A regulatory role for HU was suggested when it was found that repressor-mediated control of glpD transcription was increased fourfold in strains containing HU compared with that of strains deficient in HU. The effect of HU was apparent only in the presence of all four glpD operators. The results suggest that glpD is controlled by formation of a repression loop between the tandem and internal operators. HU may assist repression by bending the DNA to facilitate loop formation.
Project description:The nucleotide sequence of the glpEGR operon of Escherichia coli was determined. The translational reading frame at the beginning, middle, and end of each gene was verified. The glpE gene encodes an acidic, cytoplasmic protein of 108 amino acids with a molecular weight of 12,082. The glpG gene encodes a basic, cytoplasmic membrane-associated protein of 276 amino acids with a molecular weight of 31,278. The functions of GlpE and GlpG are unknown. The glpR gene encodes the repressor for the glycerol 3-phosphate regulon, a protein predicted to contain 252 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 28,048. The amino acid sequence of the glp repressor was similar to several repressors of carbohydrate catabolic systems, including those of the glucitol (GutR), fucose (FucR), and deoxyribonucleoside (DeoR) systems of E. coli, as well as those of the lactose (LacR) and inositol (IolR) systems of gram-positive bacteria and agrocinopine (AccR) system of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. These repressors constitute a family of related proteins, all of which contain approximately 250 amino acids, possess a helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif near the amino terminus, and bind a sugar phosphate molecule as the inducing signal. The DNA recognition helix of the glp repressor and the nucleotide sequence of the glp operator were very similar to those of the deo system. The presumptive recognition helix of the glp repressor was changed by site-directed mutagenesis to match that of the deo repressor or, in a separate construct, to abolish DNA binding. Neither altered form of the glp repressor recognized the glp or deo operator, either in vivo or in vitro. However, both altered forms of the glp repressor were negatively dominant to the wild-type glp repressor, indicating that the inability to bind DNA with high affinity was due to alteration of the DNA-binding domain, not to an inability to oligomerize or instability of the altered repressors. For the first time, analysis of repressors with altered DNA-binding domains has verified the assignment of the helix-turn-helix motif of the transcriptional regulators in the deoR family.
Project description:In this study, a DeoR/GlpR-type transcription factor was investigated for its potential role as a global regulator of sugar metabolism in haloarchaea, using Haloferax volcanii as a model organism. Common to a number of haloarchaea and Gram-positive bacterial species, the encoding glpR gene was chromosomally linked with genes of sugar metabolism. In H. volcanii, glpR was cotranscribed with the downstream phosphofructokinase (PFK; pfkB) gene, and the transcript levels of this glpR-pfkB operon were 10- to 20-fold higher when cells were grown on fructose or glucose than when they were grown on glycerol alone. GlpR was required for repression on glycerol based on significant increases in the levels of PFK (pfkB) transcript and enzyme activity detected upon deletion of glpR from the genome. Deletion of glpR also resulted in significant increases in both the activity and the transcript (kdgK1) levels of 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate kinase (KDGK), a key enzyme of haloarchaeal glucose metabolism, when cells were grown on glycerol, compared to the levels obtained for media with glucose. Promoter fusions to a ?-galactosidase bgaH reporter revealed that transcription of glpR-pfkB and kdgK1 was modulated by carbon source and GlpR, consistent with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and enzyme activity assays. The results presented here provide genetic and biochemical evidence that GlpR controls both fructose and glucose metabolic enzymes through transcriptional repression of the glpR-pfkB operon and kdgK1 during growth on glycerol.
Project description:The genes for the peripheral glycerol carbon metabolic pathway (glp) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are postulated to be positively regulated by GlpR. A gene complementing the glpR2 allele, affecting expression of the putative activator, was cloned by a bacteriophage mini-D3112-based in vivo cloning method. Mini-D3112 replicons were isolated by transfecting glpR2 strain PRP406 and selecting clones able to grow on minimal medium containing glycerol as the sole carbon and energy source. Preliminary biochemical characterization indicated that the cloned activator gene for glycerol metabolism (agmR) may not be allelic to glpR. Restriction analysis and recloning of DNA fragments located the agmR gene to a 2.3-kb EcoRV-SstI DNA fragment. In a T7 RNA polymerase expression system, a single 26,000-Da protein was expressed from this DNA fragment. The amino acid sequence of this protein, deduced from the nucleotide sequence reported here, demonstrates its homology to the effector (or regulator) proteins of the environmentally responsive two-component regulators. The carboxy-terminal region of AgmR contains a possible helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif and resembles sequences found in transcriptional regulators of the LuxR family.
Project description:We have identified a new gene, glpX, belonging to the glp regulon of Escherichia coli, located directly downstream of the glpK gene. The transcription of glpX is inducible with glycerol and sn-glycerol-3-phosphate and is constitutive in a glpR mutant. glpX is the third gene in the glpFKX operon. The function of GlpX remains unknown. GlpX has an apparent molecular weight of 40,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. In addition to determining the E. coli glpX sequence, we also sequenced the corresponding glpFKX region originating from Shigella flexneri, which after transfer into E. coli was instrumental in elucidating the function of glpF in glycerol transport (D. P. Richey and E. C. C. Lin, J. Bacteriol. 112:784-790, 1972). Sequencing of the glpFKX region of this hybrid strain revealed an amber mutation instead of the tryptophan 215 codon in glpF. The most striking difference between the E. coli and S. flexneri DNA was found directly behind glpK, where two repetitive (REP) sequences were present in S. flexneri, but not in the E. coli sequence. The presence or absence of these REP sequences had no effect on transport or on growth on glycerol. Not including the REP sequence-containing region, only 1.1% of a total of 2,167 bp sequenced was different in the two sequences. Comparison of the sequence with those in the EMBL data library revealed a 99% identity between the last third of glpX and the first part of a gene called mvrA. We show that the cloned mvrA gene (M. Morimyo, J. Bacteriol. 170:2136-2142, 1988) originated from the 88-min region of the Escherichia coli chromosome and not, as reported, from the 7-min region and that the gene product identified as MvrA is in fact encoded by a gene distal to glpX.
Project description:Nitrosoguanidine-induced Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants which were unable to utilize glycerol as a carbon source were isolated. By utilizing PAO104, a mutant defective in glycerol transport and sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (glpD), the glpD gene was cloned by a phage mini-D3112-based in vivo cloning method. The cloned gene was able to complement an Escherichia coli glpD mutant. Restriction analysis and recloning of DNA fragments located the glpD gene to a 1.6-kb EcoRI-SphI DNA fragment. In E. coli, a single 56,000-Da protein was expressed from the cloned DNA fragments. An in-frame glpD'-'lacZ translational fusion was isolated and used to determine the reading frame of glpD by sequencing across the fusion junction. The nucleotide sequence of a 1,792-bp fragment containing the glpD region was determined. The glpD gene encodes a protein containing 510 amino acids and with a predicted molecular weight of 56,150. Compared with the aerobic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from E. coli, P. aeruginosa GlpD is 56% identical and 69% similar. A similar comparison with GlpD from Bacillus subtilis reveals 21% identity and 40% similarity. A flavin-binding domain near the amino terminus which shared the consensus sequence reported for other bacterial flavoproteins was identified.
Project description:Yersinia pestis biovar Orientalis isolates have lost the capacity to ferment glycerol. Herein we provide experimental validation that a 93 bp in-frame deletion within the glpD gene encoding the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase present in all biovar Orientalis strains is sufficient to disrupt aerobic glycerol fermentation. Furthermore, the inability to ferment glycerol is often insured by a variety of additional mutations within the glpFKX operon which prevents glycerol internalization and conversion to glycerol-3-phosphate. The physiological impact of functional glpFKX in the presence of dysfunctional glpD was assessed. Results demonstrate no change in growth kinetics at 26 °C and 37 °C. Mutants deficient in glpD displayed decreased intracellular accumulation of glycerol-3-phosphate, a characterized inhibitor of cAMP receptor protein (CRP) activation. Since CRP is rigorously involved in global regulation Y. pestis virulence, we tested a possible influence of a single glpD mutation on virulence. Nonetheless, subcutaneous and intranasal murine challenge was not impacted by glycerol metabolism. As quantified by crystal violet assay, biofilm formation of the glpD-deficient KIM6+ mutant was mildly repressed; whereas, chromosomal restoration of glpD in CO92 resulted in a significant increase in biofilm formation.