Recruitment of chromatin-modifying enzymes by CTIP2 promotes HIV-1 transcriptional silencing.
ABSTRACT: Following entry and reverse transcription, the HIV-1 genome is integrated into the host genome. In contrast to productively infected cells, latently infected cells frequently harbor HIV-1 genomes integrated in heterochromatic structures, allowing persistence of transcriptionally silent proviruses. Microglial cells are the main HIV-1 target cells in the central nervous system and constitute an important reservoir for viral pathogenesis. In the present work, we show that, in microglial cells, the co-repressor COUP-TF interacting protein 2 (CTIP2) recruits a multienzymatic chromatin-modifying complex and establishes a heterochromatic environment at the HIV-1 promoter. We report that CTIP2 recruits histone deacetylase (HDAC)1 and HDAC2 to promote local histone H3 deacetylation at the HIV-1 promoter region. In addition, DNA-bound CTIP2 also associates with the histone methyltransferase SUV39H1, which increases local histone H3 lysine 9 methylation. This allows concomitant recruitment of HP1 proteins to the viral promoter and formation of local heterochromatin, leading to HIV-1 silencing. Altogether, our findings uncover new therapeutic opportunities for purging latent HIV-1 viruses from their cellular reservoirs.
Project description:Mammals have evolved many antiviral factors impacting different steps of the viral life cycle. Associated with chromatin-modifying enzymes, the cellular cofactor CTIP2 contributes to HIV-1 gene silencing in latently infected reservoirs that constitute the major block toward an HIV cure. We report, for the first time, that the virus has developed a strategy to overcome this major transcriptional block. Productive HIV-1 infection results in a Vpr-mediated depletion of CTIP2 in microglial cells and CD4+ T cells, two of the major viral reservoirs. Associated to the Cul4A-DDB1-DCAF1 ubiquitin ligase complex, Vpr promotes CTIP2 degradation via the proteasome pathway in the nuclei of target cells and notably at the latent HIV-1 promoter. Importantly, Vpr targets CTIP2 associated with heterochromatin-promoting enzymes dedicated to HIV-1 gene silencing. Thereby, Vpr reactivates HIV-1 expression in a microglial model of HIV-1 latency. Altogether our results suggest that HIV-1 Vpr mediates the depletion of the cellular repressor CTIP2 to counteract viral gene silencing.
Project description:HIV-1 latency generates reservoirs that prevent viral eradication by the current therapies. To find strategies toward an HIV cure, detailed understandings of the molecular mechanisms underlying establishment and persistence of the reservoirs are needed. The cellular transcription factor KAP1 is known as a potent repressor of gene transcription. Here we report that KAP1 represses HIV-1 gene expression in myeloid cells including microglial cells, the major reservoir of the central nervous system. Mechanistically, KAP1 interacts and colocalizes with the viral transactivator Tat to promote its degradation via the proteasome pathway and repress HIV-1 gene expression. In myeloid models of latent HIV-1 infection, the depletion of KAP1 increased viral gene elongation and reactivated HIV-1 expression. Bound to the latent HIV-1 promoter, KAP1 associates and cooperates with CTIP2, a key epigenetic silencer of HIV-1 expression in microglial cells. In addition, Tat and CTIP2 compete for KAP1 binding suggesting a dynamic modulation of the KAP1 cellular partners upon HIV-1 infection. Altogether, our results suggest that KAP1 contributes to the establishment and the persistence of HIV-1 latency in myeloid cells.
Project description:Among many cellular transcriptional regulators, Bcl11b/CTIP2 and HGMA1 have been described to control the establishment and the persistence of HIV-1 latency in microglial cells, the main viral reservoir in the brain. In this present work, we identify and characterize a transcription factor i.e. HIC1, which physically interacts with both Bcl11b/CTIP2 and HMGA1 to co-regulate specific subsets of cellular genes and the viral HIV-1 gene. Our results suggest that HIC1 represses Tat dependent HIV-1 transcription. Interestingly, this repression of Tat function is linked to HIC1 K314 acetylation status and to SIRT1 deacetylase activity. Finally, we show that HIC1 interacts and cooperates with HGMA1 to regulate Tat dependent HIV-1 transcription. Our results also suggest that HIC1 repression of Tat function happens in a TAR dependent manner and that this TAR element may serve as HIC1 reservoir at the viral promoter to facilitate HIC1/TAT interaction.
Project description:The mechanisms whereby the crucial pluripotency transcription factor Oct4 regulates target gene expression are incompletely understood. Using an assay system based on partially differentiated embryonic stem cells, we show that Oct4 opposes the accumulation of local H3K9me2 and subsequent Dnmt3a-mediated DNA methylation. Upon binding DNA, Oct4 recruits the histone lysine demethylase Jmjd1c. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) time course experiments identify a stepwise Oct4 mechanism involving Jmjd1c recruitment and H3K9me2 demethylation, transient FACT (facilitates chromatin transactions) complex recruitment, and nucleosome depletion. Genome-wide and targeted ChIP confirms binding of newly synthesized Oct4, together with Jmjd1c and FACT, to the Pou5f1 enhancer and a small number of other Oct4 targets, including the Nanog promoter. Histone demethylation is required for both FACT recruitment and H3 depletion. Jmjd1c is required to induce endogenous Oct4 expression and fully reprogram fibroblasts to pluripotency, indicating that the assay system identifies functional Oct4 cofactors. These findings indicate that Oct4 sequentially recruits activities that catalyze histone demethylation and depletion.
Project description:Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TF)-interacting protein 2 (CTIP2), also known as Bcl11b, is a transcriptional repressor that functions by direct, sequence-specific DNA binding activity or by recruitment to the promoter template by interaction with COUP-TF family members. CTIP2 is essential for both T cell development and axonal projections of corticospinal motor neurons in the central nervous system. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanism(s) by which CTIP2 contributes to either process. CTIP2 complexes that were isolated from SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells were found to harbor substantial histone deacetylase activity, which was likely conferred by the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation (NuRD) complex. CTIP2 was found to associate with the NuRD complex through direct interaction with both RbAp46 and RbAp48, and components of the NuRD complex were found to be recruited to an artificial promoter template in a CTIP2-dependent manner in transfected cells. Finally, the NuRD complex and CTIP2 were found to co-occupy the promoter template of p57KIP2, a gene encoding a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and identified herein as a novel transcriptional target of CTIP2 in SK-N-MC cells. Therefore, it seems likely that the NuRD complex may be involved in transcriptional repression of CTIP2 target genes and contribute to the function(s) of CTIP2 within a neuronal context.
Project description:The function of upstream binding factor (UBF), an essential component of the RNA polymerase (pol) I preinitiation complex, is unclear. Recently, UBF was found distributed throughout ribosomal gene repeats rather than being restricted to promoter regions. This observation has led to the speculation that one role of UBF binding may be to induce chromatin remodeling. To directly evaluate the impact of UBF on chromatin structure, we used an in vivo assay in which UBF is targeted via a lac repressor fusion protein to a heterochromatic, amplified chromosome region containing lac operator repeats. We show that the association of UBF with this locus induces large-scale chromatin decondensation. This process does not appear to involve common remodeling complexes, including SWI/SNF and histone acetyltransferases, and is independent of histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation. However, UBF recruits the pol I-specific, TATA box-binding protein containing complex SL1 and pol I subunits. Our results suggest a working hypothesis in which the dynamic association of UBF with ribosomal DNA clusters recruits the pol I transcription machinery and maintains these loci in a transcriptionally competent configuration. These studies also provide an in vivo model simulating ribosomal DNA transactivation outside the nucleolus, allowing temporal and spatial analyses of chromatin remodeling and assembly of the pol I transcription machinery.
Project description:Active positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) is essential for cellular and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription elongation. CTIP2 represses P-TEFb activity in a complex containing 7SK RNA and HEXIM1. Recently, the inactive 7SK/P-TEFb small nuclear RNP (snRNP) has been detected at the HIV-1 core promoter as well as at the promoters of cellular genes, but a recruiting mechanism still remains unknown to date. Here we show global synergy between CTIP2 and the 7SK-binding chromatin master-regulator HMGA1 in terms of P-TEFb-dependent endogenous and HIV-1 gene expression regulation. While CTIP2 and HMGA1 concordingly repress the expression of cellular 7SK-dependent P-TEFb targets, the simultaneous knock-down of CTIP2 and HMGA1 also results in a boost in Tat-dependent and independent HIV-1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments reveal a significant loss of CTIP2/7SK/P-TEFb snRNP recruitment to cellular gene promoters and the HIV-1 promoter on HMGA1 knock-down. Our findings not only provide insights into a recruiting mechanism for the inactive 7SK/P-TEFb snRNP, but may also contribute to a better understanding of viral latency.
Project description:The heterochromatic domains of Drosophila melanogaster (pericentric heterochromatin, telomeres, and the fourth chromosome) are characterized by histone hypoacetylation, high levels of histone H3 methylated on lysine 9 (H3-mK9), and association with heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). While the specific interaction of HP1 with both H3-mK9 and histone methyltransferases suggests a mechanism for the maintenance of heterochromatin, it leaves open the question of how heterochromatin formation is targeted to specific domains. Expression characteristics of reporter transgenes inserted at different sites in the fourth chromosome define a minimum of three euchromatic and three heterochromatic domains, interspersed. Here we searched for cis-acting DNA sequence determinants that specify heterochromatic domains. Genetic screens for a switch in phenotype demonstrate that local deletions or duplications of 5 to 80 kb of DNA flanking a transposon reporter can lead to the loss or acquisition of variegation, pointing to short-range cis-acting determinants for silencing. This silencing is dependent on HP1. A switch in transgene expression correlates with a switch in chromatin structure, judged by nuclease accessibility. Mapping data implicate the 1360 transposon as a target for heterochromatin formation. We propose that heterochromatin formation is initiated at dispersed repetitive elements along the fourth chromosome and spreads for approximately 10 kb or until encountering competition from a euchromatic determinant.
Project description:Activation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis is pivotal during cell growth and proliferation, but its aberrant upregulation may promote tumorigenesis. Here, we demonstrate that the candidate oncoprotein, LYAR, enhances ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription. Our data reveal that LYAR binds the histone-associated protein BRD2 without involvement of acetyl-lysine-binding bromodomains and recruits BRD2 to the rDNA promoter and transcribed regions via association with upstream binding factor. We show that BRD2 is required for the recruitment of the MYST-type acetyltransferase KAT7 to rDNA loci, resulting in enhanced local acetylation of histone H4. In addition, LYAR binds a complex of BRD4 and KAT7, which is then recruited to rDNA independently of the BRD2-KAT7 complex to accelerate the local acetylation of both H4 and H3. BRD2 also helps recruit BRD4 to rDNA. By contrast, LYAR has no effect on rDNA methylation or the binding of RNA polymerase I subunits to rDNA. These data suggest that LYAR promotes the association of the BRD2-KAT7 and BRD4-KAT7 complexes with transcription-competent rDNA loci but not to transcriptionally silent rDNA loci, thereby increasing rRNA synthesis by altering the local acetylation status of histone H3 and H4.
Project description:Heterochromatic gene silencing at the pericentromeric DNA repeats in fission yeast requires the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery. The RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complex mediates histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation and recruits the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex (RDRC) to promote double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) synthesis and siRNA generation. Here we show that ectopic expression of a long hairpin RNA bypasses the requirement for chromatin-dependent steps in siRNA generation. The ability of hairpin-produced siRNAs to silence homologous sequences in trans is subject to local chromatin structure, requires HP1, and correlates with antisense transcription at the target locus. Furthermore, although hairpin siRNAs can be produced in the absence of RDRC, trans-silencing of reporter genes by hairpin-produced siRNAs is completely dependent on the dsRNA synthesis activity of RDRC. These results provide insights into the regulation of siRNA action and reveal roles for cis-dsRNA synthesis and HP1 in siRNA-mediated heterochromatin assembly.