S-formylglutathione hydrolase of Paracoccus denitrificans is homologous to human esterase D: a universal pathway for formaldehyde detoxification?
ABSTRACT: Downstream of flhA, the Paracoccus denitrificans gene encoding glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase, an open reading frame was identified and called fghA. The gene product of fghA showed appreciable similarity with human esterase D and with the deduced amino acid sequences of open reading frames found in Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutating fghA strongly reduced S-formylglutathione hydrolase activity. The mutant was unable to grow on methanol and methylamine, indicating that the enzyme is essential for methylotrophic growth. S-Formylglutathione hydrolase appears to be part of a formaldehyde detoxification pathway that is universal in nature.
Project description:A chromosomal region encoding a two-component regulatory system, FlhRS, has been isolated from Paracoccus denitrificans. FlhRS-deficient mutants were unable to grow on methanol, methylamine, or choline as the carbon and energy source. Expression of the gene encoding glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (fhlA) was undetectable in the mutant, and expression of the S-formylglutathione hydrolase gene (fghA) was reduced in the mutant background. In addition, methanol dehydrogenase was immunologically undetectable in cell extracts of FhlRS mutants. These results indicate that the FlhRS sensor-regulator pair is involved in the regulation of formaldehyde, methanol, and methylamine oxidation. The effect that the FlhRS proteins exert on the regulation of C(1) metabolism might be essential to maintain the internal concentration of formaldehyde below toxic levels.
Project description:NAD- and glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (GD-FALDH) of Paracoccus denitrificans has been purified as a tetramer with a relative molecular mass of 150 kDa. The gene encoding GD-FALDH (flhA) has been isolated, sequenced, and mutated by insertion of a kanamycin resistance gene. The mutant strain is not able to grow on methanol, methylamine, or choline, while heterotrophic growth is not influenced by the mutation. This finding indicates that GD-FALDH of P. denitrificans is essential for the oxidation of formaldehyde produced during methylotrophic growth.
Project description:Formaldehyde is a toxin and carcinogen that is both an environmental pollutant and an endogenous metabolite. Formaldehyde metabolism, which is probably essential for all aerobic cells, likely proceeds via multiple mechanisms, including via a glutathione-dependent pathway that is widely conserved in bacteria, plants and animals. However, it is unclear whether the first step in the glutathione-dependent pathway (i.e. formation of S-hydroxymethylglutathione (HMG)) is enzyme-catalysed. We report studies on glutathione-dependent formaldehyde-activating enzyme (GFA) from Paracoccus denitrificans, which has been proposed to catalyse HMG formation from glutathione and formaldehyde on the basis of studies using NMR exchange spectroscopy (EXSY). Although we were able to replicate the EXSY results, time course experiments unexpectedly imply that GFA does not catalyse HMG formation under standard conditions. However, GFA was observed to bind glutathione using NMR and mass spectrometry. Overall, the results reveal that GFA binds glutathione but does not directly catalyse HMG formation under standard conditions. Thus, it is possible that GFA acts as a glutathione carrier that acts to co-localise glutathione and formaldehyde in a cellular context.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of Paracoccus denitrificans PD1222 wild type grown to mid-exponential phase in minimal media with either 13 uM (Cu-H) or 0.5 uM (Cu-L) Cu regimes. The goal was to define the effects of Cu-limitation on denitrification genes Two growth conditions, three biological replicates of each condition. Each sample hybridised in a two-channel hybridization against Paracoccus denitrificans genomic DNA as the comparator/reference, which also acted as a control for spot quality. Cu-concentration 13 uM (Cu-H) versus 0.5 uM Cu (Cu-L) in anaerobic growth conditions.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of Paracoccus denitrificans PD1222 wild type grown to mid-exponential phase in minimal media with either 13 uM (Cu-H) or 0.5 uM (Cu-L) Cu regimes. The goal was to define the effects of Cu-limitation on denitrification genes Overall design: Two growth conditions, three biological replicates of each condition. Each sample hybridised in a two-channel hybridization against Paracoccus denitrificans genomic DNA as the comparator/reference, which also acted as a control for spot quality. Cu-concentration 13 uM (Cu-H) versus 0.5 uM Cu (Cu-L) in anaerobic growth conditions.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of Paracoccus denitrificans PD1222 wild type incubated in continuous culture (continuous culture (CSTR)) in minimal media with aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The goal was to define the core respiratory genes. Overall design: Two growth conditions, three biological replicates of each condition. Each sample hybridised in a two-channel hybridization against Paracoccus denitrificans genomic DNA as the comparator/reference, which also acted as a control for spot quality.
Project description:Genes encoding 3-hydroxybutyrate oligomer hydrolase (PhaZc) and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (Hbd) were isolated from Paracoccus denitrificans. PhaZc and Hbd were overproduced as His-tagged proteins in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity and gel filtration chromatography. Purified His-tagged proteins had molecular masses of 31 kDa and 120 kDa (a tetramer of 29-kDa subunits). The His-tagged PhaZc hydrolyzed not only 3-hydroxybutyrate oligomers but also 3-hydroxyvalerate oligomers. The His-tagged Hbd catalyzed the dehydrogenation of 3-hydroxyvalerate as well as 3-hydroxybutyrate. When both enzymes were included in the same enzymatic reaction system with 3-hydroxyvalerate dimer, sequential reactions occurred, suggesting that PhaZc and Hbd play an important role in the intracellular degradation of poly(3-hydroxyvalerate). When the phaZc gene was disrupted in P. denitrificans by insertional inactivation, the mutant strain lost PhaZc activity. When the phaZc-disrupted P. denitrificans was complemented with phaZc, PhaZc activity was restored. These results suggest that P. denitrificans carries a single phaZc gene. Disruption of the phaZc gene in P. denitrificans affected the degradation rate of PHA.
Project description:Based on protein sequence homology searches, we found a conserved open reading frame within the genome of several human pathogenic bacteria showing a resemblance to the mammalian TIR domain. We cloned, expressed, and characterized the corresponding gene product from Paracoccus denitrificans using several biophysical techniques. The protein consists of two independently folded domains. As predicted from the amino acid sequence and experimentally confirmed here, the N-terminal domain consists of a alpha-helical coiled-coil. The NMR data indicates that the C-terminal TIR-like domain folds into a compact protein. Finally, using GST pull-down experiments, we show that the bacteria TIR-like domain binds to the mammalian receptor (TLR4) and adaptor (MyD88) TIR domains. We postulate that prokaryotic pathogens utilize the TIR-like proteins to interfere with the innate immune response of the mammalian host so that the bacterial infection can progress undetected.
Project description:A 3.6-kb EcoRI-SalI fragment of Paracoccus denitrificans DNA hybridized with a DNA probe carrying the poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) synthase gene (phaC) of Alcaligenes eutrophus. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this region showed the presence of a 1,872-bp open reading frame (ORF), which corresponded to a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 69,537. Upstream of the ORF, a promoter-like sequence was found. Escherichia coli carrying the fusion gene between lacZ and the ORF accumulated a level of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) that was as much as 20 wt% of the cell dry weight in the presence of beta-ketothiolase and acetoacetylcoenzyme A reductase genes of A. eutrophus. The ORF was designated phaCPd. A plasmid vector carrying the phaCPd'-'lacZ fusion gene downstream of the promoter-like sequence expressed beta-galactosidase activity in P. denitrificans. When a multicopy and broad-host-range vector carrying the ORF along with the promoter-like sequence was introduced into P. denitrificans, the PHA content in the cells increased by twofold compared with cells carrying only a vector sequence.
Project description:We have developed a stable isopropyl-beta-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible-expression plasmid, pIND4, which allows graduated levels of protein expression in the alphaproteobacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Paracoccus denitrificans. pIND4 confers kanamycin resistance and combines the stable replicon of pMG160 with the lacI(q) gene from pYanni3 and the lac promoter, P(A1/04/03), from pJBA24.