Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) promotes B cell lymphomagenesis in Emu-cmyc transgenic mice.
ABSTRACT: Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which is essential to both class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation of the Ig gene, is expressed in many types of human B cell lymphoma/leukemia. AID is a potent mutator because it is involved in DNA breakage not only of Ig but also of other genes, including proto-oncogenes. Recent studies suggest that AID is required for chromosomal translocation involving cmyc and Ig loci. However, it is unclear whether AID plays other roles in tumorigenesis. We examined the effect of AID deficiency on the generation of surface Ig-positive B cell lymphomas in Emu-cmyc transgenic mice. Almost all lymphomas that developed in AID-deficient transgenic mice were pre-B cell lymphomas, whereas control transgenic mice had predominantly B cell lymphomas, indicating that AID is required for development of B but not pre-B cell lymphomas from cmyc overexpressing tumor progenitors. Thus, AID may play multiple roles in B cell lymphomagenesis.
Project description:Immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype switching is a recombination event that changes the constant domain of antibody genes and is catalyzed by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Upon recruitment to Ig genes, AID deaminates cytidines at switch (S) recombination sites, leading to the formation of DNA breaks. In addition to their role in isotype switching, AID-induced lesions promote Igh-cMyc chromosomal translocations and tumor development. However, cMyc translocations are also present in lymphocytes from healthy humans and mice, and thus, it remains unclear whether AID directly contributes to the dynamics of B cell transformation. Using a plasmacytoma mouse model, we show that AID(+/-) mice have reduced AID expression levels and display haploinsufficiency both in the context of isotype switching and plasmacytomagenesis. At the Ig loci, AID(+/-) lymphocytes show impaired intra- and inter-switch recombination, and a substantial decrease in the frequency of S mutations and chromosomal breaks. In AID(+/-) mice, these defects correlate with a marked decrease in the accumulation of B cell clones carrying Igh-cMyc translocations during tumor latency. These results thus provide a causality link between the extent of AID enzymatic activity, the number of emerging Igh-cMyc-translocated cells, and the incidence of B cell transformation.
Project description:The effect of p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest and senescence on Emu-myc-induced B-cell lymphoma development remains controversial. To address this question, we crossed Emu-myc mice with the p53(515C) mutant mouse, encoding the mutant p53R172P protein that retains the ability to activate the cell-cycle inhibitor and senescence activator p21. Importantly, this mutant lacks the ability to activate p53-dependent apoptotic genes. Hence, Emu-myc mice that harbor two p53(515C) alleles are completely defective for p53-dependent apoptosis. Both Emu-myc::p53(515C/515C) and Emu-myc::p53(515C/+) mice survive significantly longer than Emu-myc::p53(+/-) mice, indicating the importance of the p53-dependent non-apoptotic pathways in B-cell lymphomagenesis. In addition, the p53(515C) allele is deleted in several Emu-myc::p53(515C/+) lymphomas, further emphasizing the functionality of p53R172P in tumor inhibition. Lymphomas from both Emu-myc::p53(515C/515C) and Emu-myc::p53(515C/+) mice retain the ability to upregulate p21, resulting in cellular senescence. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA beta-gal) activity was observed in lymphomas from Emu-myc::p53(+/+), Emu-myc::p53(515C/515C) and Emu-myc::p53(515C /+) mice but not in lymphomas isolated from Emu-myc::p53(+/-) mice. Thus, in the absence of p53-dependent apoptosis, the ability of p53R172P to induce senescence leads to a significant delay in B-cell lymphoma development.
Project description:Intracellular factors are involved in and essential for hematopoiesis. HIV-1 Tat-interacting protein of 110 kDa (TIP110; p110(nrb)/SART3/p110) is an RNA-binding nuclear protein implicated in the regulation of HIV-1 gene and host gene transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, and cancer immunology. In the present study, we demonstrate a role for TIP110 in the regulation of hematopoiesis. TIP110 was expressed in human CD34(+) cells and decreased with differentiation of CD34(+) cells. TIP110 mRNA was also expressed in phenotyped mouse marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Using TIP110 transgenic (TIP110(TG)) and haploinsufficient (TIP110(+/-)) mice, we found that increased TIP110 expression enhanced HPC numbers, survival, and cell cycling, whereas decreased TIP110 expression had the opposite effects. Moreover, TIP110(+/-) bone marrow HPCs responded more effectively, and TIP110(TG) HPCs less effectively, than those of wild-type control mice to recovery from the cell-cycle-active drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Unexplained sex differences were noted in HSC competitive repopulating ability, but not HPC numbers, in TIP110(TG) mice. Intracellularly, TIP110 regulated CMYC and GATA2 expression at the transcriptional level, and TIP110 and CMYC reciprocally regulated the expression of each other. These results demonstrate a role for TIP110 in the regulation of hematopoiesis, effects that are likely linked to TIP110 regulation of CMYC.
Project description:To determine functional overlap between cMyc and AP4 in CD8+ T cell priming, we retrovirally expressed cMyc or AP4 in cMyc-deficient CD8+ T cells and examined gene expression after activation. Naive CD8+ T cells from Myc conditional knockout mice with a tamoxifen inducible Cre transgene were retrovirally transduced with Myc or AP4 followed by a treatment with 4-hydroxytamoxifen in the presence of IL-7 for 2 days. RNA was harvested 48 hours after restimulation of transduced cells with anti-CD3 antibody and gene expression was compared by microarray. CD8+ T cells from littermate wildtype mice that were transduced with an empty retrovirus were used as control.
Project description:Deregulation of c-myc by translocation onto immunoglobulin (Ig) loci can promote B cell malignant proliferations with phenotypes as diverse as acute lymphoid leukemia, Burkitt lymphoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, myeloma... The B cell receptor (BCR) normally providing tonic signals for cell survival and mitogenic responses to antigens, can also contribute to lymphomagenesis upon sustained ligand binding or activating mutations. BCR signaling varies among cell compartments and BCR classes. For unknown reasons, some malignancies associate with expression of either IgM or class-switched Ig. We explored whether an IgA BCR, with strong tonic signaling, would affect lymphomagenesis in c-myc IgH 3'RR transgenic mice prone to lymphoproliferations. Breeding c-myc transgenics in a background where IgM expression was replaced with IgA delayed lymphomagenesis. By comparison to single c-myc transgenics, lymphomas from double mutant animals were more differentiated and less aggressive, with an altered transcriptional program. Larger tumor cells more often expressed CD43 and CD138, which culminated in a plasma cell phenotype in 10% of cases. BCR class-specific signals thus appear to modulate lymphomagenesis and may partly explain the observed association of specific Ig classes with human B cell malignancies of differential phenotype, progression and prognosis.
Project description:p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) participates in the cellular response to DNA double-stranded breaks where it associates with various DNA repair/cell cycle factors including the H2AX histone variant. Mice deficient for 53BP1 (53BP1(-/-)) are sensitive to ionizing radiation and immunodeficient because of impaired Ig heavy chain class switch recombination. Here we show that, as compared with p53(-/-) mice, 53BP1(-/-)/p53(-/-) animals more rapidly develop tumors, including T cell lymphomas and, at lower frequency, B lineage lymphomas, sarcomas, and teratomas. In addition, T cells from animals deficient for both 53BP1 and p53 (53BP1(-/-)/p53(-/-)) display elevated levels of genomic instability relative to T cells deficient for either 53BP1 or p53 alone. In contrast to p53(-/-) T cell lymphomas, which routinely display aneuploidy but not translocations, 53BP1(-/-)/p53(-/-) thymic lymphomas fall into two distinct cytogenetic categories, with many harboring clonal translocations (40%) and the remainder showing aneuploidy (60%). We propose that 53BP1, in the context of p53 deficiency, suppresses T cell lymphomagenesis through its roles in both cell-cycle checkpoints and double-stranded break repair.
Project description:The NF-kappaB2 gene is recurrently mutated in human lymphoid malignancies. However, a causal relationship between NF-kappaB2 mutation and lymphomagenesis has not been established. It is also unclear how the mutation may lead to lymphoid malignancies. We report the generation of transgenic mice with targeted expression of p80HT, a lymphoma-associated NF-kappaB2 mutant, in lymphocytes. The transgenic mice display a marked expansion of peripheral B cell populations and develop predominantly small B cell lymphomas. p80HT expression has no apparent effect on the proliferation of B cells, but renders them specifically resistant to apoptosis induced by cytokine deprivation and mitogenic stimulation. Lymphocytes and lymphoma cells from p80HT mice express high levels of TRAF1, an antiapoptotic protein also implicated in lymphoid malignancies. p80HT binds the TRAF1 promoter in vivo and activates TRAF1 transcription. Moreover, TRAF1 knockdown abrogates the antiapoptotic activity of p80HT and TRAF1 deficiency reestablishes B cell homeostasis in p80HT mice. These findings demonstrate NF-kappaB2 mutation as an oncogenic event in vivo and suggest a molecular pathway for TRAF1 activation in the pathogenesis of lymphomas.
Project description:Rearrangements of MYC or ABL proto-oncogenes lead to deregulated expression of key-regulators of cell cycle and cell survival, thereby constituting important drivers of blood cancer. Members of the BCL-2 family of apoptosis regulators contribute to oncogenic transformation downstream of these oncogenes, but the role of anti-apoptotic BCL2A1/A1 in transformation and drug resistance caused by deregulation of these oncogenes remains enigmatic. Here we analyzed the role of A1 in MYC as well as ABL kinase-driven blood cancer in mice, employing in vivo RNAi. We report that overexpression of either oncogene leads to a significant increase in A1 protein levels in otherwise A1-negative B cell progenitors, indicating a key role downstream of these oncogenes to secure survival during transformation. Knockdown of A1 by RNAi, however, did not impact on tumor latency in v-Abl-driven pre-B-ALL. In contrast, A1 knockdown in premalignant E?-MYC mice caused a significant reduction of transgenic pre-B cells without impacting on tumor latency as the emerging lymphomas escaped silencing of A1 expression. These findings identify A1 as a MYC target that can be induced prematurely during B cell development to aid expansion of otherwise cell-death-prone MYC transgenic pre-B cells. Hence, A1 should be considered as a putative drug target in MYC-driven blood cancer.
Project description:Epigenetic changes are among the most common alterations observed in cancer cells, yet the mechanism by which cancer cells acquire and maintain abnormal DNA methylation patterns is not understood. Cancer cells have an altered distribution of DNA methylation and express aberrant DNA methyltransferase 3B transcripts, which encode truncated proteins, some of which lack the COOH-terminal catalytic domain. To test if a truncated DNMT3B isoform disrupts DNA methylation in vivo, we constructed two lines of transgenic mice expressing DNMT3B7, a truncated DNMT3B isoform commonly found in cancer cells. DNMT3B7 transgenic mice exhibit altered embryonic development, including lymphopenia, craniofacial abnormalities, and cardiac defects, similar to Dnmt3b-deficient animals, but rarely develop cancer. However, when DNMT3B7 transgenic mice are bred with Emicro-Myc transgenic mice, which model aggressive B-cell lymphoma, DNMT3B7 expression increases the frequency of mediastinal lymphomas in Emicro-Myc animals. Emicro-Myc/DNMT3B7 mediastinal lymphomas have more chromosomal rearrangements, increased global DNA methylation levels, and more locus-specific perturbations in DNA methylation patterns compared with Emicro-Myc lymphomas. These data represent the first in vivo modeling of cancer-associated DNA methylation changes and suggest that truncated DNMT3B isoforms contribute to the redistribution of DNA methylation characterizing virtually every human tumor.
Project description:Upon activation, B cells divide, form a germinal center, and express the activation induced deaminase (AID), an enzyme that triggers somatic hypermutation of the variable regions of immunoglobulin (Ig) loci. Recent evidence indicates that at least 25% of expressed genes in germinal center B cells are mutated or deaminated by AID. One of the most deaminated genes, c-Myc, frequently appears as a translocation partner with the Ig heavy chain gene (Igh) in mouse plasmacytomas and human Burkitt's lymphomas. This indicates that the two genes or their double-strand break ends come into close proximity at a biologically relevant frequency. However, the proximity of c-Myc and Igh has never been measured in germinal center B cells, where many such translocations are thought to occur. We hypothesized that in germinal center B cells, not only is c-Myc near Igh, but other mutating non-Ig genes are deaminated by AID because they are near Ig genes, the primary targets of AID. We tested this "collateral damage" model using 3D-fluorescence in situ hybridization (3D-FISH) to measure the distance from non-Ig genes to Ig genes in germinal center B cells. We also made mice transgenic for human MYC and measured expression and mutation of the transgenes. We found that there is no correlation between proximity to Ig genes and levels of AID targeting or gene mutation, and that c-Myc was not closer to Igh than were other non-Ig genes. In addition, the human MYC transgenes did not accumulate mutations and were not deaminated by AID. We conclude that proximity to Ig loci is unlikely to be a major determinant of AID targeting or mutation of non-Ig genes, and that the MYC transgenes are either missing important regulatory elements that allow mutation or are unable to mutate because their new nuclear position is not conducive to AID deamination.