Induction of actinorhodin production by rpsL (encoding ribosomal protein S12) mutations that confer streptomycin resistance in Streptomyces lividans and Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).
ABSTRACT: A strain of Streptomyces lividans, TK24, was found to produce a pigmented antibiotic, actinorhodin, although S. lividans normally does not produce this antibiotic. Genetic analyses revealed that a streptomycin-resistant mutation str-6 in strain TK24 is responsible for induction of antibiotic synthesis. DNA sequencing showed that str-6 is a point mutation in the rpsL gene encoding ribosomal protein S12, changing Lys-88 to Glu. Gene replacement experiments with the Lys88-->Glu str allele demonstrated unambiguously that the str mutation is alone responsible for the activation of actinorhodin production observed. In contrast, the strA1 mutation, a genetic marker frequently used for crosses, did not restore actinorhodin production and was found to result in an amino acid alteration of Lys-43 to Asn. Induction of actinorhodin production was also detected in strain TK21, which does not harbor the str-6 mutation, when cells were incubated with sufficient streptomycin or tetracycline to reduce the cell's growth rate, and 40 and 3% of streptomycin- or tetracycline-resistant mutants, respectively, derived from strain TK21 produced actinorhodin. Streptomycin-resistant mutations also blocked the inhibitory effects of relA and brgA mutations on antibiotic production, aerial mycelium formation or both. These str mutations changed Lys-88 to Glu or Arg and Arg-86 to His in ribosomal protein S12. The decrease in streptomycin production in relC mutants in Streptomyces griseus could also be abolished completely by introducing streptomycin-resistant mutations, although the impairment in antibiotic production due to bldA (in Streptomyces coelicolor) or afs mutations (in S. griseus) was not eliminated. These results indicate that the onset and extent of secondary metabolism in Streptomyces spp. is significantly controlled by the translational machinery.
Project description:We developed a novel approach for improving the production of antibiotic from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) by inducing combined drug-resistant mutations. Mutants with enhanced (1.6- to 3-fold-higher) actinorhodin production were detected at a high frequency (5 to 10%) among isolates resistant to streptomycin (Str(r)), gentamicin (Gen(r)), or rifampin (Rif(r)), which developed spontaneously on agar plates which contained one of the three drugs. Construction of double mutants (str gen and str rif) by introducing gentamicin or rifampin resistance into an str mutant resulted in further increased (1.7- to 2.5-fold-higher) actinorhodin productivity. Likewise, triple mutants (str gen rif) thus constructed were found to have an even greater ability for producing the antibiotic, eventually generating a mutant able to produce 48 times more actinorhodin than the wild-type strain. Analysis of str mutants revealed that a point mutation occurred within the rpsL gene, which encodes the ribosomal protein S12. rif mutants were found to have a point mutation in the rpoB gene, which encodes the beta-subunit of RNA polymerase. Mutation points in gen mutants still remain unknown. These single, double, and triple mutants displayed in hierarchical order a remarkable increase in the production of ActII-ORF4, a pathway-specific regulatory protein, as determined by Western blotting analysis. This reflects the same hierarchical order observed for the increase in actinorhodin production. The superior ability of the triple mutants was demonstrated by physiological analyses under various cultural conditions. We conclude that by inducing combined drug-resistant mutations we can continuously increase the production of antibiotic in a stepwise manner. This new breeding approach could be especially effective for initially improving the production of antibiotics from wild-type strains.
Project description:Sequencing of a 4.3-kb DNA region from the chromosome of Streptomyces argillaceus, a mithramycin producer, revealed the presence of two open reading frames (ORFs). The first one (orfA) codes for a protein that resembles several transport proteins. The second one (mtmR) codes for a protein similar to positive regulators involved in antibiotic biosynthesis (DnrI, SnoA, ActII-orf4, CcaR, and RedD) belonging to the Streptomyces antibiotic regulatory protein (SARP) family. Both ORFs are separated by a 1.9-kb, apparently noncoding region. Replacement of the mtmR region by an antibiotic resistance cassette completely abolished mithramycin biosynthesis. Expression of mtmR in a high-copy-number vector in S. argillaceus caused a 16-fold increase in mithramycin production. The mtmR gene restored actinorhodin production in Streptomyces coelicolor JF1 mutant, in which the actinorhodin-specific activator ActII-orf4 is inactive, and also stimulated actinorhodin production by Streptomyces lividans TK21. A 241-bp region located 1.9 kb upstream of mtmR was found to be repeated approximately 50 kb downstream of mtmR at the other end of the mithramycin gene cluster. A model to explain a possible route for the acquisition of the mithramycin gene cluster by S. argillaceus is proposed.
Project description:Physiological differentiation (including antibiotic production) in microorganisms usually starts when cells encounter adverse environmental conditions and is frequently accompanied by an increase in the accumulation of intracellular ppGpp. We have found that the acquisition of certain streptomycin-resistant (str) mutations enables cells to overproduce antibiotics, demonstrating an increase in productivity 5- to 50-fold greater than that of wild-type strains. The frequency of such antibiotic-overproducing strains among the str mutants was shown to range from 3 to 46%, as examined with several strains of the genera Streptomyces, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas. Analysis of str mutants from Bacillus subtilis Marburg 168 revealed that a point mutation occurred within the rpsL gene, which encodes the ribosomal protein S12, changing Lys-56 (corresponding to Lys-43 in Escherichia coli) to Asn, Arg, Thr, or Gln. Antibiotic productivity increased in a hierarchical manner depending upon which amino acid residue replaced Lys at this position. The strA1 mutation, a genetic marker frequently used for mapping, had no effect on antibiotic productivity even though it was found to result in an amino acid alteration of Lys-56 to Ile. Gene replacement experiments with the str alleles demonstrated unambiguously that the str mutation is responsible for the antibiotic overproductivity observed. These results offer a rational approach for improving the production of antibiotic (secondary metabolism) from microorganisms.
Project description:Certain str mutations that confer high- or low-level streptomycin resistance result in the overproduction of antibiotics by Streptomyces spp. The str mutations that confer the high-level resistance occur within rpsL, which encodes the ribosomal protein S12, while those that cause low-level resistance are not as well known. We have used comparative genome sequencing to determine that low-level resistance is caused by mutations of rsmG, which encodes an S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent 16S rRNA methyltransferase containing a SAM binding motif. Deletion of rsmG from wild-type Streptomyces coelicolor resulted in the acquisition of streptomycin resistance and the overproduction of the antibiotic actinorhodin. Introduction of wild-type rsmG into the deletion mutant completely abrogated the effects of the rsmG deletion, confirming that rsmG mutation underlies the observed phenotype. Consistent with earlier work using a spontaneous rsmG mutant, the strain carrying DeltarsmG exhibited increased SAM synthetase activity, which mediated the overproduction of antibiotic. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the DeltarsmG mutant lacked a 7-methylguanosine modification in the 16S rRNA (possibly at position G518, which corresponds to G527 of Escherichia coli). Like certain rpsL mutants, the DeltarsmG mutant exhibited enhanced protein synthetic activity during the late growth phase. Unlike rpsL mutants, however, the DeltarsmG mutant showed neither greater stability of the 70S ribosomal complex nor increased expression of ribosome recycling factor, suggesting that the mechanism underlying increased protein synthesis differs in the rsmG and the rpsL mutants. Finally, spontaneous rsmG mutations arose at a 1,000-fold-higher frequency than rpsL mutations. These findings provide new insight into the role of rRNA modification in activating secondary metabolism in Streptomyces.
Project description:Streptomyces species are important antibiotic-producing organisms that tightly regulate their antibiotic production. Actinorhodin is a typical antibiotic produced by the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor To discover the regulators of actinorhodin production, we constructed a library of 50,000 independent mutants with hyperactive Tn5 transposase-based transposition systems. Five hundred fifty-one genes were found to influence actinorhodin production in 988 individual mutants. Genetic complementation suggested that most of the insertions (76%) were responsible for the changes in antibiotic production. Genes involved in diverse cellular processes such as amino acid biosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall homeostasis, and DNA metabolism affected actinorhodin production. Genome-wide mutagenesis can identify novel genes and pathways that impact antibiotic levels, potentially aiding in engineering strains to optimize the production of antibiotics in Streptomyces IMPORTANCE Previous studies have shown that various genes can influence antibiotic production in Streptomyces and that intercommunication between regulators can complicate antibiotic production. Therefore, to gain a better understanding of antibiotic regulation, a genome-wide perspective on genes that influence antibiotic production was needed. We searched for genes that affected production of the antibiotic actinorhodin using a genome-wide gene disruption system. We identified 551 genes that altered actinorhodin levels, and more than half of these genes were newly identified effectors. Some of these genes may be candidates for engineering Streptomyces strains to improve antibiotic production levels.
Project description:To isolate a gene for stimulating avermectin production, a genomic library of Streptomyces avermitilis ATCC 31267 was constructed in Streptomyces lividans TK21 as the host strain. An 8.0-kb DNA fragment that significantly stimulated actinorhodin and undecylprodigiosin production was isolated. When wild-type S. avermitilis was transformed with the cloned fragment, avermectin production increased approximately 3.5-fold. The introduction of this fragment into high-producer (ATCC 31780) and semi-industrial (L-9) strains also resulted in an increase of avermectin production by more than 2.0- and 1.4-fold, respectively. Subclones were studied to locate the minimal region involved in stimulation of pigmented-antibiotic and avermectin production. An analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the entire DNA fragment identified eight complete and one incomplete open reading frame. All but one of the deduced proteins exhibited strong homology (68 to 84% identity) to the hypothetical proteins of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The orfX gene product showed no significant similarity to any other protein in the databases, and an analysis of its sequence suggested that it was a putative membrane protein. Although the nature of the stimulatory effect is still unclear, the disruption of orfX revealed that this gene was intrinsically involved in the stimulation of avermectin production in S. avermitilis.
Project description:We recently described a new method to activate antibiotic production in bacteria by introducing a mutation conferring resistance to a drug such as streptomycin, rifampin, paromomycin, or gentamicin. This method, however, enhanced antibiotic production by only up to an order of magnitude. Working with Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), we established a method for the dramatic activation of antibiotic production by the sequential introduction of multiple drug resistance mutations. Septuple and octuple mutants, C7 and C8, thus obtained by screening for resistance to seven or eight drugs, produced huge amounts (1.63 g/liter) of the polyketide antibiotic actinorhodin, 180-fold higher than the level produced by the wild type. This dramatic overproduction was due to the acquisition of mutant ribosomes, with aberrant protein and ppGpp synthesis activity, as demonstrated by in vitro protein synthesis assays and by the abolition of antibiotic overproduction with relA disruption. This new approach, called "ribosome engineering," requires less time, cost, and labor than other methods and may be widely utilized for bacterial strain improvement.
Project description:A DNA fragment of Streptomyces fradiae is able to activate the antibiotic actinorhodin biosynthetic pathway when cloned in Streptomyces lividans. The activator DNA region has been sequenced and its transcription initiation and termination sites accurately mapped in vivo. This DNA encodes a 132 nucleotides long transcript which is apparently responsible for the actinorhodin production phenotype, possibly acting as an antisense RNA. The sequence of the activator gene revealed no homology with any other known Streptomyces coelicolor genes concerned with actinorhodin biosynthesis or its pleiotropic regulation.
Project description:S-Adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase (SAM-s) catalyzes the biosynthesis of SAM from ATP and L-methionine. Despite extensive research with many organisms, its role in Streptomyces sp. remains unclear. In the present study, the putative SAM-s gene was isolated from a spectinomycin producer, Streptomyces spectabilis. The purified protein from the transformed Escherichia coli with the isolated gene synthesized SAM from L-methionine and ATP in vitro, strongly indicating that the isolated gene indeed encoded the SAM-s protein. The overexpression of the SAM-s gene in Streptomyces lividans TK23 inhibited sporulation and aerial mycelium formation but enhanced the production of actinorhodin in both agar plates and liquid media. Surprisingly, the overexpressed SAM was proven by Northern analysis to increase the production of actinorhodin through the induction of actII-ORF4, a transcription activator of actinorhodin biosynthetic gene clusters. In addition, we found that a certain level of intracellular SAM is critical for the induction of antibiotic biosynthetic genes, since the control strain harboring only the plasmid DNA did not show any induction of actII-ORF4 until it reached a certain level of SAM in the cell. From these results, we concluded that the SAM plays important roles as an intracellular factor in both cellular differentiation and antibiotic production in Streptomyces sp.
Project description:A DNA fragment stimulating actinorhodin, undecylprodigiosin, and A-factor production in Streptomyces lividans 66 was cloned from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Nucleotide sequencing revealed the presence of an open reading frame of 225 codons, named afsQ1, that showed great similarity in amino acid sequence to the response regulators of typical prokaryotic two-component regulatory systems responsible for adaptive responses. The termination codon, TGA, of afsQ1 overlapped the initiation codon, GTG, of a second open reading frame, afsQ2, of 535 codons. The afsQ2 gene product showed homology with the sensory histidine protein kinases of two-component systems. In agreement with the assumption that the AfsQ1 and AfsQ2 proteins comprise an aspartate-histidine phosphotransfer system, an amino acid replacement from Asp to Glu at residue 52 of AfsQ1, generated by site-directed mutagenesis, resulted in loss of the protein's ability to stimulate antibiotic production in S. lividans. Primer extension experiments indicated that transcription of the afsQ1 and afsQ2 genes initiates at the translational start codon (GTG) of the afsQ1 gene. The afsQ1 and afsQ2 genes were physically mapped at a chromosomal position near the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster (act) by hybridization to Southern blots of restriction fragments separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Disruption of either afsQ1 or afsQ2 on the S. coelicolor chromosome by use of phage phi C31KC515 led to no detectable change in secondary metabolite formation or morphogenesis. The afsQ1 gene on pIJ922 suppressed the S. coelicolor absA mutation and caused actinorhodin production but did not suppress the absB mutation. Southern blot hybridization showed that sequences homologous to afsQ1 and afsQ2 are present in almost all of the actinomycetes examined.