Isolation and characterization of a priB mutant of Escherichia coli influencing plasmid copy number of delta rop ColE1-type plasmids.
ABSTRACT: The lethality induced by the overproduction in Escherichia coli of a heterologous protein was used to select bacterial mutants. In one of these, the mutation responsible was mapped to priB. We describe the isolation of this mutant, the sequencing of the mutated gene, and its in vivo effect on plasmid replication.
Project description:Primosome protein PriB is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that serves as an accessory factor for PriA helicase-catalyzed origin-independent reinitiation of DNA replication in bacteria. A recent report describes the identification of a novel PriB protein in Klebsiella pneumoniae that is significantly shorter than most sequenced PriB homologs. The K. pneumoniae PriB protein is proposed to comprise 55 amino acid residues, in contrast to E. coli PriB which comprises 104 amino acid residues and has a length that is typical of most sequenced PriB homologs. Here, we report results of a sequence analysis that suggests that the priB gene of K. pneumoniae encodes a 104-amino acid PriB protein, akin to its E. coli counterpart. Furthermore, we have cloned the K. pneumoniae priB gene and purified the 104-amino acid K. pneumoniae PriB protein. Gel filtration experiments reveal that the K. pneumoniae PriB protein is a dimer, and equilibrium DNA binding experiments demonstrate that K. pneumoniae PriB's single-stranded DNA-binding activity is similar to that of E. coli PriB. These results indicate that the PriB homolog of K. pneumoniae is similar in structure and in function to that of E. coli.
Project description:PriB is a primosomal protein required for replication restart in Escherichia coli. PriB stimulates PriA helicase activity via interaction with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), but the molecular details of this interaction remain unclear. Here, we report the crystal structure of PriB complexed with a 15 bases oligonucleotide (dT15) at 2.7 A resolution. PriB shares structural similarity with the E.coli ssDNA-binding protein (EcoSSB). However, the structure of the PriB-dT15 complex reveals that PriB binds ssDNA differently. Results from filter-binding assays show that PriB-ssDNA interaction is salt-sensitive and cooperative. Mutational analysis suggests that the loop L45 plays an important role in ssDNA binding. Based on the crystal structure and biochemical analyses, we propose a cooperative mechanism for the binding of PriB to ssDNA and a model for the assembly of the PriA-PriB-ssDNA complex. This report presents the first structure of a replication restart primosomal protein complexed with DNA, and a novel model that explains the interactions between a dimeric oligonucleotide-binding-fold protein and ssDNA.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bacterial DNA replication restart pathways facilitate reinitiation of DNA replication following disruptive encounters of a replisome with DNA damage, thereby allowing complete and faithful duplication of the genome. In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the primosome proteins that catalyze DNA replication restart differ from the well-studied primosome proteins of E. coli with respect to the number of proteins involved and the affinities of their physical interactions: the PriA:PriB interaction is weak in E. coli, but strong in N. gonorrhoeae, and the PriB:DNA interaction is strong in E. coli, but weak in N. gonorrhoeae. In this study, we investigated the functional consequences of this affinity reversal. RESULTS: We report that N. gonorrhoeae PriA's DNA binding and unwinding activities are similar to those of E. coli PriA, and N. gonorrhoeae PriA's helicase activity is stimulated by its cognate PriB, as it is in E. coli. This finding is significant because N. gonorrhoeae PriB's single-stranded DNA binding activity is weak relative to that of E. coli PriB, and in E. coli, PriB's single-stranded DNA binding activity is important for PriB stimulation of PriA helicase. Furthermore, a N. gonorrhoeae PriB variant defective for binding single-stranded DNA can stimulate PriA's helicase activity, suggesting that DNA binding by PriB might not be important for PriB stimulation of PriA helicase in N. gonorrhoeae. We also demonstrate that N. gonorrhoeae PriB stimulates ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by its cognate PriA. This activity of PriB has not been observed in E. coli, and could be important for PriB stimulation of PriA helicase in N. gonorrhoeae. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that a bacterial PriB homolog with weak single-stranded DNA binding activity can stimulate the DNA unwinding activity of its cognate PriA helicase. While it remains unclear if N. gonorrhoeae PriB's weak DNA binding activity is required for PriB stimulation of PriA helicase, the ability of PriB to stimulate PriA-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis could play an important role. Thus, the weak interaction between N. gonorrhoeae PriB and DNA might be compensated for by the strong interaction between PriB and PriA, which could result in allosteric activation of PriA's ATPase activity.
Project description:Quantitative analysis of the interactions of the Escherichia coli primosomal PriB protein with a single-stranded DNA was done using quantitative fluorescence titration, photocrosslinking, and analytical ultracentrifugation techniques. Stoichiometry studies were done with a series of etheno-derivatives of single-stranded (ss) DNA oligomers. Interactions with the unmodified nucleic acids were studied, using the macromolecular competition titration (MCT) method. The total site-size of the PriB dimer-ssDNA complex, i.e. the maximum number of nucleotides occluded by the PriB dimer in the complex, is 12+/-1 nt. The protein has a single DNA-binding site, which is located centrally within the dimer and has a functionally homogeneous structure. The stoichiometry and photocrosslinking data show that only a single monomer of the PriB dimer engages in interactions with the nucleic acid. The analysis of the PriB binding to long oligomers was done using a statistical thermodynamic model that takes into account the overlap of potential binding sites and cooperative interactions. The PriB dimer binds the ssDNA with strong positive cooperativity. Both the intrinsic affinity and cooperative interactions are accompanied by a net ion release, with anions participating in the ion exchange process. The intrinsic binding process is an entropy-driven reaction, suggesting strongly that the DNA association induces a large conformational change in the protein. The PriB protein shows a dramatically strong preference for the homo-pyrimidine oligomers with an intrinsic affinity higher by about three orders of magnitude, as compared to the homo-purine oligomers. The significance of these results for PriB protein activity is discussed.
Project description:PriB is one of the components of the bacterial primosome, which catalyzes the reactivation of stalled replication forks at sites of DNA damage. The N-terminal domain of the PriB protein from the thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (TtePriB) was expressed and its crystal structure was solved at the atomic resolution of 1.09?Å by direct methods. The protein chain, which encompasses the first 104 residues of the full 220-residue protein, adopts the characteristic oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) structure consisting of a five-stranded ?-barrel filled with hydrophobic residues and equipped with four loops extending from the barrel. In the crystal two protomers dimerize, forming a six-stranded antiparallel ?-sheet. The structure of the N-terminal OB domain of T. tengcongensis shows significant differences compared with mesophile PriBs. While in all other known structures of PriB a dimer is formed by two identical OB domains in separate chains, TtePriB contains two consecutive OB domains in one chain. However, sequence comparison of both the N-terminal and the C-terminal domains of TtePriB suggests that they have analogous structures and that the natural protein possesses a structure similar to a dimer of two N-terminal domains.
Project description:Reactivation of repaired DNA replication forks is essential for complete duplication of bacterial genomes. However, not all bacteria encode homologs of the well-studied Escherichia coli DNA replication restart primosome proteins, suggesting that there might be distinct mechanistic differences among DNA replication restart pathways in diverse bacteria. Since reactivation of repaired DNA replication forks requires coordinated DNA and protein binding by DNA replication restart primosome proteins, we determined the crystal structure of Neisseria gonorrhoeae PriB at 2.7 A resolution and investigated its ability to physically interact with DNA and PriA helicase. Comparison of the crystal structures of PriB from N. gonorrhoeae and E. coli reveals a well-conserved homodimeric structure consisting of two oligosaccharide/oligonucleotide-binding (OB) folds. In spite of their overall structural similarity, there is significant species variation in the type and distribution of surface amino acid residues. This correlates with striking differences in the affinity with which each PriB homolog binds single-stranded DNA and PriA helicase. These results provide evidence that mechanisms of DNA replication restart are not identical across diverse species and that these pathways have likely become specialized to meet the needs of individual organisms.
Project description:RecG is a DNA translocase that helps to maintain genomic integrity. Initial studies suggested a role in promoting recombination, a possibility consistent with synergism between recG and ruv null alleles and reinforced when the protein was shown to unwind Holliday junctions. In this article we describe novel suppressors of recG and show that the pathology seen without RecG is suppressed on reducing or eliminating PriB, a component of the PriA system for replisome assembly and replication restart. Suppression is conditional, depending on additional mutations that modify ribosomal subunit S6 or one of three subunits of RNA polymerase. The latter suppress phenotypes associated with deletion of priB, enabling the deletion to suppress recG. They include alleles likely to disrupt interactions with transcription anti-terminator, NusA. Deleting priB has a different effect in ruv strains. It provokes abortive recombination and compromises DNA repair in a manner consistent with PriB being required to limit exposure of recombinogenic ssDNA. This synergism is reduced by the RNA polymerase mutations identified. Taken together, the results reveal that RecG curbs a potentially negative effect of proteins that direct replication fork assembly at sites removed from the normal origin, a facility needed to resolve conflicts between replication and transcription.
Project description:Replication restart primosome is a complex dynamic system that is essential for bacterial survival. This system uses various proteins to reinitiate chromosomal DNA replication to maintain genetic integrity after DNA damage. The replication restart primosome in Escherichia coli is composed of PriA helicase, PriB, PriC, DnaT, DnaC, DnaB helicase, and DnaG primase. The assembly of the protein complexes within the forked DNA responsible for reloading the replicative DnaB helicase anywhere on the chromosome for genome duplication requires the coordination of transient biomolecular interactions. Over the last decade, investigations on the structure and mechanism of these nucleoproteins have provided considerable insight into primosome assembly. In this review, we summarize and discuss our current knowledge and recent advances on the DNA-binding mode of the primosomal proteins PriA, PriB, and DnaT.
Project description:Mobilization of plasmid RSF1010 by the IncW plasmid R388 requires the genes involved in W pilus synthesis plus trwB. traG of the IncP plasmid RP4 can substitute for trwB in RSF1010 mobilization by R388 but not in self-transfer of R388. This result suggests a dual specificity of TrwB-like proteins in conjugation. The same genetic requirements were found for R388 to mobilize the unrelated plasmid ColE1.
Project description:Plasmid pSW200 from Pantoea stewartii contains 41 copies of 15-bp repeats and has a replicon that is homologous to that of ColE1. Although deleting the repeats (pSW207) does not change the copy number and stability of the plasmid. The plasmid becomes unstable and is rapidly lost from the host when a homoplasmid with the repeats (pSW201) is present. Deleting the repeats is found to reduce the transcriptional activity of RNAIp and RNAIIp by about 30%, indicating that the repeats promote the transcription of RNAI and RNAII, and how the RNAI that is synthesized by pSW201 inhibits the replication of pSW207. The immunoblot analysis herein demonstrates that RNA polymerase ? subunit and ?(70) in the lysate from Escherichia coli MG1655 bind to a biotin-labeled DNA probe that contains the entire sequence of the repeat region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay also reveals that purified RNA polymerase shifts a DNA probe that contains four copies of the repeats. These results thus obtained reveal that RNA polymerase holoenzyme binds to the repeats. The repeats also exchange RNA polymerase with RNAIp and RNAIIp in vitro, revealing the mechanism by which the transcription is promoted. This investigation elucidates a mechanism by which a plasmid prevents the invasion of an incompatible plasmid and maintains its stability in the host cell during evolution.