Transcriptional and mutational analyses of the rpoN operon in Caulobacter crescentus.
ABSTRACT: The alternative sigma factor sigma54 is required for the biogenesis of both the flagellum and the stalk in Caulobacter crescentus. The DNA sequence downstream of the sigma54 gene (rpoN) has been determined, revealing three open reading frames (ORFs) encoding peptides of 203, 208, and 159 amino acids. ORF208 and ORF159 are homologous to ORFs found downstream of rpoN in other microorganisms. The organization of this region in C. crescentus is similar to that in other bacteria, with the exception of an additional ORF, ORF203, immediately downstream from rpoN. There is a single temporally regulated promoter that drives the expression of both rpoN and ORF203. Promoter probe analysis indicates the presence of another promoter downstream from ORF203 which exhibits a temporal control that is different from that of the rpoN promoter. Mutational analysis was used to address the function of the proteins encoded by these three downstream ORFs. The mutations have no effect on the transcription of previously known sigma54-dependent flagellar promoters except for a slight effect of an ORF159 mutation on transcription of fljK.
Project description:In Caulobacter crescentus, the alternative sigma factor sigma54 plays an important role in the expression of late flagellar genes. Sigma54-dependent genes are temporally and spatially controlled, being expressed only in the swarmer pole of the predivisional cell. The only sigma54 activator described so far is the FlbD protein, which is involved in activation of the class III and IV flagellar genes and repression of the fliF promoter. To identify new roles for sigma54 in the metabolism and differentiation of C. crescentus, we cloned and characterized a gene encoding a putative sigma54 activator, named tacA. The deduced amino acid sequence from tacA has high similarity to the proteins from the NtrC family of transcriptional activators, including the aspartate residues that are phosphorylated by histidine kinases in other activators. The promoter region of the tacA gene contains a conserved sequence element present in the promoters of class II flagellar genes, and tacA shows a temporal pattern of expression similar to the patterns of these genes. We constructed an insertional mutant that is disrupted in tacA (strain SP2016), and an analysis of this strain showed that it has all polar structures, such as pili, stalk, and flagellum, and displays a motile phenotype, indicating that tacA is not involved in the flagellar biogenesis pathway. However, this strain has a high percentage of filamentous cells and shows a clear-plaque phenotype when infected with phage phiCb5. These results suggest that the TacA protein could mediate the effect of sigma54 on a different pathway in C. crescentus.
Project description:Attachment to surfaces by the prosthecate bacterium Caulobacter crescentus is mediated by an adhesive organelle, the holdfast, found at the tip of the stalk. Indirect evidence suggested that the holdfast first appears at the swarmer pole of the predivisional cell. We used fluorescently labeled lectin and transmission electron microscopy to detect the holdfast in different cell types. While the holdfast was readily detectable in stalked cells and at the stalked poles of predivisional cells, we were unable to detect the holdfast in swarmer cells or at the flagellated poles of predivisional cells. This suggests that exposure of the holdfast to the outside of the cell occurs during the differentiation of swarmer to stalked cells. To investigate the timing of holdfast synthesis and exposure to the outside of the cell, we have examined the regulation of a holdfast attachment gene, hfaA. The hfaA gene is part of a cluster of four genes (hfaABDC), identified in strain CB2A and involved in attachment of the holdfast to the polar region of the cell. We have identified the hfaA gene in the synchronizable C. crescentus strain CB15. The sequence of the CB2A hfaA promoter suggested that it was regulated by sigma54. We show that the transcription of hfaA from either strain is not dependent on sigma54. Using a hfaA-lacZ fusion, we show that the transcription of hfaA is temporally regulated during the cell cycle, with maximal expression in late-predivisional cells. This increase in expression is largely due to the preferential transcription of hfaA in the swarmer pole of the predivisional cell.
Project description:Investigation of whole genome gene expression level changes in a Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 dcdnL mutant, compared to the wild-type strain. In bacteria, transcription of housekeeping genes required for metabolic homeostasis and cell proliferation is guided by the sigma factor σ70. The conserved CarD-like transcriptional regulator, CdnL, associates with promoter regions where σ70 localizes and stabilizes the open promoter complex. Caulobacter crescentus cells lacking CdnL have severe morphological and growth defects. Our microarray experiment demonstrates how cdnL deletion affects the transcriptome of Caulobacter crescentus. Overall design: A six chip study using total RNA recovered from three separate wild-type cultures of Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 and three separate cultures of a mutant strain, Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 dcdnL (deletion of CCNA_00690), in which the cdnL gene coding for an RNA polymerase associated factor is deleted. Each chip measures the expression level of 3933 genes from Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 with 3 probes per gene and with three-fold technical redundancy.
Project description:A fragment of DNA was cloned which complemented a polar flagellum-defective (pof) mutation of Vibrio alginolyticus. The fragment contained two complete and two partial open reading frames (ORFs) (ORF2 and -3 and ORF1 and -4, respectively). The presumed product of ORF2 has an amino acid sequence with a high degree of similarity to that of RpoN, which is an alternative sigma factor (sigma54) for other microorganisms. The other ORFs are also homologous to the genes adjacent to other rpoN genes. Deletion analysis suggests that ORF2 complements the pof mutation. These results demonstrate that RpoN is involved in the expression of polar flagellar genes.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE25996: Expression data from Caulobacter crescentus starved for carbon GSE25997: Expression data from Caulobacter crescentus (syn. C. vibrioides) swarmer and stalked cells starved for carbon GSE25998: Expression data from WT, DSigT and DSigU Caulobacter crescentus (syn. C. vibrioides) starved for carbon Refer to individual Series
Project description:Cell-cycle-regulated stalk biogenesis in Caulobacter crescentus is controlled by a multistep phosphorelay system consisting of the hybrid histidine kinase ShkA, the histidine phosphotransfer (HPt) protein ShpA, and the response regulator TacA. ShpA shuttles phosphoryl groups between ShkA and TacA. When phosphorylated, TacA triggers a downstream transcription cascade for stalk synthesis in an RpoN-dependent manner. The crystal structure of ShpA was determined to 1.52 A resolution. ShpA belongs to a family of monomeric HPt proteins that feature a highly conserved four-helix bundle. The phosphorylatable histidine His56 is located on the surface of the helix bundle and is fully solvent exposed. One end of the four-helix bundle in ShpA is shorter compared with other characterized HPt proteins, whereas the face that potentially interacts with the response regulators is structurally conserved. Similarities of the interaction surface around the phosphorylation site suggest that ShpA is likely to share a common mechanism for molecular recognition and phosphotransfer with yeast phosphotransfer protein YPD1 despite their low overall sequence similarity.
Project description:We have identified the gene encoding the Caulobacter crescentus principal sigma subunit, RpoD. The rpoD gene codes for a polypeptide of 653 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 72,623 Da (sigma 73). The C. crescentus sigma subunit has extensive amino acid sequence homology with the principal sigma factors of a number of divergent procaryotes. In particular, the segments designated region 2 that are involved in core polymerase binding and promoter recognition were identical among these bacteria despite the fact that the -10 region recognized by the C. crescentus sigma 73 differs significantly from that of the other bacteria. Thus, it appears that additional sigma factor regions must be involved in -10 region recognition. This conclusion was strengthened by a heterologous complementation assay in which C. crescentus sigma 73 was capable of complementing the Escherichia coli rpoD285 temperature-sensitive mutant. Furthermore, C. crescentus sigma 73 conferred new specificity on the E. coli RNA polymerase, allowing the expression of C. crescentus promoters in E. coli. Thus, the C. crescentus sigma 73 appears to have a broader specificity than does the sigma 70 of the enteric bacteria.
Project description:Investigation of whole genome gene expression level changes in a Caulonacter crescentus NA1000 Plac::CCNA_00382 (ccrM) mutant, compared to the wild-type strain. The mutations engineered into this strain cause the CcrM DNA methyltransferase to be overexpressed and the chromosome to be constitutively methylated at the adenine at GANTC motifs. References of strains: CcrMOE: Collier, J. and Shapiro, L. (2009) Feedback control of DnaA-mediated replication initiation by replisome-associated HdaA protein in Caulobacter. J Bacteriol, 191, 5706-5716. WT: Marks, M.E., Castro-Rojas, C.M., Teiling, C., Du, L., Kapatral, V., Walunas, T.L. and Crosson, S. (2010) The genetic basis of laboratory adaptation in Caulobacter crescentus. J Bacteriol, 192, 3678-3688; Collier, J. and Shapiro, L. (2009) Feedback control of DnaA-mediated replication initiation by replisome-associated HdaA protein in Caulobacter. J Bacteriol, 191, 5706-5716. A six chip study using total RNA recovered from three separate wild-type cultures of Caulonacter crescentus NA1000 and three separate cultures of a triple mutant strain, Caulonacter crescentus NA1000 Plac::CCNA_00382 (ccrM), in which the ccrM gene coding for a DNA methyltransferase methylating the adenine in GANTC motifs is truncated and its product inactive. Each chip measures the expression level of 3933 genes from Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 with 3 probes per gene and with three-fold technical redundancy.
Project description:We engineered a strain of the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus to fluoresce in the presence of micromolar levels of uranium at ambient temperatures when it is exposed to a hand-held UV lamp. Previous microarray experiments revealed that several Caulobacter genes are significantly upregulated in response to uranium but not in response to other heavy metals. We designated one of these genes urcA (for uranium response in caulobacter). We constructed a reporter that utilizes the urcA promoter to produce a UV-excitable green fluorescent protein in the presence of the uranyl cation, a soluble form of uranium. This reporter is specific for uranium and has little cross specificity for nitrate (<400 microM), lead (<150 microM), cadmium (<48 microM), or chromium (<41.6 microM). The uranium reporter construct was effective for discriminating contaminated groundwater samples (4.2 microM uranium) from uncontaminated groundwater samples (<0.1 microM uranium) collected at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center. In contrast to other uranium detection methodologies, the Caulobacter reporter strain can provide on-demand usability in the field; it requires minimal sample processing and no equipment other than a hand-held UV lamp, and it may be sprayed directly on soil, groundwater, or industrial surfaces.
Project description:Investigation of whole genome gene expression level changes in a Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 delta-CCNA_00382 (ccrM) mutant, compared to the wild-type strain. The mutations engineered into this strain render it incapable of methylating its genome on the adenine at GANTC motifs. References for strains : WT: Marks, M.E., Castro-Rojas, C.M., Teiling, C., Du, L., Kapatral, V., Walunas, T.L. and Crosson, S. (2010) The genetic basis of laboratory adaptation in Caulobacter crescentus. J Bacteriol, 192, 3678-3688; Collier, J. and Shapiro, L. (2009) Feedback control of DnaA-mediated replication initiation by replisome-associated HdaA protein in Caulobacter. J Bacteriol, 191, 5706-5716. DccrM: Gonzalez, D. and Collier, J. (2013) DNA methylation by CcrM activates the transcription of two genes required for the division of Caulobacter crescentus. Mol Microbiol, 88, 203-218. A six chip study using total RNA recovered from three separate wild-type cultures of Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 and three separate cultures of a triple mutant strain, Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 delta-CCNA_00382 (ccrM), in which the ccrM gene coding for a DNA methyltransferase methylating the adenine in GANTC motifs is truncated and its product inactive. Each chip measures the expression level of 3933 genes from Caulobacter crescentus NA1000 with 3 probes per gene and with three-fold technical redundancy.