Disulfide formation as a probe of folding in GroEL-GroES reveals correct formation of long-range bonds and editing of incorrect short-range ones.
ABSTRACT: The chaperonin GroEL assists protein folding by binding nonnative forms through exposed hydrophobic surfaces in an open ring and mediating productive folding in an encapsulated hydrophilic chamber formed when it binds GroES. Little is known about the topology of nonnative proteins during folding inside the GroEL-GroES cis chamber. Here, we have monitored topology employing disulfide bond formation of a secretory protein, trypsinogen (TG), that behaves in vitro as a stringent, GroEL-GroES-requiring substrate. Inside the long-lived cis chamber formed by SR1, a single-ring version of GroEL, complexed with GroES, we observed an ordered formation of disulfide bonds. First, short-range disulfides relative to the primary structure formed, both native and nonnative. Next, the two long-range native disulfides that "pin" the two beta-barrel domains together formed. Notably, no long-range nonnative bonds were ever observed, suggesting that a native-like long-range topology is favored. At both this time and later, however, the formation of several medium-range nonnative bonds mapping to one of the beta-barrels was observed, reflecting that the population of local nonnative structure can occur even within the cis cavity. Yet both these and the short-range nonnative bonds were ultimately "edited" to native, as evidenced by the nearly complete recovery of native TG. We conclude that folding in the GroEL-GroES cavity can favor the formation of a native-like topology, here involving the proper apposition of the two domains of TG; but it also involves an ATP-independent conformational "editing" of locally incorrect structures produced during the dwell time in the cis cavity.
Project description:The GroEL/GroES reaction cycle involves steps of ATP and polypeptide binding to an open GroEL ring before the GroES encapsulation step that triggers productive folding in a sequestered chamber. The physiological order of addition of ATP and nonnative polypeptide, typically to the open trans ring of an asymmetrical GroEL/GroES/ADP complex, has been unknown, although there have been assumptions that polypeptide binds first, allowing subsequent ATP-mediated movement of the GroEL apical domains to exert an action of forceful unfolding on the nonnative polypeptide. Here, using fluorescence measurements, we show that the physiological order of addition is the opposite, involving rapid binding of ATP, accompanied by nearly as rapid apical domain movements, followed by slower binding of nonnative polypeptide. In order-of-addition experiments, approximately twice as much Rubisco activity was recovered when nonnative substrate protein was added after ATP compared with it being added before ATP, associated with twice as much Rubisco protein recovered with the chaperonin. Furthermore, the rate of Rubisco binding to an ATP-exposed ring was twice that observed in the absence of nucleotide. Finally, when both ATP and Rubisco were added simultaneously to a GroEL ring, simulating the physiological situation, the rate of Rubisco binding corresponded to that observed when ATP had been added first. We conclude that the physiological order, ATP binding before polypeptide, enables more efficient capture of nonnative substrate proteins, and thus allows greater recovery of the native state for any given round of the chaperonin cycle.
Project description:Productive cis folding by the chaperonin GroEL is triggered by the binding of ATP but not ADP, along with cochaperonin GroES, to the same ring as non-native polypeptide, ejecting polypeptide into an encapsulated hydrophilic chamber. We examined the specific contribution of the gamma-phosphate of ATP to this activation process using complexes of ADP and aluminium or beryllium fluoride. These ATP analogues supported productive cis folding of the substrate protein, rhodanese, even when added to already-formed, folding-inactive cis ADP ternary complexes, essentially introducing the gamma-phosphate of ATP in an independent step. Aluminium fluoride was observed to stabilize the association of GroES with GroEL, with a substantial release of free energy (-46 kcal/mol). To understand the basis of such activation and stabilization, a crystal structure of GroEL-GroES-ADP.AlF3 was determined at 2.8 A. A trigonal AlF3 metal complex was observed in the gamma-phosphate position of the nucleotide pocket of the cis ring. Surprisingly, when this structure was compared with that of the previously determined GroEL-GroES-ADP complex, no other differences were observed. We discuss the likely basis of the ability of gamma-phosphate binding to convert preformed GroEL-GroES-ADP-polypeptide complexes into the folding-active state.
Project description:The GroEL-GroES chaperonin system is required for the assisted folding of many essential proteins. The precise nature of this assistance remains unclear, however. Here we show that denatured RuBisCO from Rhodospirillum rubrum populates a stable, nonaggregating, and kinetically trapped monomeric state at low temperature. Productive folding of this nonnative intermediate is fully dependent on GroEL, GroES, and ATP. Reactivation of the trapped RuBisCO monomer proceeds through a series of GroEL-induced structural rearrangements, as judged by resonance energy transfer measurements between the amino- and carboxy-terminal domains of RuBisCO. A general mechanism used by GroEL to push large, recalcitrant proteins like RuBisCO toward their native states thus appears to involve two steps: partial unfolding or rearrangement of a nonnative protein upon capture by a GroEL ring, followed by spatial constriction within the GroEL-GroES cavity that favors or enforces compact, folding-competent intermediate states.
Project description:The original experiments reconstituting GroEL-GroES-mediated protein folding were carried out under "nonpermissive" conditions, where the chaperonin system was absolutely required and substrate proteins could not achieve the native state if diluted directly from denaturant into solution. Under "permissive" conditions, however, employing lower substrate concentration and lower temperature, some substrate proteins can be refolded both by the chaperonin system and while free in solution. For several of these, the protein refolds more rapidly inside the GroEL-GroES cis chamber than free in solution, suggesting that the chamber may have an active role in assisting protein folding. Here, we observe that the difference is caused by reversible multimolecular association while folding in solution, an avenue of kinetic partitioning that slows the overall rate of renaturation relative to the chaperonin chamber, where such associations cannot occur. For Rubisco, reversible aggregation during folding in solution was observed by gel filtration. For a mutant of maltose-binding protein (DM-MBP), the rate of folding in solution declined with increasing concentration, and the folding reaction produced light scattering. Under solution conditions where chloride was absent, however, light scattering no longer occurred, and DM-MBP folded at the same rate as in the cis cavity. In a further test, dihydrofolate reductase, thermally inactivated in the cis cavity or in solution, was substantially reactivated upon temperature downshift in the cis cavity but not in solution, where aggregation occurred. We conclude that the GroEL-GroES chamber behaves as a passive "Anfinsen cage" whose primary role is to prevent multimolecular association during folding.
Project description:The chaperonin GroEL binds non-native polypeptides in an open ring via hydrophobic contacts and then, after ATP and GroES binding to the same ring as polypeptide, mediates productive folding in the now hydrophilic, encapsulated cis chamber. The nature of the folding reaction in the cis cavity remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear whether polypeptides take the same route to the native state in this cavity as they do when folding spontaneously free in solution. Here, we have addressed this question by using NMR measurements of the time course of acquisition of amide proton exchange protection of human dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) during folding in the presence of methotrexate and ATP either free in solution or inside the stable cavity formed between a single ring variant of GroEL, SR1, and GroES. Recovery of DHFR refolded by the SR1/GroES-mediated reaction is 2-fold higher than in the spontaneous reaction. Nevertheless, DHFR folding was found to proceed by the same trajectories inside the cis folding chamber and free in solution. These observations are consistent with the description of the chaperonin chamber as an "Anfinsen cage" where polypeptide folding is determined solely by the amino acid sequence, as it is in solution. However, if misfolding occurs in the confinement of the chaperonin cavity, the polypeptide chain cannot undergo aggregation but rather finds its way back to a productive pathway in a manner that cannot be accomplished in solution, resulting in the observed high overall recovery.
Project description:A subset of essential cellular proteins requires the assistance of chaperonins (in Escherichia coli, GroEL and GroES), double-ring complexes in which the two rings act alternately to bind, encapsulate and fold a wide range of nascent or stress-denatured proteins. This process starts by the trapping of a substrate protein on hydrophobic surfaces in the central cavity of a GroEL ring. Then, binding of ATP and co-chaperonin GroES to that ring ejects the non-native protein from its binding sites, through forced unfolding or other major conformational changes, and encloses it in a hydrophilic chamber for folding. ATP hydrolysis and subsequent ATP binding to the opposite ring trigger dissociation of the chamber and release of the substrate protein. The bacteriophage T4 requires its own version of GroES, gp31, which forms a taller folding chamber, to fold the major viral capsid protein gp23 (refs 16-20). Polypeptides are known to fold inside the chaperonin complex, but the conformation of an encapsulated protein has not previously been visualized. Here we present structures of gp23-chaperonin complexes, showing both the initial captured state and the final, close-to-native state with gp23 encapsulated in the folding chamber. Although the chamber is expanded, it is still barely large enough to contain the elongated gp23 monomer, explaining why the GroEL-GroES complex is not able to fold gp23 and showing how the chaperonin structure distorts to enclose a large, physiological substrate protein.
Project description:In mediating protein folding, chaperonin GroEL and cochaperonin GroES form an enclosed chamber for substrate proteins in an ATP-dependent manner. The essential role of the double ring assembly of GroEL is demonstrated by the functional deficiency of the single ring GroEL(SR). The GroEL(SR)-GroES is highly stable with minimal ATPase activity. To restore the ATP cycle and the turnover of the folding chamber, we sought to weaken the GroEL(SR)-GroES interaction systematically by concatenating seven copies of groES to generate groES(7). GroES Ile-25, Val-26, and Leu-27, residues on the GroEL-GroES interface, were substituted with Asp on different groES modules of groES(7). GroES(7) variants activate ATP activity of GroEL(SR), but only some restore the substrate folding function of GroEL(SR), indicating a direct role of GroES in facilitating substrate folding through its dynamics with GroEL. Active GroEL(SR)-GroES(7) systems may resemble mammalian mitochondrial chaperonin systems.
Project description:Under "permissive" conditions at 25°C, the chaperonin substrate protein DM-MBP refolds 5-10 times more rapidly in the GroEL/GroES folding chamber than in free solution. This has been suggested to indicate that the chaperonin accelerates polypeptide folding by entropic effects of close confinement. Here, using native-purified DM-MBP, we show that the different rates of refolding are due to reversible aggregation of DM-MBP while folding free in solution, slowing its kinetics of renaturation: the protein exhibited concentration-dependent refolding in solution, with aggregation directly observed by dynamic light scattering. When refolded in chloride-free buffer, however, dynamic light scattering was eliminated, refolding became concentration-independent, and the rate of refolding became the same as that in GroEL/GroES. The GroEL/GroES chamber thus appears to function passively toward DM-MBP.
Project description:A key constraint on the growth of most organisms is the slow and inefficient folding of many essential proteins. To deal with this problem, several diverse families of protein folding machines, known collectively as molecular chaperones, developed early in evolutionary history. The functional role and operational steps of these remarkably complex nanomachines remain subjects of active debate. Here we present evidence that, for the GroEL-GroES chaperonin system, the non-native substrate protein enters the folding cycle on the trans ring of the double-ring GroEL-ATP-GroES complex rather than the ADP-bound complex. The properties of this ATP complex are designed to ensure that non-native substrate protein binds first, followed by ATP and finally GroES. This binding order ensures efficient occupancy of the open GroEL ring and allows for disruption of misfolded structures through two phases of multiaxis unfolding. In this model, repeated cycles of partial unfolding, followed by confinement within the GroEL-GroES chamber, provide the most effective overall mechanism for facilitating the folding of the most stringently dependent GroEL substrate proteins.
Project description:The molecular chaperones are a diverse set of protein families required for the correct folding, transport and degradation of other proteins in vivo. There has been great progress in understanding the structure and mechanism of action of the chaperonin family, exemplified by Escherichia coli GroEL. The chaperonins are large, double-ring oligomeric proteins that act as containers for the folding of other protein subunits. Together with its co-protein GroES, GroEL binds non-native polypeptides and facilitates their refolding in an ATP-dependent manner. The action of the ATPase cycle causes the substrate-binding surface of GroEL to alternate in character between hydrophobic (binding/unfolding) and hydrophilic (release/folding). ATP binding initiates a series of dramatic conformational changes that bury the substrate-binding sites, lowering the affinity for non-native polypeptide. In the presence of ATP, GroES binds to GroEL, forming a large chamber that encapsulates substrate proteins for folding. For proteins whose folding is absolutely dependent on the full GroE system, ATP binding (but not hydrolysis) in the encapsulating ring is needed to initiate protein folding. Similarly, ATP binding, but not hydrolysis, in the opposite GroEL ring is needed to release GroES, thus opening the chamber. If the released substrate protein is still not correctly folded, it will go through another round of interaction with GroEL.