MHC haplotype matching for unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation.
ABSTRACT: Current criteria for the selection of unrelated donors for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) include matching for the alleles of each human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), however, remains a significant and potentially life-threatening complication even after HLA-identical unrelated HCT. The MHC harbors more than 400 genes, but the total number of transplantation antigens is unknown. Genes that influence transplantation outcome could be identified by using linkage disequilibrium (LD)-mapping approaches, if the extended MHC haplotypes of the unrelated donor and recipient could be defined.We isolated DNA strands extending across 2 million base pairs of the MHC to determine the physical linkage of HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 alleles in 246 HCT recipients and their HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 allele-matched unrelated donors. MHC haplotype mismatching was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of severe acute GVHD (odds ratio 4.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.34-8.70, p < 0.0001) and with lower risk of disease recurrence (hazard ratio 0.45; 95% CI, 0.22-0.92, p = 0.03).The MHC harbors genes that encode unidentified transplantation antigens. The three-locus HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 haplotype serves as a proxy for GVHD risk among HLA-identical transplant recipients. The phasing method provides an approach for mapping novel MHC-linked transplantation determinants and a means to decrease GVHD-related morbidity after HCT from unrelated donors.
Project description:Single-center studies have previously reported associations of MHC Class I Chain-Related Gene A (MICA) polymorphisms and donor-recipient MICA mismatching with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this study, we investigated the association of MICA polymorphism (MICA-129, MM versus MV versus VV) and MICA mismatches after HCT with 10/10 HLA-matched (n?=?552) or 9/10 (n?=?161) unrelated donors. Included were adult patients with a first unrelated bone marrow or peripheral blood HCT for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome that were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 1999 and 2011. Our results showed that neither MICA mismatch nor MICA-129 polymorphism were associated with any transplantation outcome (P?<?.01), with the exception of a higher relapse in recipients of MICA-mismatched HLA 10/10 donors (hazard ratio [HR], 1.7; P?=?.003). There was a suggestion of association between MICA mismatches and a higher risk of acute GVHD grades II to IV (HR, 1.4; P?=?.013) There were no significant interactions between MICA mismatches and HLA matching (9/10 versus 10/10). In conclusion, the findings in this cohort did not confirm prior studies reporting that MICA polymorphism and MICA mismatches were associated with HCT outcomes.
Project description:Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a significant potentially life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Since the discovery of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system over 50 years ago, significant advances have clarified the nature of HLA variation between transplant recipients and donors as a chief etiology of GVHD. New information on coding and non-coding gene variation and GVHD risk provides clinicians with options to consider selected mismatched donors when matched donors are not available. These advances have increased the availability of unrelated donors for patients in need of a transplant and have lowered the overall morbidity and mortality of HCT.
Project description:Transplantation of hematopoietic cells from unrelated donors can cure blood disorders but carries a significant risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The risk is higher when the recipient and donor are HLA-DPB1-mismatched, but the mechanisms leading to GVHD are unknown. The HLA-DPB1 regulatory region variant rs9277534 is associated with HLA-DPB1 expression. We tested the hypothesis that the GVHD risk correlates with the rs9277534 allele linked to the mismatched HLA-DPB1 in the recipient.We genotyped rs9277534 in 3505 persons to define rs9277534-DPB1 haplotypes. Among 1441 recipients of transplants from HLA-A,B,C,DRB1,DQB1-matched unrelated donors with only one HLA-DPB1 mismatch, linkage of the rs9277534 A and G alleles to the mismatched HLA-DPB1 was determined. HLA-DPB1 expression was assessed by means of a quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction assay. The risk of acute GVHD among recipients whose mismatched HLA-DPB1 allele was linked to rs9277534G (high expression) was compared with the risk among recipients whose mismatched HLA-DPB1 allele was linked to rs9277534A (low expression).The mean HLA-DPB1 expression was lower with rs9277534A than with rs9277534G. Among recipients of transplants from donors with rs9277534A-linked HLA-DPB1, the risk of acute GVHD was higher for recipients with rs9277534G-linked HLA-DPB1 mismatches than for recipients with rs9277534A-linked HLA-DPB1 mismatches (hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 1.89; P<0.001), as was the risk of death due to causes other than disease recurrence (hazard ratio, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.57; P=0.05).The risk of GVHD associated with HLA-DPB1 mismatching was influenced by the HLA-DPB1 rs9277534 expression marker. Among recipients of HLA-DPB1-mismatched transplants from donors with the low-expression allele, recipients with the high-expression allele had a high risk of GVHD. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The success of unrelated haemopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is limited by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which is the main post-transplantation challenge when HLA-matched donors are unavailable. A sequence dimorphism in exon 1 of HLA-B gives rise to leader peptides containing methionine (Met; M) or threonine (Thr; T), which differentially influence natural killer and T-cell alloresponses. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the role of the leader dimorphism in GVHD after HLA-B-mismatched unrelated HCT.<h4>Methods</h4>We did a retrospective cohort study of 33?982 patients who received an unrelated HCT done in Australia, Europe, Japan, North America, and the UK between Jan 1, 1988, and Dec 31, 2016. Data were contributed by participants of the International Histocompatibility Working Group in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. All cases were included and there were no exclusion criteria. Multivariate regression models were used to assess risks associated with HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, and HLA-DQB1 mismatching. Among the 33?982 transplantations, the risks of GVHD associated with HLA-B M and T leaders were established in 17?100 (50·3%) HLA-matched and 1457 (4·3%) single HLA-B-mismatched transplantations using multivariate regression models. Leader frequencies were defined in 2?004?742 BeTheMatch US registry donors.<h4>Findings</h4>Between Jan 20, 2017, and March 11, 2019, we assessed 33?982 HCTs using multivariate regression models for the role of HLA mismatching on outcome. Median follow-up was 1841 days (IQR 909-2963). Mortality and GVHD increased with increasing numbers of HLA mismatches. A single HLA-B mismatch increased grade 3-4 acute GVHD (odds ratio [OR] 1·89, 95% CI 1·53-2·33; p<0·0001). Among the single HLA-B-mismatched transplantations, acute GVHD risk was higher with leader mismatching than with leader matching (OR 1·73, 1·02-2·94; p=0·042 for grade 2-4) and with an M leader shared allotype compared with a T leader shared allotype (OR 1·98, 1·39-2·81; p=0·0001 for grade 3-4). The preferred HLA-B-mismatched donor is leader-matched and shares a T leader allotype. The majority (1?836?939 [91·6%]) of the 2?004?742 US registry donors have the TT or MT genotype.<h4>Interpretation</h4>The HLA-B leader informs GVHD risk after HLA-B-mismatched unrelated HCT and differentiates high-risk HLA-B mismatches from those with lower risk. The leader of the matched allotype could be considered to be as important as the leader of the mismatched allotype for GVHD. Prospective identification of leader-matched donors is feasible for most patients in need of a HCT, and could lower GVHD and increase availability of HCT therapy. These findings are being independently validated and warrant further research in prospective trials.<h4>Funding</h4>The National Institutes of Health, USA.
Project description:Survival for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is limited by treatment-related mortality (TRM) and relapse after unrelated donor (URD) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Natural killer (NK)-cell alloreactivity, determined by donor killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and recipient HLA, correlates with successful HCT for AML. Hypothesizing that donor KIR genotype (A/A: 2 A KIR haplotypes; B/x: at least 1 B haplotype) would affect outcomes, we genotyped donors and recipients from 209 HLA-matched and 239 mismatched T-replete URD transplantations for AML. Three-year overall survival was significantly higher after transplantation from a KIR B/x donor (31% [95% CI: 26-36] vs 20% [95% CI: 13-27]; P = .007). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a 30% improvement in the relative risk of relapse-free survival with B/x donors compared with A/A donors (RR: 0.70 [95% CI: 0.55-0.88]; P = .002). B/x donors were associated with a higher incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD; RR: 1.51 [95% CI: 1.01-2.18]; P = .03), but not of acute GVHD, relapse, or TRM. This analysis demonstrates that unrelated donors with KIR B haplotypes confer significant survival benefit to patients undergoing T-replete HCT for AML. KIR genotyping of prospective donors, in addition to HLA typing, should be performed to identify HLA-matched donors with B KIR haplotypes.
Project description:Peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) from unrelated donors can serve as a graft source for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Currently, PB is most commonly used in roughly 80% of adult recipients. Determining the long-term impact of graft source on outcomes would inform this decision. Data collected by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research from 5200 adult recipients of a first HCT from an 8/8 or 7/8 HLA antigen-matched unrelated donor for treatment of acute leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome between 2001 and 2011 were analyzed to determine the impact of graft source on graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) relapse-free survival (GRFS), defined as freedom from grade III/IV acute GVHD, chronic GVHD requiring immunosuppressive therapy, relapse, and death, and overall survival. GRFS at 2 years was superior in BM recipients compared with PB recipients (16%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 14% to 18% versus 10%; 95% CI, 8% to 11%; P <.0001) in the 8/8 HLA-matched cohort and 7/8 HLA-matched cohort (11%; 95% CI, 8% to 14% versus 5%; 95% CI, 4% to 7%; P?=?.001). With 8/8 HLA-matched unrelated donors, overall survival at 5 years was superior in recipients of BM (43%; 95% CI, 40% to 46% versus 38%; 95% CI, 36% to 40%; P?=?.014). The inferior 5-year survival in the PB cohort was attributable to a higher frequency of deaths while in remission compared with the BM cohort. For recipients of 7/8 HLA-matched grafts, survival at 5 years was similar in BM recipients and PB recipients (32% versus 29%; P?=?.329). BM grafts are associated with improved long-term GRFS and overall survival in recipients of matched unrelated donor HCT and should be considered the unrelated allograft of choice, when available, for adults with acute leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome.
Project description:Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a curative option for blood cancers, but the coupled effects of graft-versus-tumor and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) limit its broader application. Outcomes improve with matching at HLAs, but other factors are required to explain residual risk of GVHD. In an effort to identify genetic associations outside the major histocompatibility complex, we conducted a genome-wide clinical outcomes study on 205 acute myeloid leukemia patients and their fully HLA-A-, HLA-B-, HLA-C-, HLA-DRB1-, and HLA-DQB1-matched (10/10) unrelated donors. HLA-DPB1 T-cell epitope permissibility mismatches were observed in less than half (45%) of acute GVHD cases, motivating a broader search for genetic factors affecting clinical outcomes. A novel bioinformatics workflow adapted from neoantigen discovery found no associations between acute GVHD and known, HLA-restricted minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHAs). These results were confirmed with microarray data from an additional 988 samples. On the other hand, Y-chromosome-encoded single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 4 genes (PCDH11Y, USP9Y, UTY, and NLGN4Y) did associate with acute GVHD in male patients with female donors. Males in this category with acute GVHD had more Y-encoded variant peptides per patient with higher predicted HLA-binding affinity than males without GVHD who matched X-paralogous alleles in their female donors. Methods and results described here have an immediate impact for allo-HCT, warranting further development and larger genomic studies where MiHAs are clinically relevant, including cancer immunotherapy, solid organ transplant, and pregnancy.
Project description:Blood malignancies can be cured with hematopoietic cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched unrelated donors; however, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) affects up to 80% of patients and contributes to increased mortality. To test the hypothesis that undetected patient-donor differences for non-HLA genetic variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) could confer risks after HLA-matched transplantation, we conducted a discovery-validation study of 4205 transplants for 1120 MHC region single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two SNPs were identified as markers for disease-free survival and acute GVHD. Among patients with two or more HLA-matched unrelated donors identified on their search, SNP genotyping of patients and their potential donors demonstrated that most patients have a choice of SNP-matched donors. In conclusion, the success of HLA-matched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation depends on non-HLA MHC region genetic variation. Prospective SNP screening and matching provides an approach for lowering risks to patients.
Project description:Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) offers the potential to cure hematologic malignancies. In the absence of an HLA-matched donor, HLA mismatched unrelated donors may be used, although risks of GvHD and treatment-related mortality (TRM) are higher. Identification and avoidance of amino-acid substitution and position types (AASPT) conferring higher risks of TRM and GvHD would potentially improve the success of transplantation from single HLA mismatched unrelated donors. Using random forest and logistic regression analyses, we identified 19 AASPT associated with greater risks for at least one adverse transplant outcome: grade III-IV acute GvHD, TRM, lower disease-free survival or worse overall survival relative to HLA-matched unrelated donors and to other AASPT. When tested in an independent validation cohort of 3530 patients, none of the AASPT from the training set were validated as high risk, however. Review of the literature shows that failure to validate original observations is the rule and not the exception in immunobiology and emphasizes the importance of independent validation before clinical application. Our current data do not support avoiding any specific class I AASPT for unrelated donors. Additional studies should be performed to fully understand the role of AASPT in HCT outcomes.