A gene (plsD) from Clostridium butyricum that functionally substitutes for the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gene (plsB) of Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT: The sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (plsB) of Escherichia coli is a key regulatory enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step in phospholipid biosynthesis. We report the initial characterization of a novel gene (termed plsD) from Clostridium butyricum, cloned based on its ability to complement the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate auxotrophic phenotype of a plsB mutant strain of E. coli. Unlike the 83-kDa PlsB acyltransferase from E. coli, the predicted plsD open reading frame encoded a protein of 26.5 kDa. Two regions of strong homology to other lipid acyltransferases, including PlsB and PlsC analogs from mammals, plants, yeast, and bacteria, were identified. PlsD was most closely related to the 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (plsC) gene family but did not complement the growth of plsC(Ts) mutants. An in vivo metabolic labeling experiment using a plsB plsX plsC(Ts) strain of E. coli confirmed that the plsD expression restored the ability of the cells to synthesize 1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate. However, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity was not detected in vitro in assays using either acyl-acyl carrier protein or acyl coenzyme A as the substrate.
Project description:Phospholipid biosynthesis is a vital facet of bacterial physiology that begins with the synthesis of the fatty acids by a soluble type II fatty acid synthase. The bacterial glycerol-phosphate acyltransferases utilize the completed fatty acid chains to form the first membrane phospholipid and thus play a critical role in the regulation of membrane biogenesis. The first bacterial acyltransferase described was PlsB, a glycerol-phosphate acyltransferase. PlsB is a key regulatory point that coordinates membrane phospholipid formation with cell growth and macromolecular synthesis. Phosphatidic acid is then produced by PlsC, a 1-acylglycerol-phosphate acyltransferase. These two acyltransferases use thioesters of either CoA or acyl carrier protein (ACP) as the acyl donors and have homologs that perform the same reactions in higher organisms. However, the most prevalent glycerol-phosphate acyltransferase in the bacterial world is PlsY, which uses a recently discovered acyl-phosphate fatty acid intermediate as an acyl donor. This unique activated fatty acid is formed from the acyl-ACP end products of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway by PlsX, an acyl-ACP:phosphate transacylase.
Project description:Glycerol-3-phosphate (sn-glycerol-3-P, G3P) acyltransferase catalyses the first committed step in the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids, the acylation of G3P to form 1-acyl G3P (lysophosphatidic acid). The paradigm G3P acyltransferase is the Escherichia coli plsB gene product which acylates position-1 of G3P using fatty acids in thioester linkage to either acyl carrier protein (ACP) or CoA as acyl donors. Although the E. coli plsB gene was discovered about 30 years ago, no evidence for transcriptional control of its expression has been reported. However A.E. Kazakov and co-workers (J Bacteriol 2009; 191: 52-64) reported the presence of a putative FadR binding site upstream of the candidate plsB genes of Vibrio cholerae and three other Vibrio species suggesting that plsB might be regulated by FadR, a GntR family transcription factor thus far known only to regulate fatty acid synthesis and degradation. We report that the V. cholerae plsB homologue restored growth of E. coli strain BB26-36 which is a G3P auxotroph due to an altered G3P acyltransferase activity. The plsB promoter was also mapped and the predicted FadR-binding palindrome was found to span positions -19 to -35, upstream of the transcription start site. Gel shift assays confirmed that both V. cholerae FadR and E. coli FadR bound the V. cholerae plsB promoter region and binding was reversed upon addition of long-chain fatty acyl-CoA thioesters. The expression level of the V. cholerae plsB gene was elevated two- to threefold in an E. coli fadR null mutant strain indicating that FadR acts as a repressor of V. cholerae plsB expression. In both E. coli and V. cholerae the ?-galactosidase activity of transcriptional fusions of the V. cholerae plsB promoter to lacZ increased two- to threefold upon supplementation of growth media with oleic acid. Therefore, V. cholerae co-ordinates fatty acid metabolism with 1-acyl G3P synthesis.
Project description:Sequence analysis of membrane-bound glycerolipid acyltransferases revealed that proteins from the bacterial, plant, and animal kingdoms share a highly conserved domain containing invariant histidine and aspartic acid residues separated by four less conserved residues in an HX4D configuration. We investigated the role of the invariant histidine residue in acyltransferase catalysis by site-directed mutagenesis of two representative members of this family, the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (PlsB) and the bifunctional 2-acyl-glycerophosphoethanolamine acyltransferase/acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (Aas) of Escherichia coli. Both the PlsB[H306A] and Aas[H36A] mutants lacked acyltransferase activity. However, the Aas[H36A] mutant retained significant acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase activity, illustrating that the lack of acyltransferase activity was specifically associated with the H36A substitution. The invariant aspartic acid residue in the HX4D pattern was also important. The substitution of aspartic acid 311 with glutamic acid in PlsB resulted in an enzyme with significantly reduced catalytic activity. Substitution of an alanine at this position eliminated acyltransferase activity; however, the PlsB[D311A] mutant protein did not assemble into the membrane, indicating that aspartic acid 311 is also important for the proper folding and membrane insertion of the acyltransferases. These data are consistent with a mechanism for glycerolipid acyltransferase catalysis where the invariant histidine functions as a general base to deprotonate the hydroxyl moiety of the acyl acceptor.
Project description:Phosphatidic acid (PA), the central intermediate in membrane phospholipid synthesis, is generated by two acyltransferases in a pathway conserved in all life forms. The second step in this pathway is catalyzed by 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, called PlsC in bacteria. Here we present the crystal structure of PlsC from Thermotoga maritima, revealing an unusual hydrophobic/aromatic N-terminal two-helix motif linked to an acyltransferase ??-domain that contains the catalytic HX4D motif. PlsC dictates the acyl chain composition of the 2-position of phospholipids, and the acyl chain selectivity 'ruler' is an appropriately placed and closed hydrophobic tunnel. We confirmed this by site-directed mutagenesis and membrane composition analysis of Escherichia coli cells that expressed mutant PlsC. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that the two-helix motif represents a novel substructure that firmly anchors the protein to one leaflet of the membrane. This binding mode allows the PlsC active site to acylate lysophospholipids within the membrane bilayer by using soluble acyl donors.
Project description:The sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (plsB) catalyzes the first step in membrane phospholipid formation. A conditional Escherichia coli mutant (plsB26) has a single missense mutation (G1045A) predicting the expression of an acyltransferase with an Ala349Thr substitution. The PlsB26 protein had a significantly reduced glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase specific activity coupled with an elevated Km for glycerol-3-phosphate.
Project description:The Rhodobacter capsulatus genome contains three genes (olsA [plsC138], plsC316, and plsC3498) that are annotated as lysophosphatidic acid (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate) acyltransferase (AGPAT). Of these genes, olsA was previously shown to be an O-acyltransferase in the second step of ornithine lipid biosynthesis, which is important for optimal steady-state levels of c-type cytochromes (S. Aygun-Sunar, S. Mandaci, H.-G. Koch, I. V. J. Murray, H. Goldfine, and F. Daldal. Mol. Microbiol. 61:418-435, 2006). The roles of the remaining plsC316 and plsC3498 genes remained unknown. In this work, these genes were cloned, and chromosomal insertion-deletion mutations inactivating them were obtained to define their function. Characterization of these mutants indicated that, unlike the Escherichia coli plsC, neither plsC316 nor plsC3498 was essential in R. capsulatus. In contrast, no plsC316 olsA double mutant could be isolated, indicating that an intact copy of either olsA or plsC316 was required for R. capsulatus growth under the conditions tested. Compared to OlsA null mutants, PlsC316 null mutants contained ornithine lipid and had no c-type cytochrome-related phenotype. However, they exhibited slight growth impairment and highly altered total fatty acid and phospholipid profiles. Heterologous expression in an E. coli plsC(Ts) mutant of either R. capsulatus plsC316 or olsA gene products supported growth at a nonpermissive temperature, exhibited AGPAT activity in vitro, and restored phosphatidic acid biosynthesis. The more vigorous AGPAT activity displayed by PlsC316 suggested that plsC316 encodes the main AGPAT required for glycerophospholipid synthesis in R. capsulatus, while olsA acts as an alternative AGPAT that is specific for ornithine lipid synthesis. This study therefore revealed for the first time that some OlsA enzymes, like the enzyme of R. capsulatus, are bifunctional and involved in both membrane ornithine lipid and glycerophospholipid biosynthesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Phospholipid biosynthesis commences with the acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) to form 1-acyl-G3P. This step is catalyzed by the PlsB protein in Escherichia coli. The gene encoding this protein has not been identified, however, in the majority of bacterial genome sequences, including that of Bacillus subtilis. Recently, a new two-step pathway catalyzed by PlsX and PlsY proteins for the initiation of phospholipid formation in Streptococcus pneumoniae has been reported. RESULTS: In B. subtilis, 271 genes have been reported to be indispensable, when inactivated singly, for growth in LB medium. Among these, 11 genes encode proteins with unknown functions. As part of a genetic study to identify the functions of these genes, we show here that the B. subtilis ortholog of S. pneumoniae PlsY, YneS, is required for G3P acyltransferase activity, together with PlsX. The B. subtilis genome lacks plsB, and we show in vivo that the PlsX/Y pathway is indeed essential for the growth of bacteria lacking plsB. Interestingly, in addition to plsB, E. coli possesses plsX and the plsY ortholog, ygiH. We therefore explored the functional relationship between PlsB, PlsX and YgiH in E. coli, and found that plsB is essential for E. coli growth, indicating that PlsB plays an important role in 1-acyl-G3P synthesis in E. coli. We also found, however, that the simultaneous inactivation of plsX and ygiH was impossible, revealing important roles for PlsX and YgiH in E. coli growth. CONCLUSION: Both plsX and yneS are essential for 1-acyl-G3P synthesis in B. subtilis, in agreement with recent reports on their biochemical functions. In E. coli, PlsB plays a principal role in 1-acyl-G3P synthesis and is also essential for bacterial growth. PlsX and YgiH also, however, play important roles in E. coli growth, possibly by regulating the intracellular concentration of acyl-ACP. These proteins are therefore important targets for development of new antibacterial agents.
Project description:Acyl exchange between acyl-CoA and position 2 of sn-phosphatidylcholine occurs in the microsomal preparations of developing safflower cotyledons. Evidence is presented to show that the acyl exchange is catalysed by the combined back and forward reactions of an acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (EC 126.96.36.199). The back reaction of the enzyme was demonstrated by the stimulation of the acyl exchange with free CoA and by the observation that the added CoA was acylated with acyl groups from position 2 of sn-phosphatidylcholine. Re-acylation of the, endogenously produced, lysophosphatidylcholine with added acyl-CoA occurred with the same specificity as that observed with added palmitoyl lysophosphatidylcholine. A similar acyl exchange, catalysed by an acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase, occurred in microsomal preparations of rat liver. The enzyme from safflower had a high specificity for oleate and linoleate, whereas arachidonate was the preferred acyl group in the rat liver microsomal preparations. The rate of the back reaction was 3-5% and 0.2-0.4% of the forward reaction in the microsomal preparations of safflower and rat liver respectively. Previous observations, that the acyl exchange in safflower microsomal preparations was stimulated by bovine serum albumin and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, can now be explained by the lowered acyl-CoA concentrations in the incubation mixture with albumin and in the increase in free CoA in the presence of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (by rapid acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate with acyl groups from acyl-CoA to yield phosphatidic acid). Bovine serum albumin and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, therefore, shift the equilibrium in acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase-catalysed reactions towards the rate-limiting step in the acyl exchange process, namely the removal of acyl groups from phosphatidylcholine. The possible role of the acyl exchange in the transfer of acyl groups between complex lipids is discussed.
Project description:Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT) introduces fatty acyl groups into the sn-2 position of membrane phospholipids (PLs). Various bacteria produce multiple LPAATs, whereas it is believed that Escherichia coli produces only one essential LPAAT homolog, PlsC-the deletion of which is lethal. However, we found that E. coli possesses another LPAAT homolog named YihG. Here, we show that overexpression of YihG in E. coli carrying a temperature-sensitive mutation in plsC allowed its growth at non-permissive temperatures. Analysis of the fatty acyl composition of PLs from the yihG-deletion mutant (?yihG) revealed that endogenous YihG introduces the cis-vaccenoyl group into the sn-2 position of PLs. Loss of YihG did not affect cell growth or morphology, but ?yihG cells swam well in liquid medium in contrast to wild-type cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that FliC was highly expressed in ?yihG cells, and this phenotype was suppressed by expression of recombinant YihG in ?yihG cells. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the flagellar structure was observed only in ?yihG cells. These results suggest that YihG has specific functions related to flagellar formation through modulation of the fatty acyl composition of membrane PLs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) are a type of backbone molecule that can react with alcohol to produce biodiesels. Various microorganisms have become potent producers of FFAs. Efforts have focused on increasing metabolic flux to the synthesis of either neutral fat or fatty acyl intermediates attached to acyl carrier protein (ACP), which are the source of FFAs. Membrane lipids are also a source of FFAs. As an alternative way of producing FFAs, exogenous phospholipase may be used after heterologous production and localization in the periplasmic space. In this work, we examined whether Rhodobacter sphaeroides, which forms an intracytoplasmic membrane, can be used for long-chain FFA production using phospholipase. RESULTS:The recombinant R. sphaeroides strain Rs-A2, which heterologously produces Arabidopsis thaliana phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in the periplasm, excretes FFAs during growth. FFA productivity under photoheterotrophic conditions is higher than that observed under aerobic or semiaerobic conditions. When the biosynthetic enzymes for FA (?-ketoacyl-ACP synthase, FabH) and phosphatidate (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, PlsC) were overproduced in Rs-A2, the FFA productivity of the resulting strain Rs-HCA2 was elevated, and the FFAs produced mainly consisted of long-chain FAs of cis-vaccenate, stearate, and palmitate in an approximately equimolar ratio. The high-cell-density culture of Rs-HCA2 with DMSO in two-phase culture with dodecane resulted in an increase of overall carbon substrate consumption, which subsequently leads to a large increase in FFA productivity of up to 2.0 g L-1 day-1. Overexpression of the genes encoding phosphate acyltransferase (PlsX) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (PlsY), which catalyze the biosynthetic steps immediately upstream from PlsC, in Rs-HCA2 generated Rs-HXYCA2, which grew faster than Rs-HCA2 and showed an FFA productivity of 2.8 g L-1 day-1 with an FFA titer of 8.5 g L-1. CONCLUSION:We showed that long-chain FFAs can be produced from metabolically engineered R. sphaeroides heterologously producing PLA2 in the periplasm. The FFA productivity was greatly increased by high-cell-density culture in two-phase culture with dodecane. This approach provides highly competitive productivity of long-chain FFAs by R. sphaeroides compared with other bacteria. This method may be applied to FFA production by other photosynthetic bacteria with similar differentiated membrane systems.