Analysis of diversity and activity of sulfate-reducing bacterial communities in sulfidogenic bioreactors using 16S rRNA and dsrB genes as molecular markers.
ABSTRACT: Here we describe the diversity and activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sulfidogenic bioreactors by using the simultaneous analysis of PCR products obtained from DNA and RNA of the 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) genes. We subsequently analyzed the amplified gene fragments by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). We observed fewer bands in the RNA-based DGGE profiles than in the DNA-based profiles, indicating marked differences in the populations present and in those that were metabolically active at the time of sampling. Comparative sequence analyses of the bands obtained from rRNA and dsrB DGGE profiles were congruent, revealing the same SRB populations. Bioreactors that received either ethanol or isopropanol as an energy source showed the presence of SRB affiliated with Desulfobulbus rhabdoformis and/or Desulfovibrio sulfodismutans, as well as SRB related to the acetate-oxidizing Desulfobacca acetoxidans. The reactor that received wastewater containing a diverse mixture of organic compounds showed the presence of nutritionally versatile SRB affiliated with Desulfosarcina variabilis and another acetate-oxidizing SRB, affiliated with Desulfoarculus baarsii. In addition to DGGE analysis, we performed whole-cell hybridization with fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes to estimate the relative abundances of the dominant sulfate-reducing bacterial populations. Desulfobacca acetoxidans-like populations were most dominant (50 to 60%) relative to the total SRB communities, followed by Desulfovibrio-like populations (30 to 40%), and Desulfobulbus-like populations (15 to 20%). This study is the first to identify metabolically active SRB in sulfidogenic bioreactors by using the functional gene dsrAB as a molecular marker. The same approach can also be used to infer the ecological role of coexisting SRB in other habitats.
Project description:A combination of culture-dependent and independent methods was used to study the co-existence of different sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor treating sulfate-rich wastewater. The wastewater was fed with ethanol as an external electron donor. Twenty six strains of SRB were randomly picked and isolated from the highest serial dilution that showed growth (i.e. 10(8)). Repetitive enterobacterial palindromic polymerase chain reaction and whole cell protein profiling revealed a low genetic diversity, with only two genotypes among the 26 strains obtained in the pure culture. The low genetic diversity suggests the absence of micro-niches within the reactor, which might be due to a low spatial and temporal micro-heterogeneity. The total 16S rDNA sequencing of two representative strains L3 and L7 indicated a close relatedness to the genus Desulfovibrio. The two strains differed in as many as five physiological traits, which might allow them to occupy distinct niches and thus co-exist within the same habitat. Whole cell hybridisation with fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide probes was performed to characterise the SRB community in the reactor. The isolated strains Desulfovibrio L3 and Desulfovibrio L7 were the most dominant SRB, representing 30-35% and 25-35%, respectively, of the total SRB community. Desulfobulbus-like bacteria contributed for 20-25%, and the Desulfobacca acetoxidans-specific probe targeted approximately 15-20% of the total SRB. The whole cell hybridisation results thus revealed a consortium of four different species of SRB that can be enriched and maintained on a single energy source in a full-scale sulfidogenic reactor.
Project description:In this study, the sulfate-reducing bacteria, (SRB) were identified and reported for the first time through analysis of functional gene dsrAB, from the DNA of sediment samples collected from 10 sites of the Chilika lake. The finding illustrates Forty six Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), identified from the DGGE which were obtained from the 10 sediment samples. Of these, 34 OTUs exhibited around 78-96% sequence similarity and 12 OTUs showed 97 to 100% sequence similarity to the dsrAB gene of reported type strains of SRB. The sequence information obtained revealed the presence and distribution of diverse types of SRB which include phylotypes related to Desulfovibrio, Desulfonatronovibrio, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfobotulous and Desulfobacca. Upon comparison of dsrAB gene sequences of SRB obtained through this study with those collected from the GenBank, and through the dendrogram constructed, it was observed that except 13 OTUs that clustered closely with the reported type strains, all other 36 OTUs clustered distantly and had no representative member of SRB. This indicated the presence of phylogenetically diverse groups of SRB inhabiting the lake Chilika.
Project description:Here, we describe a three-step nested-PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) strategy to detect sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in complex microbial communities from industrial bioreactors. In the first step, the nearly complete 16S rRNA gene was amplified using bacterial primers. Subsequently, this product was used as a template in a second PCR with group-specific SRB primers. A third round of amplification was conducted to obtain fragments suitable for DGGE. The largest number of bands was observed in DGGE patterns of products obtained with primers specific for the Desulfovibrio-Desulfomicrobium group, indicating a large diversity of these SRBs. In addition, members of other phylogenetic SRB groups, i.e., Desulfotomaculum, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfococcus-Desulfonema-Desulfosarcina, were detected. Bands corresponding to Desulfobacterium and Desulfobacter were not detected in the bioreactor samples. Comparative sequence analysis of excised DGGE bands revealed the identity of the community members. The developed three-step PCR-DGGE strategy is a welcome tool for studying the diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria.
Project description:The effect of sulfate addition on the stability of, and microbial community behavior in, low-temperature anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed-based bioreactors was investigated at 15°C. Efficient bioreactor performance was observed, with chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of >90%, and a mean SO(2-) 4 removal rate of 98.3%. In situ methanogensis appeared unaffected at a COD: SO(2-) 4 influent ratio of 8:1, and subsequently of 3:1, and was impacted marginally only when the COD: SO(2-) 4 ratio was 1:2. Specific methanogenic activity assays indicated a complex set of interactions between sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), methanogens and homoacetogenic bacteria. SO(2-) 4 addition resulted in predominantly acetoclastic, rather than hydrogenotrophic, methanogenesis until >600 days of SO(2-) 4-influenced bioreactor operation. Temporal microbial community development was monitored by denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridizations (FISH), qPCR and microsensor analysis were combined to investigate the distribution of microbial groups, and particularly SRB and methanogens, along the structure of granular biofilms. qPCR data indicated that sulfidogenic genes were present in methanogenic and sulfidogenic biofilms, indicating the potential for sulfate reduction even in bioreactors not exposed to SO(2-) 4. Although the architecture of methanogenic and sulfidogenic granules was similar, indicating the presence of SRB even in methanogenic systems, FISH with rRNA targets found that the SRB were more abundant in the sulfidogenic biofilms. Methanosaeta species were the predominant, keystone members of the archaeal community, with the complete absence of the Methanosarcina species in the experimental bioreactor by trial conclusion. Microsensor data suggested the ordered distribution of sulfate reduction and sulfide accumulation, even in methanogenic granules.
Project description:Sediment samples were collected worldwide from 16 locations on four continents (in New York, California, New Jersey, Virginia, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Italy, Latvia, and South Korea) to assess the extent of the diversity and the distribution patterns of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in contaminated sediments. The SRB communities were examined by terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB) with NdeII digests. The fingerprints of dsrAB genes contained a total of 369 fluorescent TRFs, of which <20% were present in the GenBank database. The global sulfidogenic communities appeared to be significantly different among the anthropogenically impacted (petroleum-contaminated) sites, but nearly all were less diverse than pristine habitats, such as mangroves. A global SRB indicator species of petroleum pollution was not identified. However, several dsrAB gene sequences corresponding to hydrocarbon-degrading isolates or consortium members were detected in geographically widely separated polluted sites. Finally, a cluster analysis of the TRFLP fingerprints indicated that many SRB microbial communities were most similar on the basis of close geographic proximity (tens of kilometers). Yet, on larger scales (hundreds to thousands of kilometers) SRB communities could cluster with geographically widely separated sites and not necessarily with the site with the closest proximity. These data demonstrate that SRB populations do not adhere to a biogeographic distribution pattern similar to that of larger eukaryotic organisms, with the greatest species diversity radiating from the Indo-Pacific region. Rather, a patchy SRB distribution is encountered, implying an initially uniform SRB community that has differentiated over time.
Project description:Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) play a major role in the coupled biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and chalcophilic metal(loid)s. By implication, they can exert a strong influence on the speciation and mobility of multiple metal(loid) contaminants. In this study, we combined DsrAB gene sequencing and sulfur isotopic profiling to identify the phylogeny and distribution of SRB and to assess their metabolic activity in salt marsh sediments exposed to acid mine drainage (AMD) for over 100 years. Recovered dsrAB sequences from three sites sampled along an AMD flow path indicated the dominance of a single Desulfovibrio species. Other major sequence clades were related most closely to Desulfosarcina, Desulfococcus, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfosporosinus species. The presence of metal sulfides with low delta(34)S values relative to delta(34)S values of pore water sulfate showed that sediment SRB populations were actively reducing sulfate under ambient conditions (pH of approximately 2), although possibly within less acidic microenvironments. Interestingly, delta(34)S values for pore water sulfate were lower than those for sulfate delivered during tidal inundation of marsh sediments. 16S rRNA gene sequence data from sediments and sulfur isotope data confirmed that sulfur-oxidizing bacteria drove the reoxidation of biogenic sulfide coupled to oxygen or nitrate reduction over a timescale of hours. Collectively, these findings imply a highly dynamic microbially mediated cycling of sulfate and sulfide, and thus the speciation and mobility of chalcophilic contaminant metal(loid)s, in AMD-impacted marsh sediments.
Project description:Desulfobacca acetoxidans Elferink et al. 1999 is the type species of the genus Desulfobacca, which belongs to the family Syntrophaceae in the class Deltaproteobacteria. The species was first observed in a study on the competition of sulfate-reducers and acetoclastic methanogens for acetate in sludge. D. acetoxidans is considered to be the most abundant acetate-degrading sulfate reducer in sludge. It is of interest due to its isolated phylogenetic location in the 16S rRNA-based tree of life. This is the second completed genome sequence of a member of the family Syntrophaceae to be published and only the third genome sequence from a member of the order Syntrophobacterales. The 3,282,536 bp long genome with its 2,969 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
Project description:The sulfate-reducing bacterial populations of a stratified marine water column, Mariager Fjord, Denmark, were investigated by molecular and culture-dependent approaches in parallel. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and DNA encoding rRNA (rDNA) isolated from the water column indicated specific bacterial populations in different water column layers and revealed a highly differentiated pattern of rRNA- and rDNA-derived PCR amplificates, probably reflecting active and resting bacterial populations. Hybridization of DGGE patterns with rRNA probes indicated the increased presence and activity (by at least 1 order of magnitude) of sulfate-reducing bacteria within and below the chemocline. Parallel to this molecular approach, an approach involving most-probable-number (MPN) counts was used, and it found a similar distribution of cultivable sulfate-reducing bacteria in the water column of Mariager Fjord, Approximately 25 cells and 250 cells per ml above and below the chemocline, respectively, were found. Desulfovibrio- and Desulfobulbus-related strains occurred in the oxic zone. DGGE bands from MPN cultures were sequenced and compared with those obtained from nucleic acids extracted from water column samples. The MPN isolates were phylogenetically affiliated with sulfate-reducing delta subdivision proteobacteria (members of the genera Desulfovibrio, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfobacter), whereas the molecular isolates constituted an independent lineage of the delta subdivision proteobacteria. DGGE of PCR-amplified nucleic acids with general eubacterial PCR primers conceptually revealed the general bacterial population, whereas the use of culture media allowed cultivable sulfate-reducing bacteria to be selected. A parallel study of Mariager Fjord biogeochemistry, bacterial activity, and bacterial counts complementing this investigation has been presented elsewhere (N.B. Ramsing, H. Fossing, T. G. Ferdelman, F. Andersen, and B. Thamdrup, Appl. Environ.
Project description:We simultaneously determined the phylogenetic identification and substrate uptake patterns of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) inhabiting a sewer biofilm with oxygen, nitrate, or sulfate as an electron acceptor by combining microautoradiography and fluorescent in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) with family- and genus-specific 16S rRNA probes. The MAR-FISH analysis revealed that Desulfobulbus hybridized with probe 660 was a dominant SRB subgroup in this sewer biofilm, accounting for 23% of the total SRB. Approximately 9 and 27% of Desulfobulbus cells detected with probe 660 could take up [(14)C]propionate with oxygen and nitrate, respectively, as an electron acceptor, which might explain the high abundance of this species in various oxic environments. Furthermore, more than 40% of Desulfobulbus cells incorporated acetate under anoxic conditions. SRB were also numerically important members of H(2)-utilizing and (14)CO(2)-fixing microbial populations in this sewer biofilm, accounting for roughly 42% of total H(2)-utilizing bacteria hybridized with probe EUB338. A comparative 16S ribosomal DNA analysis revealed that two SRB populations, related to the Desulfomicrobium hypogeium and the Desulfovibrio desulfuricans MB lineages, were found to be important H(2) utilizers in this biofilm. The substrate uptake characteristics of different phylogenetic SRB subgroups were compared with the characteristics described to date. These results provide further insight into the correlation between the 16S rRNA phylogenetic diversity and the physiological diversity of SRB populations inhabiting sewer biofilms.
Project description:Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) participate in microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of equipment and H2S-driven reservoir souring in oil field sites. Successful management of industrial processes requires methods that allow robust monitoring of microbial communities. This study investigated the applicability of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) targeting the dissimilatory sulfite reductase ß-subunit (dsrB) gene for monitoring SRB communities in oil field samples from the North Sea, the United States, and Brazil. Fifteen of the 28 screened samples gave a positive result in real-time PCR assays, containing 9 × 10(1) to 6 × 10(5) dsrB gene copies ml(-1). DHPLC and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community profiles of the PCR-positive samples shared an overall similarity; both methods revealed the same samples to have the lowest and highest diversity. The SRB communities were diverse, and different dsrB compositions were detected at different geographical locations. The identified dsrB gene sequences belonged to several phylogenetic groups, such as Desulfovibrio, Desulfococcus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfobulbus, Desulfotignum, Desulfonatronovibrio, and Desulfonauticus. DHPLC showed an advantage over DGGE in that the community profiles were very reproducible from run to run, and the resolved gene fragments could be collected using an automated fraction collector and sequenced without a further purification step. DGGE, on the other hand, included casting of gradient gels, and several rounds of rerunning, excising, and reamplification of bands were needed for successful sequencing. In summary, DHPLC proved to be a suitable tool for routine monitoring of the diversity of SRB communities in oil field samples.