Association of warfarin dose with genes involved in its action and metabolism.
ABSTRACT: We report an extensive study of variability in genes encoding proteins that are believed to be involved in the action and biotransformation of warfarin. Warfarin is a commonly prescribed anticoagulant that is difficult to use because of the wide interindividual variation in dose requirements, the narrow therapeutic range and the risk of serious bleeding. We genotyped 201 patients for polymorphisms in 29 genes in the warfarin interactive pathways and tested them for association with dose requirement. In our study, polymorphisms in or flanking the genes VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, PROC, APOE, EPHX1, CALU, GGCX and ORM1-ORM2 and haplotypes of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, PROC, F7, GGCX, PROZ, F9, NR1I2 and ORM1-ORM2 were associated with dose (P < 0.05). VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C18 and CYP2C19 were significant after experiment-wise correction for multiple testing (P < 0.000175), however, the association of CYP2C18 and CYP2C19 was fully explained by linkage disequilibrium with CYP2C9*2 and/or *3. PROC and APOE were both significantly associated with dose after correction within each gene. A multiple regression model with VKORC1, CYP2C9, PROC and the non-genetic predictors age, bodyweight, drug interactions and indication for treatment jointly accounted for 62% of variance in warfarin dose. Weaker associations observed for other genes could explain up to approximately 10% additional dose variance, but require testing and validation in an independent and larger data set. Translation of this knowledge into clinical guidelines for warfarin prescription will be likely to have a major impact on the safety and efficacy of warfarin.
Project description:CYP2C9 and VKORC1 are two major genetic factors associated with inter-individual variability in warfarin dose. Additionally, genes in the warfarin metabolism pathway have also been associated with dose variance. We analyzed Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes to identify genetic factors that might confer warfarin sensitivity in Indonesian patients.Direct sequencing method was used to identify SNPs in CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, EPHX1, PROC and GGCX genes in warfarin-treated patients. Multiple linear regressions were performed to model the relationship warfarin daily dose requirement with genetic and non-genetic variables measured and used to develop a novel algorithm for warfarin dosing.From the 40 SNPs analyzed, CYP2C9 rs17847036 and VKORC1 rs9923231 showed significant association with warfarin sensitivity. In our study population, no significant correlation could be detected between CYP2C9*3, CYP2C9C-65 (rs9332127), CYP4F2 rs2108622, GGCX rs12714145, EPHX1 rs4653436 and PROC rs1799809 with warfarin sensitivity.VKORC1 rs9923231 AA and CYP2C9 rs17847036 GG genotypes were associated with low dosage requirements of most patients (2.05 ± 0.77 mg/day and 2.09 ± 0.70 mg/day, respectively). CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic variants as well as non-genetic factors such as age, body weight and body height account for 15.4% of variance in warfarin dose among our study population. Additional analysis of this combination could allow for personalized warfarin treatment in ethnic Indonesians.
Project description:Warfarin is a commonly used anticoagulant with a narrow therapeutic range and large interindividual differences in dosing requirements. Previously, studies have identified that the interindividual variability was influenced by varieties of factors, including age, body size, vitamin K intake, interacting medications, as well as genetic variants. We aimed to investigate the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the interindividual variability of warfarin dose requirements in Chinese patients.The study population consisted of 300 patients with a stable maintenance dose of warfarin. We examined SNPs in eight genes involving in the biotransformation and mode of action of warfarin (i.e., CYP4F2, CYP2C19, APOE, CALU, EPHX1, PROC, CYP2C9, and GGCX) using the SNaPshot assay.The mean daily warfarin dose in patients carrying CYP2C19 rs3814637CC, CYP2C9 rs1057910AA, and GGCX rs699664AA genotype was 3.39, 3.34, and 3.51?mg/day, respectively, which was higher than those carrying CYP2C19 rs3814637TT, CYP2C9 rs1057910CC, and rs699664GG genotype (2.00, 0.81, and 3.09?mg/day, respectively).These findings indicate that individuals carrying the CYP2C19 rs3814637CC or CYP2C9 rs1057910AA or GGCX rs699664AA genotype needed higher warfarin doses in the Chinese population.
Project description:AIM:To determine if copy number variants contribute to warfarin dose requirements, we investigated CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, GGCX and CALU for deletions and duplications in a multiethnic patient population treated with therapeutic doses of warfarin. PATIENTS & METHODS:DNA samples from 178 patients were subjected to copy number analyses by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification or quantitative PCR assays. Additionally, the CYP2C9 exon 8 insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs71668942) was examined among the patient cohort and 1750 additional multiethnic healthy individuals. RESULTS:All patients carried two copies of CYP2C9 by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and no exon 8 deletion carriers were detected. Similarly, quantitative PCR assays for VKORC1, CYP4F2, GGCX and CALU identified two copies in all populations. CONCLUSION:These data indicate that copy number variants in the principal genes involved in warfarin dose variability (CYP2C9, VKORC1), including genes with lesser effect (CYP4F2, GGCX), and those that may be more relevant among certain racial groups (CALU), are rare in multiethnic populations, including African-Americans.
Project description:Variants in the CYP2C9 (i.e. *2 and *3) and VKORC1 (i.e. 1173C/T or -1639G/A) genes have been shown to influence warfarin dose requirements. However, these factors seem to explain less of the dose variability in African Americans who have a lower prevalence of the CYP2C9*2 and *3 and VKORC1 1173T alleles.In African Americans, the VKORC1 rs17886199 variant was statistically significantly associated with log-transformed warfarin maintenance dose, independent of the influence of VKORC1 1173C>T and CYP2C9*2 and *3. However, replication of our finding is needed to confirm the association of rs1786199 SNP in African Americans, since Limdi et al. did not examine the effect of this SNP because the prevalence of the rs1786199 A-allele was too low.To raise hypotheses with regards to whether genetic variants in the VKORC1, CYP2C9, EPHX1, GGCX and ALB genes might influence warfarin dose in African Americans and Caucasians, independent of the effects of the VKORC1 1173C>T and CYP2C9*2 and *3 variants.From a prospective cohort study, we obtained additional DNA on 36 Caucasian and 22 African American warfarin users who reached maintenance dose and genotyped them for tagSNPs (r2<0.8) in VKORC1, EPHX1, GGCX and ALB genes, and one exonic CYP2C9 SNP. Linear regression models were fitted to estimate the relationship (P value) between log-transformed maintenance dose and each SNP and the amount of the warfarin dose variability accounted for by each SNP (partial R2).In African Americans, the VKORC1 rs17886199 A-allele was associated with a lower dose (GG=46.3 mg and GA=25.6 mg; P=0.002), independent of the VKORC1 1173C>T and CYP2C9*2 and *3 variants. Even after applying Bonferroni correction, the P value would still be considered statistically significant. The VKORC1 rs17886199 variant was not found in Caucasians. In Caucasians, the EPHX1 rs1051741 T-allele was associated with a lower dose (CC=41.3 mg and CT=30.0 mg; P=0.04). The latter was no longer statistically significant after applying Bonferroni correction.Our pilot study suggests that the VKORC1 rs17886199 variant could influence warfarin maintenance dose among African Americans, even after accounting for the influence of the VKORC1 1173C>T variant. Future studies with a larger sample size will be needed to confirm our findings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In this prospective cohort study, we have undertaken a comprehensive evaluation of clinical parameters along with variation in 29 genes (including CYP2C9 and VKORC1) to identify factors determining interindividual variability in warfarin response. METHODS:Consecutive patients (n=311) were followed up prospectively for 26 weeks. Several outcomes chosen to capture both warfarin efficacy and toxicity were assessed. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were undertaken to assess the combined effect of clinical and genetic factors. RESULTS:CYP2C9 was the most important gene determining initial anticoagulant control, whereas VKORC1 was more important for stable anticoagulation. Novel associations with some clinical outcomes were found with single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cytochrome 450 genes CYP2C18 and CYP2C19, which were independent of the associations observed with CYP2C9 and in genes encoding CYP3A5, protein S and clotting factor V, although the variability explained by these genes was small. On the basis of the results of microcosting, adverse events were shown to be a significant predictor of total cost. CONCLUSION:Accurate prediction of warfarin dose requirement needs to take into account multiple genetic and environmental factors, the contributions of which vary in the induction and maintenance phases of treatment.
Project description:The main aim of this study was to screen various genetic and nongenetic factors that are known to alter warfarin response and to generate a model to predict stable warfarin maintenance dose for Indian patients. The study comprised of 300 warfarin-treated patients. Followed by extensive literature review, 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, that is, VKORC1-1639 G>A (rs9923231), CYP2C9*2 (rs1799853), CYP2C9*3 (rs1057910), FVII R353Q (rs6046), GGCX 12970 C>G (rs11676382), CALU c.*4A>G (rs1043550), EPHX1 c.337T>C (rs1051740), GGCX: c.214+597G>A (rs12714145), GGCX: 8016G>A (rs699664), and CYP4F2 V433M (rs2108622), and 5 nongenetic factors, that is, age, gender, smoking, alcoholism, and diet, were selected to find their association with warfarin response. The univariate analysis was carried out for 15 variables (10 genetic and 5 nongenetic). Five variables, that is, VKORC1-1639 G>A, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, age, and diet, were found to be significantly associated with warfarin response in univariate analysis. These 5 variables were entered in stepwise and multiple regression analysis to generate a prediction model for stable warfarin maintenance dose. The generated model scored R2 of .67, which indicates that this model can explain 67% of warfarin dose variability. The generated model will help in prescribing more accurate warfarin maintenance dosing in Indian patients and will also help in minimizing warfarin-induced adverse drug reactions and a better quality of life in these patients.
Project description:AIM:To determine whether VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP2C9 rs1057910, CYP4F2 rs2108622 and ORM1 rs17650 genotypes contribute to warfarin therapy in patients during initiation and maintenance anticoagulation treatment after heart valve surgery. METHODS:287 Chinese patients with warfarin treatment more than three month after heart valve replacement operations were enrolled. Blood was collected from each subject for DNA extraction and genotyping. Analyzing the relationship between genotypes and warfarin curative effect. RESULTS:Their mean age was 48.0 ± 10.5 years old. During the initiation phase, the growth rate of INR was partial correlated with VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP2C9 rs1057910 and ORM1 rs17650, respectively. Compared with AG or GG genotypes of VKORC1 c.-1639 carriers, patients with VKORC1 c.-1639AA reached target INR therapeutic range faster (P<0.001) and has a high risk of overanticoagulation (P<0.001). Carriers of at least one CYP2C9 *3 allele reached the target INR therapeutic range and supra-therapeutic INR were faster than CYP2C9 wild-type carriers (P=0.032, P=0.032, respectively). CYP4F2 rs2108622 could significantly influence on time to the target INR therapeutic range and time to INR above 3.0 after hierarchical analysis with VKORC1, CYP2C9 and ORM1 (P=0.011, P=0.044, respectively). VKORC1 rs9923231, CYP2C9 rs1057910 and ORM1 rs17650 were significantly influence the %TTR in three months (P=0.031, P=0.008, P=0.001, respectively). During the maintenance phase, VKORC1 c.-1639AA carriers spent more time at supra-therapeutic INRs (P<0.001). CYP2C9 rs1057910, CYP4F2 rs2108622 and ORM1 rs17650 gene variants did not affect outcome parameters in maintenance phase. CONCLUSIONS:This study found that genetic factors could significantly affected on warfarin therapy in Chinese. Meanwhile, genetic variations play a more important role in the initial phase than did in maintenance phase of warfarin therapy.
Project description:Genotype-based algorithms that include VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes are less predictive of warfarin dose variability in Africans as opposed to Europeans. Polymorphisms in GGCX, FPGS, or STX1B are associated with warfarin dose requirements in African-Americans. We sought to determine if they influenced warfarin dose in European-Americans, and another African population, specifically Egyptians. We genotyped 529 adults (n = 325 European-Americans, 204 Egyptians) on a stable warfarin dose for GGCX rs12714145 and rs10654848, FPGS rs7856096, and STX1B rs4889606. Rs12714145, rs10654848, and rs7856096 were not associated with warfarin dose, whereas STX1B rs4889606 was a significant determinant in univariate analysis (P < 0.0001) in both cohorts. However, STX1B rs4889606 was in high linkage disequilibrium with VKORC1-1639 G>A, and was no longer significant after including VKORC1-1639 G>A in the regression model. Based on these data, the polymorphisms do not appear to influence, in a clinically important way, warfarin dose requirements in European-Americans and Egyptians.
Project description:The anticoagulation response to vitamin K antagonists is characterised by high inter-individual variability. The impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several genes of enzymes involved in the vitamin K cycle on phenprocoumon dose variability and phenprocoumon plasma concentrations is still under investigation.We assessed the influence of VKORC1 c.-1639G>A, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP4F2 c.1297G>A, CALU c.*4A>G, EPHX1 c.337T>C, GGCX c.214+597G>A, F7 c.-402G>A, F7 c.-401G>T, PROC c.-228C>T and PROC c.-215G>A along with clinical and demographic parameters on steady-state phenprocoumon therapy in 75 patients. A prediction model was developed for total phenprocoumon plasma concentrations and daily phenprocoumon doses required for therapeutic anticoagulation.The VKORC1 c.-1639 genotype was the main predictor of the phenprocoumon daily dose (adjusted R(2)?= 37.6%) and the total phenprocoumon concentration (adjusted R(2)?= 38.3%). CYP2C9 affected the phenprocoumon concentration, but not the dose requirements. SNPs in the other genes of the vitamin K cycle, concomitant medication, nicotine use and alcohol consumption did not predict phenprocoumon concentrations and phenprocoumon dose requirements in a multiple linear regression model. Phenprocoumon concentrations were predicted by VKORC1 c.-1639, CYP2C9 genotype, age and BMI. The final prediction model for the daily phenprocoumon dose requirements comprised VKORC1 c.-1639 genotype, age and height accounting for 48.6% of the inter-individual variability.A rough prediction of phenprocoumon maintenance doses can be achieved by a limited set of parameters (VKORC1, age, height). The investigated SNPs in CYP4F2, CALU, EPHX1, GGCX, F7, and PROC did not improve the predictive value of a pharmacogenetic-based dosing equation for phenprocoumon.
Project description:Little is known about genetic contributors to higher than usual warfarin dose requirements, particularly for African Americans. This study tested the hypothesis that the ?-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) genotype contributes to warfarin dose requirements greater than 7.5 mg/day in an African American population.A total of 338 African Americans on a stable dose of warfarin were enrolled. The GGCX rs10654848 (CAA)n, rs12714145 (G>A), and rs699664 (p.R325Q); VKORC1 c.-1639G>A and rs61162043; and CYP2C9*2, *3, *5, *8, *11, and rs7089580 genotypes were tested for their association with dose requirements greater than 7.5 mg/day alone and in the context of other variables known to influence dose variability.The GGCX rs10654848 (CAA)16 or 17 repeat occurred at a frequency of 2.6% in African Americans and was overrepresented among patients requiring greater than 7.5 mg/day versus those who required lower doses (12 vs. 3%, P=0.003; odds ratio 4.0, 95% confidence interval, 1.5-10.5). The GGCX rs10654848 genotype remained associated with high dose requirements on regression analysis including age, body size, and VKORC1 genotype. On linear regression, the GGCX rs10654848 genotype explained 2% of the overall variability in warfarin dose in African Americans. An examination of the GGCX rs10654848 genotype in warfarin-treated Caucasians revealed a (CAA)16 repeat frequency of only 0.27% (P=0.008 compared with African Americans).These data support the GGCX rs10654848 genotype as a predictor of higher than usual warfarin doses in African Americans, who have a 10-fold higher frequency of the (CAA)16/17 repeat compared with Caucasians.