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Natural polymorphisms in the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 protease can accelerate time to development of resistance to protease inhibitors.

ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) contains numerous natural polymorphisms in its protease (PR) gene that are implicated in drug resistance in the case of HIV-1. This study evaluated emergent PR resistance in HIV-2. Three HIV-2 isolates were selected for resistance to amprenavir (APV), nelfinavir (NFV), indinavir (IDV), and tipranavir (TPV) in cell culture. Genotypic analysis determined the time to the appearance of protease inhibitor (PI)-associated mutations compared to HIV-1. Phenotypic drug susceptibility assays were used to determine the levels of drug resistance. Within 10 to 15 weeks of serial passage, three major mutations--I54M, I82F, and L90M--arose in HIV-2 viral cultures exposed to APV, NFV, and IDV, whereas I82L was selected with TPV. After 25 weeks, other cultures had developed I50V and I84V mutations. In contrast, no major PI mutations were selected in HIV-1 over this period except for D30N in the context of NFV selective pressure. The baseline phenotypes of wild-type HIV-2 isolates were in the range observed for HIV-1, except for APV and NFV for which a lower degree of sensitivity was seen. The acquisition of the I54M, I84V, L90M, and L99F mutations resulted in multi-PI-resistant viruses, conferring 10-fold to more than 100-fold resistance. Of note, we observed a 62A/99F mutational motif that conferred high-level resistance to PIs, as well as novel secondary mutations, including 6F, 12A, and 21K. Thus, natural polymorphisms in HIV-2 may facilitate the selection of PI resistance. The increasing incidence of such polymorphisms in drug-naive HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected persons is of concern.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC1797771 | BioStudies | 2007-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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