Two events are responsible for an insertion in a paternally inherited mitochondrial genome of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.
ABSTRACT: Frequent nonhomologous recombination has been previously postulated to explain the 1045-bp insertion in one mitochondrial sperm-transmitted haplotype of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Such recombination would lead to the disruption of gene order and so the existence of a specific mechanism for maintaining the same gene order in both mitochondrial genomes of Mytilus has been proposed. Here the simpler explanation of the observed structure, involving a tandem duplication and a deletion, is presented. Their occasional occurrence in Mytilus mtDNA proves the similarity, not the difference, between animals with and without DUI.
Project description:In a sperm-transmitted mtDNA of Mytilus galloprovincialis we found an insertion that is not present in the typical genome and whose origin can be explained by a sequence of three events: a tandem duplication, a nonhomologous recombination, and a deletion. Unless such events are extremely rare in this species, the identical gene arrangement of the two gender-specific genomes should imply strong selection for same gene order and size.
Project description:Species of the mussel family Mytilidae have a special mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transmission system, known as doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI), which consists of a maternally inherited (F) and a paternally inherited (M) mitochondrial genome. Females are normally homoplasmic for the F genome and males are heteroplasmic mosaics, with their somatic tissues dominated by the maternal and their gonads dominated by the paternal genome. Several studies have indicated that the maternal genome may often be present in the male germ line. Here we report the results from the examination of mtDNA in pure sperm from more than 30 males of Mytilus galloprovincialis. In all cases, except one, we detected only the M genome. In the sperm of one male, we detected a paternal genome with an F-like primary sequence that was different from the sequence of the maternal genome in the animal's somatic tissues. We conclude that the male germ line is protected against invasion by the maternal genome. This is important because fidelity of gamete-specific transmission of the two mitochondrial genomes is a basic requirement for the stability of DUI.
Project description:The mussel shell protein 22.8 (MSP22.8) is recognized by a monoclonal antibody (M22.8) directed against larvae of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. After being secreted by cells of the mantle-edge epithelium into the extrapallial (EP) space (the gap between the mantle and the shell), the protein is detected in the extrapallial fluid (EPF) and EP hemocytes and finally becomes part of the shell matrix framework in adult specimens of M. galloprovincialis. In the work described here, we show how MSP22.8 is detected in EPF samples from different species of mussels (M. galloprovincialis, Mytilus edulis, and Xenostrobus securis), and also as a shell matrix protein in M. galloprovincialis, Mytilus chilensis, and Perna canaliculus. A multistep purification strategy was employed to isolate the protein from the EPF, which was then analyzed by mass spectrometry in order to identify it. The results indicate that MSP22.8 is a serpin-like protein that has great similarity with the protease inhibitor-like protein-B1, reported previously for Mytilus coruscus. We suggest that MSP22.8 is part of a system offering protection from proteolysis during biomineralization and is also part of the innate immune system in mussels.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE22915: Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) digestive gland tissue: gene expression profiles across an annual cycle GSE23049: Mytilus galloprovincialis: development of female gonads GSE23050: Mytilus galloprovincialis: development of male gonads GSE23051: Mytilus galloprovincialis: differences between male and female gene expression patterns in gonads (mantle tissue) Refer to individual Series
Project description:Mussels belong to the phylum Mollusca, one of the largest and most diverse taxa in the animal kingdom. Despite their importance in aquaculture and in biology in general, genomic resources from mussels are still scarce. To broaden and increase the genomic knowledge in this family, we carried out a whole-genome sequencing study of the cosmopolitan Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis). We sequenced its genome (32X depth of coverage) on the Illumina platform using three pair-end libraries with different insert sizes. The large number of contigs obtained pointed out a highly complex genome of 1.6 Gb where repeated elements seem to be widespread (~30% of the genome), a feature that is also shared with other marine molluscs. Notwithstanding the limitations of our genome sequencing, we were able to reconstruct two mitochondrial genomes and predict 10,891 putative genes. A comparative analysis with other molluscs revealed a gene enrichment of gene ontology categories related to multixenobiotic resistance, glutamate biosynthetic process, and the maintenance of ciliary structures.
Project description:The catch state in Mytilus anterior byssus retractor muscle is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of twitchin, a member of the titin/connectin superfamily, and involves two serine residues, Ser-1075 (D1) and Ser-4316 (D2). This study was undertaken to examine whether isoforms of twitchin were expressed in various muscles of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Mussel tissues, including both catch and non-catch muscles, contained various twitchin isoforms that all contained the D2 site and the kinase domain. However, sequence alterations were detected around the D1 site, notably a potential deletion of the D1 site. All isoforms from catch muscles contained both the D1 and D2 sites, whereas those from non-catch muscles also expressed the D2 site, but some of them lacked the D1 site. This suggests that the D1 site of twitchin is essential to the mechanism of catch. Genomic DNA analysis revealed that twitchin isoforms are produced by alternative splicing.
Project description:The invasive mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis has established invasive populations across the globe and in some regions, have completely displaced native mussels through competitive exclusion. The objective of this study was to elucidate global connectivity patterns of M. galloprovincialis strictly using archived cytochrome c oxidase 1 sequence data obtained from public databases. Through exhaustive mining and the development of a systematic workflow, we compiled the most comprehensive global CO1 dataset for M. galloprovincialis thus far, consisting of 209 sequences representing 14 populations. Haplotype networks were constructed and genetic differentiation was assessed using pairwise analysis of molecular variance.There was significant genetic structuring across populations with significant geographic patterning of haplotypes. In particular, South Korea, South China, Turkey and Australasia appear to be the most genetically isolated populations. However, we were unable to recover a northern and southern hemisphere grouping for M. galloprovincialis as was found in previous studies. These results suggest a complex dispersal pattern for M. galloprovincialis driven by several contributors including both natural and anthropogenic dispersal mechanisms along with the possibility of potential hybridization and ancient vicariance events.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of natural population of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) -digestive gland tissue- comparing female individuals sampled in the Bizerta Lagoon, Tunisia, across May 2007 - April 2008. Background: Seasonal environmental changes may affect the physiology of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.), an intertidal filter-feeder bivalve occurring commonly in Mediterranean and Atlantic coastal areas. We investigated seasonal variations in relative transcript abundance of the digestive gland and the mantle (gonads) of males and females. To identify gene expression trends, we used a medium-density cDNA microarray (1.7 K probes) in dual-color competitive hybridization analyses. Results: Hierarchical clustering of digestive gland microarray data showed two main branches, distinguishing profiles associated with the M-bM-^@M-^\hotM-bM-^@M-^] months (MayM-bM-^@M-^SAugust) from the other months. Genes involved in chitin metabolism, associated with mussel nutrition and digestion, showed higher expression during summer. Moreover, we found different gene expression patterns in the digestive glands of males and females during the four stages of mussel gonadal development. Microarray data from gonadal transcripts also displayed clear patterns during the different developmental phases with peak relative mRNA abundance at the ripe phase (stage III) for both sexes. Conclusion: These data showed a clear temporal pattern in gene expression profiles of mussels sampled over an annual cycle. Physiological response to thermal variation, food availability, and reproductive status across months may contribute to variation in gene expression. Loop design: Female individuals from 12 different months across one year (May 2007 to April 2008). Dual color competitive hybridizations (month n vs month n+1) including dye swap. Single individuals. Three (May 2007 to December 2007) or four biological replicates (January 2008 to April 2008 ). One replicate per array.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Sessile bivalves of the genus Mytilus are suspension feeders relatively tolerant to a wide range of environmental changes, used as sentinels in ecotoxicological investigations and marketed worldwide as seafood. Mortality events caused by infective agents and parasites apparently occur less in mussels than in other bivalves but the molecular basis of such evidence is unknown. The arrangement of Mytibase, interactive catalogue of 7,112 transcripts of M. galloprovincialis, offered us the opportunity to look for gene sequences relevant to the host defences, in particular the innate immunity related genes. RESULTS: We have explored and described the Mytibase sequence clusters and singletons having a putative role in recognition, intracellular signalling, and neutralization of potential pathogens in M. galloprovincialis. Automatically assisted searches of protein signatures and manually cured sequence analysis confirmed the molecular diversity of recognition/effector molecules such as the antimicrobial peptides and many carbohydrate binding proteins. Molecular motifs identifying complement C1q, C-type lectins and fibrinogen-like transcripts emerged as the most abundant in the Mytibase collection whereas, conversely, sequence motifs denoting the regulatory cytokine MIF and cytokine-related transcripts represent singular and unexpected findings. Using a cross-search strategy, 1,820 putatively immune-related sequences were selected to design oligonucleotide probes and define a species-specific Immunochip (DNA microarray). The Immunochip performance was tested with hemolymph RNAs from mussels injected with Vibrio splendidus at 3 and 48 hours post-treatment. A total of 143 and 262 differentially expressed genes exemplify the early and late hemocyte response of the Vibrio-challenged mussels, respectively, with AMP trends confirmed by qPCR and clear modulation of interrelated signalling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The Mytibase collection is rich in gene transcripts modulated in response to antigenic stimuli and represents an interesting window for looking at the mussel immunome (transcriptomes mediating the mussel response to non-self or abnormal antigens). On this basis, we have defined a new microarray platform, a mussel Immunochip, as a flexible tool for the experimental validation of immune-candidate sequences, and tested its performance on Vibrio-activated mussel hemocytes. The microarray platform and related expression data can be regarded as a step forward in the study of the adaptive response of the Mytilus species to an evolving microbial world.
Project description:The gut microbiota is essential for utilization of energy and nutrition and may have a role in host immunity in response to environmental shifts. The present study evaluated the temperature stress (increasing from 21 to 27°C) on gut microbiome and dynamics of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing with the aim of discovering the gut microbiome resilience to warming. Exposure to high temperature of 27°C significantly reduced the survival of M. galloprovincialis associated with increased microbial diversity of gut. The microbial communities were shifted with elevated temperature (from 21 to 27°C) and different exposure time (from day 0 to day 7) by principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) revealed that the relative abundance of Vibrio and Arcobacter presented in live animals as the top genus-level biomarkers during the initial exposure to 27°C and followed by microbiomes fluctuation with increasing exposure time at day 4 and day 7. The proliferation of opportunistic pathogens such as genus Vibrio and Arcobacter might increase host susceptibility to disease and contributed greatly to mortality. The results obtained in this study provide the knowledge on ecological adaptation for south domestication of M. galloprovincialis and host-bacteria interaction during temperature stress (27°C).