Fine mapping and haplotype analysis of the locus for congenital nephrotic syndrome on chromosome 19q13.1.
ABSTRACT: We have recently localized the gene for congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type (CNF) to chromosome 19q12-13.1. On the basis of observed recombination events, the gene was localized between markers D19S416/D19S425/D19S213/D19S208/D19S191 and D19S224. Here we have extended the mapping efforts, on the basis of a detailed physical map of the region. By means of three new polymorphic markers--D19S608, D19S609, and D19S610--developed in this study, the critical candidate region could be further restricted. Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed with markers D19S610, D19S608, D19S224, and D19S220, the strongest allelic association being 84% with marker D19S610 at 19q13.1. This suggests that the CNF gene locus lies in close proximity to marker D19S610. Combination of the informative markers revealed four main haplotype categories. Different geographic distribution was observed between these haplotype groups when they were placed on the map of finland according to the birthplaces of grandparents.
Project description:Congenital nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type (CNF) is an autosomal recessive disease that is characterized by massive proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome at birth. CNF represents a unique, apparently specific dysfunction of the renal basement membranes, and the estimated incidence of CNF in the isolated population of Finland is 1 in 8,000 newborns. The basic defect is unknown, and no specific biochemical defect or chromosomal aberrations have been described. Here we report the assignment of the CNF locus to 19q12-q13.1 on the basis of linkage analyses in 17 Finnish families. Multipoint analyses and observed recombination events place the CNF locus between multiallelic markers D19S416 and D19S224, and the significant linkage disequilibrium observed suggests that the CNF gene lies in the immediate vicinity of the markers D19S224 and D19S220.
Project description:Cystinuria is an autosomal recessive aminoaciduria in which three urinary phenotypes (I, II, and III) have been described. An amino acid transporter gene, SLC3A1 (formerly rBAT), was found to be responsible for this disorder. Mutational and linkage analysis demonstrated the presence of genetic heterogeneity in which the SLC3A1 gene is responsible for type I cystinuria but not for type II or type III. In this study, we report the identification of the cystinuria type III locus on the long arm of chromosome 19 (19q13.1), obtained after a genomewide search. Pairwise linkage analysis in a series of type III or type II families previously excluded from linkage to the cystinuria type I locus (SLC3A1 gene) revealed a significant maximum LOD score (zeta max) of 13.11 at a maximum recombination fraction (theta max) of .00, with marker D19S225. Multipoint linkage analysis performed with the use of additional markers from the region placed the cystinuria type III locus between D19S414 and D19S220. Preliminary data on type II families also seem to place the disease locus for this rare type of cystinuria at 19q13.1 (significant zeta max = 3.11 at theta max of .00, with marker D19S225).
Project description:Autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 4 (CMT4) is a complex group of demyelinating hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies presenting genetic heterogeneity. Five different subtypes that correspond to six different chromosomal locations have been described. We hereby report a large inbred Lebanese family affected with autosomal recessive CMT4, in whom we have excluded linkage to the already-known loci. The results of a genomewide search demonstrated linkage to a locus on chromosome 19q13.1-13.3, over an 8.5-cM interval between markers D19S220 and D19S412. A maximum pairwise LOD score of 5.37 for marker D19S420, at recombination fraction [theta].00, and a multipoint LOD score of 10.3 for marker D19S881, at straight theta = .00, strongly supported linkage to this locus. Clinical features and the results of histopathologic studies confirm that the disease affecting this family constitutes a previously unknown demyelinating autosomal recessive CMT subtype known as "CMT4F." The myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) gene, located on 19q13.1 and specifically expressed in the CNS and the peripheral nervous system, was ruled out as being the gene responsible for this form of CMT.
Project description:In spondylocostal dysostosis (SD), vertebral-segmentation defects are associated with rib anomalies. This results in short-trunk short stature, nonprogressive kyphoscoliosis, and radiological features of multiple hemivertebrae and rib fusions. SD can be familial, and both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance have been reported, but no genes have been identified or localized for nonsyndromic SD in humans. We performed genomewide scanning by homozygosity mapping in a large consanguineous ARSD Arab Israeli family with six definitely affected members. Significant linkage was found to chromosome 19q13, with a LOD score of 6.9. This was confirmed in a second Pakistani family with three affected members, with a LOD score of 2.4. The combined-haplotype data identify a critical region between D19S570 and D19S908, an interval of 8.5 cM on 19q13.1-19q13.3. This is the first study to localize a gene for nonsyndromic SD. ARSD is clinically heterogeneous and is likely to result from mutations in developmental genes or from regulating transcription factors. Identification of these genes will improve the understanding of the molecular processes contributing to both normal and abnormal human vertebral development.
Project description:Camurati-Engelmann disease (CED [MIM 131300]), or progressive diaphyseal dysplasia, is an autosomal dominant sclerosing bone dysplasia characterized by progressive bone formation along the periosteal and endosteal surfaces at the diaphyseal and metaphyseal regions of long bones and cranial hyperostosis, particularly at the skull base. The gene for CED, or its chromosomal localization, has not yet been identified. We performed a genomewide linkage analysis of two unrelated Japanese families with CED, in which a total of 27 members were available for this study; 16 of them were affected with the disease. Two-point linkage analysis revealed a maximum LOD score of 7.41 (recombination fraction.00; penetrance 1.00) for the D19S918 microsatellite marker locus. Haplotype analysis revealed that all the affected individuals shared a common haplotype observed, in each family, between D19S881 and D19S606, at chromosome 19q13.1-q13.3. These findings, together with a genetic distance among the marker loci, indicate that the CED locus can be assigned to a 15.1-cM segment between D19S881 and D19S606.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The generation of BAC/PAC contigs in targeted genome regions is a powerful method to establish high-resolution physical maps. In domestic animal species the generation of such contigs is typically initiated with the screening of libraries with probes derived from human genes that are expected to be located in the region of interest by comparative mapping. However, in many instances the available gene-derived probes are too far apart to allow the cloning of BAC/PAC contigs larger than a few hundred kb. High resolution physical mapping allows to estimate the sizes of gaps and to control the orientation of the individual sub-contigs, which helps to avoid errors during the assembly of smaller contigs into final Mb-sized contigs. The recently constructed porcine IMNpRH2 panel allowed us to use this approach for the construction of high-resolution physical maps of SSC 6q1.2. RESULTS: Two sequence-ready BAC/PAC contigs of the gene-rich region on porcine chromosome 6q1.2 (SSC 6q1.2) containing the RYRl gene were constructed. The two contigs spanned about 1.2 Mb and 2.0 Mb respectively. The construction of these contigs was monitored by the results provided by the mapping of 15 markers on the IMpRH(7000rad) and 35 markers on the IMNpRH2(12000rad) radiation hybrid panels. Analyses on the IMpRH panel allowed us to globally link and orientate preliminary smaller contigs, whereas analyses on the high resolution IMNpRH2 panel allowed us to finally identify the order of genes and markers. CONCLUSIONS: A framework map of 523 cR12000 was established covering the whole studied region. The order of markers on the framework 1000:1 RH map was found totally consistent with the data deduced from the contig map. The kb/cR ratio was very constant in the whole region, with an average value of 6.6 kb/cR. We estimate that the size of the remaining gap between the two contigs is of about 300 kb. The integrated physical and RH map of the investigated region on SSC 6q1.2 was used for a comparative analysis with respect to the syntenic regions on HSA 19q13.1 and MMU 7 and revealed a perfectly conserved gene order across the entire studied interval.
Project description:Variation in anthropometric measurements due to sexual dimorphism can be the result of genotype by sex interactions (G×S). The purpose of this study was to examine the sex-specific genetic architecture in anthropometric measurements in Alaskan Eskimos from the Genetics of Coronary Artery Disease in Alaska Natives (GOCADAN) study. Maximum likelihood-based variance components decomposition methods, implemented in SOLAR, were used for G×S analyses. Anthropometric measurements included BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist/height ratio, percent body fat (%BF), and subscapular and triceps skinfolds. Except for WC, mean values of all phenotypes were significantly different in men and women (P < 0.05). All anthropometric measures were significantly heritable (P < 0.001). In a preliminary analysis not allowing for G×S interaction, evidence of linkage was detected between markers D19S414 and D19S220 on chromosome 19 for WC (logarithm of odds (lod) = 3.5), %BF (lod = 1.7), BMI (lod = 2.4), waist/height ratio (lod = 2.5), subscapular (lod = 2.1), and triceps skinfolds (lod = 1.9). In subsequent analyses which allowed for G×S interaction, linkage was again found between these traits and the same two markers on chromosome 19 with significantly improved lod scores for: WC (lod = 4.5), %BF (lod = 3.8), BMI (lod = 3.5), waist/height ratio (lod = 3.2), subscapular (lod = 3.0), and triceps skinfolds (lod = 2.9). These results support the evidence of a G×S interaction in the expression of genetic effects resulting in sexual dimorphism in anthropometric phenotypes and identify the chromosome 19q12-13 region as important for adiposity-related traits in Alaskan Eskimos.
Project description:Brachydactyly type A-1 (BDA1) was, in 1903, the first recorded example of a human anomaly with Mendelian autosomal dominant inheritance. Two large families, the affected members of which were radiographed, were recruited in the study we describe here. Two-point linkage analysis for pedigree 1 (maximum LOD score [Zmax] 6.59 at recombination fraction [theta] 0.00) and for pedigree 2 (Zmax=5.53 at straight theta=0.00) mapped the locus for BDA1 in the two families to chromosome 2q. Haplotype analysis of pedigree 1 confined the locus for family 1 within an interval of <8.1 cM flanked by markers D2S2248 and D2S360, which was mapped to chromosome 2q35-q36 on the cytogenetic map. Haplotype analysis of pedigree 2 confined the locus for family 2 within an interval of <28. 8 cM flanked by markers GATA30E06 and D2S427, which was localized to chromosome 2q35-q37. The two families had no identical haplotype within the defined region, which suggests that the two families were not related.
Project description:Camurati-Engelmann disease, progressive diaphyseal dysplasia, or diaphyseal dysplasia Camurati-Engelmann is a rare, autosomal dominantly inherited bone disease, characterised by progressive cortical expansion and sclerosis mainly affecting the diaphyses of the long bones associated with cranial hyperostosis. The main clinical features are severe pain in the legs, muscular weakness, and a waddling gait. The underlying cause of this condition remains unknown. In order to localise the disease causing gene, we performed a linkage study in a large Jewish-Iraqi family with 18 affected subjects in four generations. A genome wide search with highly polymorphic markers showed linkage with several markers at chromosome 19q13. A maximum lod score of 4.9 (theta=0) was obtained with markers D19S425 (58.7 cM, 19q13.1) and D19S900 (67.1 cM, 19q13. 2). The disease causing gene is located in a candidate region of approximately 32 cM, flanked by markers D19S868 (55.9 cM, 19q13.1) and D19S571 (87.7 cM, 19q13.4).
Project description:Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by microcephaly, a birdlike face, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, lack of secondary sex characteristics in females, and increased incidence of lymphoid cancers. NBS cells display a phenotype similar to that of cells from ataxia-telangiectasia patients, including chromosomal instability, radiation sensitivity, and aberrant cell-cycle-checkpoint control following exposure to ionizing radiation. A recent study reported genetic linkage of NBS to human chromosome 8q21, with strong linkage disequilibrium detected at marker D8S1811 in eastern European NBS families. We collected a geographically diverse group of NBS families and tested them for linkage, using an expanded panel of markers at 8q21. In this article, we report linkage of NBS to 8q21 in 6/7 of these families, with a maximum LOD score of 3.58. Significant linkage disequilibrium was detected for 8/13 markers tested in the 8q21 region, including D8S1811. In order to further localize the gene for NBS, we generated a radiation-hybrid map of markers at 8q21 and constructed haplotypes based on this map. Examination of disease haplotypes segregating in 11 NBS pedigrees revealed recombination events that place the NBS gene between D8S1757 and D8S270. A common founder haplotype was present on 15/18 disease chromosomes from 9/11 NBS families. Inferred (ancestral) recombination events involving this common haplotype suggest that NBS can be localized further, to an interval flanked by markers D8S273 and D8S88.