Regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 activity by the phosphorylation state of the nuclear NAD biosynthetic enzyme NMN adenylyl transferase 1.
ABSTRACT: Nuclear NAD(+) metabolism constitutes a major component of signaling pathways. It includes NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylation by members of the Sir2 family and protein modification by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1). PARP-1 has emerged as an important mediator of processes involving DNA rearrangements. High-affinity binding to breaks in DNA activates PARP-1, which attaches poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) to target proteins. NMN adenylyl transferases (NMNATs) catalyze the final step of NAD(+) biosynthesis. We report here that the nuclear isoform NMNAT-1 stimulates PARP-1 activity and binds to PAR. Its overexpression in HeLa cells promotes the relocation of apoptosis-inducing factor from the mitochondria to the nucleus, a process known to depend on poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Moreover, NMNAT-1 is subject to phosphorylation by protein kinase C, resulting in reduced binding to PAR. Mimicking phosphorylation, substitution of the target serine residue by aspartate precludes PAR binding and stimulation of PARP-1. We conclude that, depending on its state of phosphorylation, NMNAT-1 binds to activated, automodifying PARP-1 and thereby amplifies poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (aka PARylation) is a unique protein post-translational modification (PTM) first described over 50 years ago. PARylation regulates a number of biological processes including chromatin remodeling, the DNA damage response (DDR), transcription, apoptosis, and mitosis. The subsequent discovery of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) catalyzing DNA-dependent PARylation spearheaded the field of DDR. The expanding knowledge about the poly ADP-ribose (PAR) recognition domains prompted the discovery of novel DDR factors and revealed crosstalk with other protein PTMs including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, methylation and acetylation. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge on PAR-regulated DDR, PAR recognition domain, and PARP inhibition in cancer therapy.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins involved in regulation of many cellular pathways. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) consists of chains of repeating ADP-ribose nucleotide units and is synthesized by the family of enzymes called poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). This modification can be removed by the hydrolytic action of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) and ADP-ribosylhydrolase 3 (ARH3). Hydrolytic activity of macrodomain proteins (MacroD1, MacroD2 and TARG1) is responsible for the removal of terminal ADP-ribose unit and for complete reversion of protein ADP-ribosylation. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is widely utilized in eukaryotes and PARPs are present in representatives from all six major eukaryotic supergroups, with only a small number of eukaryotic species that do not possess PARP genes. The last common ancestor of all eukaryotes possessed at least five types of PARP proteins that include both mono and poly(ADP-ribosyl) transferases. Distribution of PARGs strictly follows the distribution of PARP proteins in eukaryotic species. At least one of the macrodomain proteins that hydrolyse terminal ADP-ribose is also always present. Therefore, we can presume that the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes possessed a fully functional and reversible PAR metabolism and that PAR signalling provided the conditions essential for survival of the ancestral eukaryote in its ancient environment. PARP proteins are far less prevalent in bacteria and were probably gained through horizontal gene transfer. Only eleven bacterial species possess all proteins essential for a functional PAR metabolism, although it is not known whether PAR metabolism is truly functional in bacteria. Several dsDNA viruses also possess PARP homologues, while no PARP proteins have been identified in any archaeal genome. Our analysis of the distribution of enzymes involved in PAR metabolism provides insight into the evolution of these important signalling systems, as well as providing the basis for selection of the appropriate genetic model organisms to study the physiology of the specific human PARP proteins.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) synthesizes poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as a substrate. Despite intensive research on the cellular functions of PARP1, the molecular mechanism of PAR formation has not been comprehensively understood. In this study, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and identify PAR acceptor sites. Generation of different chimera proteins revealed that the amino-terminal domains of PARP1, PARP2 and PARP3 cooperate tightly with their corresponding catalytic domains. The DNA-dependent interaction between the amino-terminal DNA-binding domain and the catalytic domain of PARP1 increased V(max) and decreased the K(m) for NAD. Furthermore, we show that glutamic acid residues in the auto-modification domain of PARP1 are not required for PAR formation. Instead, we identify individual lysine residues as acceptor sites for ADP-ribosylation. Together, our findings provide novel mechanistic insights into PAR synthesis with significant relevance for the different biological functions of PARP family members.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is an essential post-translational modification with the biopolymer poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). The reaction is catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) and plays key roles in cellular physiology and stress response. PARP inhibitors are currently being tested in clinical cancer treatment, in combination therapy, or as monotherapeutic agents by inducing synthetic lethality. We have developed an accurate and sensitive bioanalytical platform based on isotope dilution mass spectrometry in order to quantify steady-state and stress-induced PAR levels in cells and tissues and to characterize pharmacological properties of PARP inhibitors. In contrast to existing PAR-detection techniques, the LC-MS/MS method uses authentic isotope-labeled standards, which provide unequivocal chemical specificity to quantify cellular PAR in absolute terms with femtomol sensitivity. Using this platform we analyzed steady-state levels as well as stress-induced dynamics of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in a series of biological systems including cancer cell lines, mouse tissues, and primary human lymphocytes. Our results demonstrate a rapid and transient stress-induced increase in PAR levels by >100-fold in a dose- and time-dependent manner with significant differences between cell types and individual human lymphocyte donors. Furthermore, ex vivo pharmacodynamic studies in human lymphocytes provide new insight into pharmacological properties of clinically relevant PARP inhibitors. Finally, we adapted the LC-MS/MS method to quantify poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in solid tissues and identified tissue-dependent associations between PARP1 expression and PAR levels in a series of different mouse organs. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that mass spectrometric quantification of cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation has a wide range of applications in basic research as well as in drug development.
Project description:Our previous data have shown that in L929 mouse fibroblasts the control of methylation pattern depends in part on poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and that ADP-ribose polymers (PARs), both present on poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated PARP-1 and/or protein-free, have an inhibitory effect on Dnmt1 activity. Here we show that transient ectopic overexpression of CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) induces PAR accumulation, PARP-1, and CTCF poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in the same mouse fibroblasts. The persistence in time of a high PAR level affects the DNA methylation machinery; the DNA methyltransferase activity is inhibited with consequences for the methylation state of genome, which becomes diffusely hypomethylated affecting centromeric minor satellite and B1 DNA repeats. In vitro data show that CTCF is able to activate PARP-1 automodification even in the absence of nicked DNA. Our new finding that CTCF is able per se to activate PARP-1 automodification in vitro is of great interest as so far a burst of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated PARP-1 has generally been found following introduction of DNA strand breaks. CTCF is unable to inhibit DNMT1 activity, whereas poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated PARP-1 plays this inhibitory role. These data suggest that CTCF is involved in the cross-talk between poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and DNA methylation and underscore the importance of a rapid reversal of PARP activity, as DNA methylation pattern is responsible for an important epigenetic code.
Project description:Post-translational modification of proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation regulates many cellular pathways that are critical for genome stability, including DNA repair, chromatin structure, mitosis and apoptosis. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is composed of repeating ADP-ribose units linked via a unique glycosidic ribose-ribose bond, and is synthesized from NAD by PAR polymerases. PAR glycohydrolase (PARG) is the only protein capable of specific hydrolysis of the ribose-ribose bonds present in PAR chains; its deficiency leads to cell death. Here we show that filamentous fungi and a number of bacteria possess a divergent form of PARG that has all the main characteristics of the human PARG enzyme. We present the first PARG crystal structure (derived from the bacterium Thermomonospora curvata), which reveals that the PARG catalytic domain is a distant member of the ubiquitous ADP-ribose-binding macrodomain family. High-resolution structures of T. curvata PARG in complexes with ADP-ribose and the PARG inhibitor ADP-HPD, complemented by biochemical studies, allow us to propose a model for PAR binding and catalysis by PARG. The insights into the PARG structure and catalytic mechanism should greatly improve our understanding of how PARG activity controls reversible protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and potentially of how the defects in this regulation are linked to human disease.
Project description:Protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and ubiquitination are two key post-translational modifications regulating many biological processes. Through crystallographic and biochemical analysis, we show that the RNF146 WWE domain recognizes poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) by interacting with iso-ADP-ribose (iso-ADPR), the smallest internal PAR structural unit containing the characteristic ribose-ribose glycosidic bond formed during poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The key iso-ADPR-binding residues we identified are highly conserved among WWE domains. Binding assays further demonstrate that PAR binding is a common function for the WWE domain family. Since many WWE domain-containing proteins are known E3 ubiquitin ligases, our results suggest that protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation may be a general mechanism to target proteins for ubiquitination.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a post-translational modification of proteins. During this process, molecules of ADP-ribose are added successively on to acceptor proteins to form branched polymers. This modification is transient but very extensive in vivo, as polymer chains can reach more than 200 units on protein acceptors. The existence of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymer was first reported nearly 40 years ago. Since then, the importance of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis has been established in many cellular processes. However, a clear and unified picture of the physiological role of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation still remains to be established. The total dependence of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis on DNA strand breaks strongly suggests that this post-translational modification is involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids. This view is also supported by the identification of direct protein-protein interactions involving poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (113 kDa PARP), an enzyme catalysing the formation of poly(ADP-ribose), and key effectors of DNA repair, replication and transcription reactions. The presence of PARP in these multiprotein complexes, in addition to the actual poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of some components of these complexes, clearly supports an important role for poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in DNA transactions. Accordingly, inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis by any of several approaches and the analysis of PARP-deficient cells has revealed that the absence of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation strongly affects DNA metabolism, most notably DNA repair. The recent identification of new poly(ADP-ribosyl)ating enzymes with distinct (non-standard) structures in eukaryotes and archaea has revealed a novel level of complexity in the regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) metabolism.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribose), or PAR, is a cellular polymer implicated in DNA/RNA metabolism, cell death, and cellular stress response via its role as a post-translational modification, signaling molecule, and scaffolding element. PAR is synthesized by a family of proteins known as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, or PARPs, which attach PAR polymers to various amino acids of substrate proteins. The nature of these polymers (large, charged, heterogeneous, base-labile) has made these attachment sites difficult to study by mass spectrometry. Here we propose a new pipeline that allows for the identification of mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation sites via the enzymatic product of phosphodiesterase-treated ADP-ribose, or phospho(ribose). The power of this method lies in the enrichment potential of phospho(ribose), which we show to be enriched by phosphoproteomic techniques when a neutral buffer, which allows for retention of the base-labile attachment site, is used for elution. Through the identification of PARP-1 in vitro automodification sites as well as endogenous ADP-ribosylation sites from whole cells, we have shown that ADP-ribose can exist on adjacent amino acid residues as well as both lysine and arginine in addition to known acidic modification sites. The universality of this technique has allowed us to show that enrichment of ADP-ribosylated proteins by macrodomain leads to a bias against ADP-ribose modifications conjugated to glutamic acids, suggesting that the macrodomain is either removing or selecting against these distinct protein attachments. Ultimately, the enrichment pipeline presented here offers a universal approach for characterizing the mono- and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Poly (ADP-ribosyl) ation (PARylation) is an important posttranslational modification that regulates DNA repair, gene transcription, stress responses and developmental processes in multicellular organisms. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) catalyzes PARylation by consecutively adding ADP-ribose moieties from NAD+ to the amino acid receptor residues on target proteins. Arabidopsis has three canonical PARP members, and two of these members, AtPARP1 and AtPARP2, have been demonstrated to be bona fide poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases and to regulate DNA repair and stress response processes. However, it remains unknown whether AtPARP3, a member that is highly expressed in seeds, has similar biochemical activity to that of AtPARP1 and AtPARP2. Additionally, although both the phylogenetic relationships and structural similarities indicate that AtPARP1 and AtPARP2 correspond to animal PARP1 and PARP2, respectively, two previous studies have indicated that AtPARP2, and not AtPARP1, accounts for most of the PARP activity in Arabidopsis, which is contrary to the knowledge that PARP1 is the predominant PARP in animals. RESULTS:In this study, we obtained both in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrating that AtPARP3 does not act as a typical PARP in Arabidopsis. Domain swapping and point mutation assays indicated that AtPARP3 has lost NAD+-binding capability and is inactive. In addition, our results showed that AtPARP1 was responsible for most of the PARP enzymatic activity in response to the DNA damage-inducing agents zeocin and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and was more rapidly activated than AtPARP2, which supports that AtPARP1 remains the predominant PARP member in Arabidopsis. AtPARP1 might first become activated by binding to damaged sites, and AtPARP2 is then poly (ADP-ribosyl) ated by AtPARP1 in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, our biochemical and genetic analysis results strongly support the notion that AtPARP3 has lost poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity in plants and performs different functions from those of AtPARP1 and AtPARP2. AtPARP1, instead of AtPARP2, plays the predominant role in PAR synthesis in both seeds and seedlings. These data bring new insights into our understanding of the physiological functions of plant PARP family members.