Rapid confirmation of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from foods by a colony blot assay using a digoxigenin-labeled synthetic oligonucleotide probe.
ABSTRACT: An oligodeoxyribonucleotide probe based on the sequence of a 321-bp internal fragment of the msp gene encoding a major secreted polypeptide of Listeria monocytogenes was labeled with digoxigenin by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. The specificity of the digoxigenin-labeled probe was determined by dot blot assays. The probe reacted with all strains of L. monocytogenes tested (12 of 12 strains representing five serotypes). The probe did not react with any other Listeria species or with other gram-positive bacteria (Brochothrix, Erysipelothrix, Corynebacterium, Rhodococcus, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus). The probe was used to develop a colony blot assay for the rapid confirmation of L. monocytogenes on Listeria-selective agars which had been streaked with food enrichment cultures. Forty-eight food samples were tested by conventional culture and DNA colony blot assay. The sensitivity and specificity of the DNA colony blot were 100 and 97%, respectively.
Project description:In situ hybridization was used to localize xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) mRNA in horse skeletal muscle. Capillary endothelial cells were found to express XDH, but muscle cells did not give any signal. The digoxigenin-labelled probe was produced by PCR with primers based on the cDNA sequence of mouse XDH and horse lung cDNAs. A 4.3 kb mRNA was detected in a Northern blot.
Project description:The effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) on Listeria monocytogenes, the indigenous microbiota and the shelf-life of chicken fillets was evaluated. Chicken fillets were inoculated with different inocula (2, 4, and 6 log CFU/g) of a 4-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes, vacuum-packed, processed or not with HPP (500 MPa/10 min) and stored at 4 °C and 12 °C. Total viable counts (TVC), L. monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts/molds were determined along with the pH and sensory analysis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to monitor the succession of indigenous Brochothrix isolates and inoculated Listeria strains. The main spoilage microorganism of HPP-treated samples was B. thermosphacta detected after 3 days of storage. HPP decreased the inoculated Listeria population. For the low and medium inoculum case it was detected throughout the shelf-life at both temperatures in populations near to the detection limit or after enrichment. In the high inoculum case, the pathogen decreased ?5-log cycles after HPP, while increased subsequently to 1.6 and 4.5 log CFU/g at 4 °C and 12 °C, respectively, by the end of the shelf-life. PFGE showed that Brochothrix isolates exhibited a significant diversity among control samples, whereas this was limited for the HPP-treated samples. The survival and distribution of different Listeria strains depended on the initial inoculum and storage temperature. In conclusion, HPP increased the shelf-life (for 5 and 4 days, at 4 °C and 12 °C, respectively) and enhanced the safety of chicken meat.
Project description:Brochothrix thermosphacta is a dominant but poorly studied meat spoilage organism. It is a close relative of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, and Brochothrix constitutes the second genus in the Listeriaceae family. Here, the genomes of 12 B. thermosphacta strains were sequenced, assembled into draft genomes, characterized, and compared with the genomes of Brochothrix campestris and L. monocytogenes Phenotypic properties including biogenic amine production and antibiotic and heavy metal susceptibilities were tested. Comparative genomic analyses revealed a high degree of similarity among the B. thermosphacta strains, with bacteriophage genes constituting a significant proportion of the accessory genome. Genes for the production of the malodorous compounds acetate, acetoin, butanediol, and fatty acids were found, as were stress response regulatory genes, which likely play important roles in the spoilage process. Amino acid decarboxylases were not identified in the genomes, and phenotypic testing confirmed their absence. Orthologs of Listeria virulence proteins involved in virulence regulation, intracellular survival, and surface protein anchoring were found; however, key virulence genes were absent. Analysis of antibiotic susceptibility showed that strains were sensitive to the four tested antibiotics, except for one tetracycline-resistant isolate with plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance genes. Strains tolerated higher levels of copper and cobalt than of cadmium although not at concentrations high enough to categorize the strains as being resistant. This study provides insight into the Brochothrix genome, links previous phenotypic data and data provided here to the gene inventory, and identifies genes that may contribute to the persistence of this organism in the food chain.IMPORTANCE Despite increasing knowledge and advances in food preservation techniques, microbial spoilage of foods causes substantial losses, with negative social and economic consequences. To better control the contamination and microbial spoilage of foods, fundamental knowledge of the biology of key spoilage bacteria is crucial. As a common meat spoilage organism, B. thermosphacta contributes substantially to spoilage-associated losses. Nonetheless, this organism and particularly its genome remain largely unstudied. This study contributes to improving our knowledge of the Brochothrix genus. Spoilage-relevant pathways and genes that may play a role in the survival of this organism in a food processing environment were identified, linking previous phenotypic data and data provided here to the gene inventory of Brochothrix and establishing parallels to and differences from the closely related foodborne pathogen L. monocytogenes.
Project description:cDNAs were prepared from the total RNA of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19118 and used as probes to screen a genomic library of the same strain. Four clones were identified which contained ribosomal DNA fragments. Recombinant DNA from one of them was fractionated and differentially hybridized with the cDNA probes to RNA of L. monocytogenes and Kurthia zopfii. The resulting hybridization pattern revealed an HpaII fragment of 0.8 kb that was specific for the L. monocytogenes strain. The nucleotide sequence of this fragment showed 159 bases of the 3' end of the 16S rRNA gene, 243 bases of the spacer region, and 382 bases of the 5' end of the 23S rRNA gene. In dot blot hybridization assays, the 32P-labeled 784-bp fragment was specific only for Listeria species. Dot blot assays revealed that the 32P-labeled fragment can easily detect > or = 10 pg of total nucleic acids from pure cultures of L. monocytogenes, which corresponds to approximately 300 bacteria. This fragment was also used as a probe in an assay named the heteroduplex nucleic acid (HNA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In this system, the biotinylated DNA probe is hybridized in the aqueous phase with target RNA molecules and then specific HNAs are captured by HNA-specific antibodies. Captured HNA molecules are revealed with an enzyme conjugate of streptavidin. In a preliminary HNA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the 784-bp fragment maintained its specificity for Listeria spp. and could detect 5 x 10(2) cells in artificially contaminated meat homogenate.
Project description:Subtracter probe hybridization was used to screen a partial genomic library of a clinical isolate of Listeria monocytogenes. Three clones that hybridized with genomic DNA from 174 strains of L. monocytogenes but not with genomic DNA from 32 strains representing other Listeria spp. were recovered. These data establish the utility of subtracter probe hybridization for recovering L. monocytogenes-specific sequences.
Project description:Pressure treatment of ready-to-eat (RTE) meats extends the shelf life and reduces risks associated with Listeria monocytogenes. However, pressure reduces numbers of Listeria on ham by less than 5 log (CFU/g) and pressure effects on other meat microbiota are poorly documented. This study investigated the impact of pressure and RTE meat microbiota, with or without nisin and rosemary oil, on survival of Listeria after refrigerated storage. Ham was inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes alone or with a cocktail of RTE meat microbiota consisting of Brochothrix thermosphacta, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Leuconostoc gelidum, and Lactobacillussakei. Products were treated at 500 MPa at 5°C for 1 or 3 min, with or without rosemary extract or nisin. Surviving cells were differentially enumerated after pressure treatment and after 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. After 4 weeks of storage, products were also analyzed by high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. Pressure treatment reduced counts of Listeria by 1 to 2 log (CFU/g); inactivation of RTE meat microbiota was comparable. Counts of Listeria increased by 1-3 log (CFU/g) during refrigerated storage. RTE meat microbiota did not influence pressure inactivation of Listeria but prevented growth of Listeria during refrigerated storage. Rosemary extract did not influence bacterial inactivation or growth. The combination of nisin with pressure treatment for 3 min reduced counts of Listeria and meat microbiota by >5 log (CFU/g); after 4 weeks of storage, counts were below the detection limit. In conclusion, pressure alone does not eliminate Listeria or other microbiota on RTE ham; however, the presence of non-pathogenic microbiota prevents growth of Listeria on pressure treated ham and has a decisive influence on post-pressure survival and growth.
Project description:Modern consumers are interested in the use of non-chemical methods to control pathogens when heat sterilization is not an option. Such is the case with teewurst sausage, a raw spreadable sausage and a popular German commodity. Although Listeria was not found in teewurst, the optimal microbial growing conditions of teewurst coupled with the ubiquity of L. monocytogenes in nature, makes the possibility of contamination of products very possible. This pilot study was conducted to examine teewurst's native micro-flora's ability to suppress the outgrowth of L. monocytogenes at 10 °C using standard plate counts and PCR-DGGE. Traditional plating methods showed L. monocytogenes growth significantly decreased when in competition with the teewurst's native micro-flora (p < 0.05). The native micro-flora of the teewurst suppressed the overall growth of L. monocytogenes by an average of two logs, under these conditions. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) amplicons with unique banding patterns were extracted from DGGE gel for identification. Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactobacillus curvatus were identified as a part of the teewurst's native micro-flora. Although the native micro-flora did not decrease L. monocytogenes to below limits of detection, it was enough of a decrease to warrant further investigation.
Project description:Individual sequences of a genomic subtracted, PCR-amplified, mixed-sequence probe (GS probe) were cloned and sequenced. The GS probe differentiated restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns for Listeria monocytogenes but did not hybridize with members of other bacterial genera. Sequence analysis identified several L. monocytogenes sequences already present in the GenBank database; the putative identities of other sequences were inferred from homology data, and still other sequences did not exhibit significant levels of homology with any GenBank sequences.
Project description:The major extracellular protein p60 of Listeria monocytogenes seems to be required for this microorganism's adherence to and invasion of 3T6 mouse fibroblasts but not for adherence to human epithelial Caco-2 cells. Western blot analysis with polyclonal antibodies against p60 of L. monocytogenes indicated the presence of cross-reacting proteins in the culture supernatants of all Listeria species. Protein p60 of L. monocytogenes could restore adhesion of the L. monocytogenes mutant RIII (impaired in the synthesis of p60) to mouse fibroblasts more efficiently than that of Listeria grayi. The amino acid sequences of the p60-related proteins of L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri, L. welshimeri, and L. grayi indicated highly conserved regions of about 120 amino acids at both the N-terminal and the C-terminal ends. The middle portions of these proteins, consisting of about 240 amino acids, varied considerably. These parts include the repeat domain consisting of repetitions of Thr (T) and Asn (N) which was present only, albeit in different arrangements, in the p60 proteins of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua. The p60-related proteins of L. grayi, L. ivanovii, L. seeligeri, and L. welshimeri each contained an insertion of 54 amino acids which was absent in the p60 proteins of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium and a facultative intracellular pathogen that invades mammalian cells, disrupts its internalization vacuole, and proliferates in the host cell cytoplasm. Here, we describe a novel image-based microscopy assay that allows discrimination between cellular entry and vacuolar escape, enabling high-content screening to identify factors specifically involved in these two steps. We first generated L. monocytogenes and Listeria innocua strains expressing a ?-lactamase covalently attached to the bacterial cell wall. These strains were then incubated with HeLa cells containing the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe CCF4 in their cytoplasm. The CCF4 probe was cleaved by the bacterial surface ?-lactamase only in cells inoculated with L. monocytogenes but not those inoculated with L. innocua, thereby demonstrating bacterial access to the host cytoplasm. Subsequently, we performed differential immunofluorescence staining to distinguish extracellular versus total bacterial populations in samples that were also analyzed by the FRET-based assay. With this two-step analysis, bacterial entry can be distinguished from vacuolar rupture in a single experiment. Our novel approach represents a powerful tool for identifying factors that determine the intracellular niche of L. monocytogenes.