Splenic marginal zone lymphoma with villous lymphocytes shows on-going immunoglobulin gene mutations.
ABSTRACT: Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (also splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes) is a B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with a characteristic morphology and phenotype. We studied the pattern of somatic hypermutation of the rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain genes on 23 cases and have correlated these data with survival as well as immunophenotypic and genetic characteristics of the cases. Two-thirds of the cases show immunoglobulin gene mutations, half of which show evidence of antigen selection, whereas one-third of the cases show no significant mutations. On-going mutation, a feature characteristic of follicular lymphoma, was demonstrated in all six cases randomly selected for this analysis, including one case with a low number of mutations (<2%). No statistical significant correlation was found between immunoglobulin mutation status and clinical, immunophenotypic, or genetic characteristics. Our results demonstrate that on-going somatic hypermutation is a prominent feature of splenic marginal zone lymphoma with circulating villous lymphocytes. On-going somatic hypermutation has previously been demonstrated in extra-nodal and nodal marginal zone lymphoma. Our results indicate that marginal zone lymphomas at different anatomical localizations may derive from a similar B-cell subset.
Project description:Splenic diffuse red pulp lymphoma is an indolent small B-cell lymphoma recognized as a provisional entity in the World Health Organization 2008 classification. Its precise relationship to other related splenic B-cell lymphomas with frequent leukemic involvement or other lymphoproliferative disorders remains undetermined. We performed whole-exome sequencing to explore the genetic landscape of ten cases of splenic diffuse red pulp lymphoma using paired tumor and normal samples. A selection of 109 somatic mutations was then evaluated in a cohort including 42 samples of splenic diffuse red pulp lymphoma and compared to those identified in 46 samples of splenic marginal zone lymphoma and eight samples of hairy-cell leukemia. Recurrent mutations or losses in BCOR (the gene encoding the BCL6 corepressor) - frameshift (n=3), nonsense (n=2), splicing site (n=1), and copy number loss (n=4) - were identified in 10/42 samples of splenic diffuse red pulp lymphoma (24%), whereas only one frameshift mutation was identified in 46 cases of splenic marginal zone lymphoma (2%). Inversely, KLF2, TNFAIP3 and MYD88, common mutations in splenic marginal zone lymphoma, were rare (one KLF2 mutant in 42 samples; 2%) or absent (TNFAIP3 and MYD88) in splenic diffuse red pulp lymphoma. These findings define an original genetic profile of splenic diffuse red pulp lymphoma and suggest that the mechanisms of pathogenesis of this lymphoma are distinct from those of splenic marginal zone lymphoma and hairy-cell leukemia.
Project description:Splenic marginal zone lymphomas (SMZLs) have been proposed to originate from postgerminal center memory B cells that usually have mutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable (VH) genes. However, the majority of SMZLs are thought to express both IgD and IgM, which is more typical of naïve B cells that have unmutated VH genes. To better define the SMZL cell of origin and pathogenesis, we studied the histological and immunophenotypic features of eight cases and also sequenced their rearranged VH genes. Half of the cases had unmutated VH genes consistent with a naïve B-cell origin and half had mutated VH genes consistent with a memory B-cell origin. Most of the unmutated cases (three of four) were positive for IgD, which further supports a naïve B-cell origin, whereas the others were negative. In addition, VH gene segment use seems to be nonrandom because seven of eight cases used genes from the VH1 or VH4 families and repetitive use of the V1-2, V1-69, and V4-34 gene segments was observed. Our results suggest there are two types of SMZLs, one that originates from naïve marginal zone B cells in addition to one that originates from memory marginal zone B cells, and that antigen selection may be occurring during lymphomagenesis.
Project description:Marginal zone B cell lymphomas are divided into nodal, extranodal and splenic types. Renal involvement by extranodal B cell lymphoma is extremely rare with an incidence of about 0.1%. We present a case of a 79-year-old Caucasian male with progressive renal failure and isolated left renal extranodal marginal zone lymphoma. Asymptomatic immunoglobulin (Ig) M monoclonal gammopathy along with bone marrow involvement by lymphoma was observed. Contemporary management options including radiotherapy (RT), chemotherapy, immune-modulating agents and novel chemotherapy-free regimens.
Project description:The genetics and pathogenesis of splenic marginal zone lymphoma are poorly understood. The lymphoma lacks chromosome translocation, and approximately 30% of cases are featured by 7q deletion, but the gene targeted by the deletion is unknown. A recent study showed inactivation of A20, a "global" NF-?B negative regulator, in 1 of 12 splenic marginal zone lymphomas. To investigate further whether deregulation of the NF-?B pathway plays a role in the pathogenesis of splenic marginal zone lymphoma, we screened several NF-?B regulators for genetic changes by PCR and sequencing. Somatic mutations were found in A20 (6/46=13%), MYD88 (6/46=13%), CARD11 (3/34=8.8%), but not in CD79A, CD79B and ABIN1. Interestingly, these genetic changes are largely mutually exclusive from each other and MYD88 mutation was also mutually exclusive from 7q deletion. These results strongly suggest that deregulation of the TLR (toll like receptor) and BCR (B-cell receptor) signaling pathway may play an important role in the pathogenesis of splenic marginal zone lymphoma.
Project description:Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a lymphoma type of putative marginal zone B-cell origin. No specific genetic alterations have yet been demonstrated in SMZL. Clinically, SMZL is a low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. However, the presence of p53 mutation, 7q22-7q32 deletion or the absence of somatic hypermutations of immunoglobulin genes has been correlated with a worse prognosis. In this study, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression of 24 cases of SMZL using the microarray technique. The AP-1 transcription factors c-jun, junD, junB, and c-fos as well as Notch2 were found to be specifically up-regulated. These data were confirmed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections. The absence of concordant high expression of the MAP kinases, the signaling cascade leading to AP-1 up-regulation, suggests autoregulation of the AP-1 transcription factors and an important role in SMZL oncogenesis. High expression of Notch2, a transcription factor that induces marginal zone B-cell differentiation, is highly suggestive for a marginal zone B-cell origin of SMZL. In addition, SMZL with the 7q deletion showed high expression of TGF-beta1 and low expression of the DNA helicase XPB, a crucial part of the nucleotide excision repair complex, possibly explaining the more aggressive clinical course of those cases.
Project description:The t(11;18)(q21;q21) is thought to represent an important primary event in the development of marginal zone lymphomas, although an accurate estimation of the frequency and distribution of this genetic alteration among nodal, splenic, and extranodal marginal zone lymphoma types has yet to be determined. Recently, molecular genetic studies have shown that this translocation results in the fusion of the API2 gene on chromosome 11 and a novel gene termed MALT1 on chromosome 18. To investigate the incidence of API2-MALT1 fusion transcripts among marginal zone lymphomas and to determine possible marginal zone lymphoma subtype associations, we used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to analyze RNAs extracted from frozen tissue samples of 99 marginal zone lymphomas. Fifty-seven involved diverse extranodal sites including 14 stomach, 11 lung, 7 orbit, 7 parotid, 5 thyroid, 5 lacrimal gland, 3 small intestine, 2 large intestine, 1 kidney, 1 paraspinal region and 1 skin. Twenty-one primary splenic and twenty-one primary nodal marginal zone lymphomas were also studied. API2-MALT1 fusion transcripts were detected in 12 of 57 extranodal marginal zone lymphomas (21%), but in none of the nodal or splenic cases. The cDNA sequences of the fusion transcripts were determined, revealing variation in the coding sequence fusion point for both API2 and MALT1. The findings suggest that t(11;18)(q21;q21) is restricted to extranodal marginal zone lymphomas and that these tumors have distinct genetic etiologies in comparison with their splenic and nodal counterparts.
Project description:Neutrophils use immunoglobulins to clear antigen, but their role in immunoglobulin production is unknown. Here we identified neutrophils around the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen, a B cell area specialized in T cell-independent immunoglobulin responses to circulating antigen. Neutrophils colonized peri-MZ areas after postnatal mucosal colonization by microbes and enhanced their B cell-helper function after receiving reprogramming signals, including interleukin 10 (IL-10), from splenic sinusoidal endothelial cells. Splenic neutrophils induced immunoglobulin class switching, somatic hypermutation and antibody production by activating MZ B cells through a mechanism that involved the cytokines BAFF, APRIL and IL-21. Neutropenic patients had fewer and hypomutated MZ B cells and a lower abundance of preimmune immunoglobulins to T cell-independent antigens, which indicates that neutrophils generate an innate layer of antimicrobial immunoglobulin defense by interacting with MZ B cells.
Project description:Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma characterized by massive splenomegaly, moderate lymphocytosis with or without villous lymphocytes, rare involvement of peripheral lymph nodes and indolent clinical course. As a rare disease, with no randomized prospective trials, there is no standard of care for SMZL so far. Splenectomy has been done for many years as an attempt to control disease, but nowadays it has not been encouraged as first line because of new advances in therapy as rituximab, that are as effective with minimal toxicity. Facing these controversies, this review highlights advances in the literature regarding diagnosis, prognostic factors, treatment indications and therapeutic options.
Project description:In splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL), specific and functional Toll-like Receptor (TLR) patterns have been recently described, suggesting their involvement in tumoral proliferation. Splenic diffuse red pulp lymphoma with villous lymphocytes (SDRPL) is close to but distinct from SMZL, justifying here the comparison of TLR patterns and functionality in both entities. Distinct TLR profiles were observed in both lymphoma subtypes. SDRPL B cells showed higher expression of TLR7 and to a lesser degree TLR9, in comparison to SMZL B cells. In both entities, TLR7 and TLR9 pathways appeared functional, as shown by IL-6 production upon TLR7 and TLR9 agonists stimulations. Interestingly, circulating SDRPL, but not SMZL B cells, constitutively expressed CD86. In addition, stimulation with both TLR7 and TLR9 agonists significantly increased CD80 expression in circulating SDRPL but not SMZL B cells. Finally, TLR7 and TLR9 stimulations had no impact on proliferation and apoptosis of SMZL or SDRPL B cells. In conclusion, SMZL and SDRPL may derive from different splenic memory B cells with specific immunological features that can be used as diagnosis markers in the peripheral blood.