Parental smoking modifies the relation between genetic variation in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and childhood asthma.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Polymorphisms in the proinflammatory cytokine genes tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA, also called TNF-beta) have been associated with asthma and atopy in some studies. Parental smoking is a consistent risk factor for childhood asthma. Secondhand smoke and ozone both stimulate TNF production. OBJECTIVES:Our goal was to investigate whether genetic variation in TNF and LTA is associated with asthma and atopy and whether the association is modified by parental smoking in a Mexican population with high ozone exposure. METHODS:We genotyped six tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TNF and LTA, including functional variants, in 596 nuclear families consisting of asthmatics 4-17 years of age and their parents in Mexico City. Atopy was determined by skin prick tests. RESULTS:The A allele of the TNF-308 SNP was associated with increased risk of asthma [relative risk (RR) = 1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-2.28], especially among children of non-smoking parents (RR = 2.06; 95% CI, 1.19-3.55; p for interaction = 0.09). Similarly, the A allele of the TNF-238 SNP was associated with increased asthma risk among children of nonsmoking parents (RR = 2.21; 95% CI, 1.14-4.30; p for interaction = 0.01). LTA SNPs were not associated with asthma. Haplotype analyses reflected the single SNP findings in magnitude and direction. TNF and LTA SNPs were not associated with the degree of atopy. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that genetic variation in TNF may contribute to childhood asthma and that associations may be modified by parental smoking.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A recent microarray study implicated arginase I (ARG1) and arginase II (ARG2) in mouse allergic asthma models and human asthma. OBJECTIVES:To examine the association between genetic variation in ARG1 and ARG2 and childhood asthma and atopy risk. METHODS:We enrolled 433 case-parent triads, consisting of patients with asthma 4 to 17 years old and their biologic parents, from the allergy clinic of a public hospital in Mexico City between 1998 and 2003. Atopy to 24 aeroallergens was determined by skin prick tests. We genotyped 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ARG1 and 4 SNPs of ARG2 with minor allele frequencies higher than 10% by using the TaqMan assay (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, Calif). RESULTS:ARG1 SNPs and haplotypes were not associated with asthma, but all 4 ARG1 SNPs were associated with the number of positive skin tests (P = .007-.018). Carrying 2 copies of minor alleles for either of 2 highly associated ARG2 SNPs was associated with a statistically significant increased relative risk (RR) of asthma (1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1 for arg2s1; RR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.3 for arg2s2). The association was slightly stronger among children with a smoking parent (arg2s1 RR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2 - 3.9 with a smoking parent; RR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.8-1.9 without; interaction P = .025). Haplotype analyses reduced the sample size but supported the single SNP results. One ARG2 SNP was related to the number of positive skin tests (P = .027). CONCLUSION:Variation in arginase genes may contribute to asthma and atopy in children.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Arginases (encoded by ARG1 and ARG2 genes) might play an important role in asthma pathogenesis through effects on nitrosative stress. Arginase expression is upregulated in asthma and varies with T(H)2 cytokine levels and oxidative stress.<h4>Objective</h4>We aimed to examine whether variants in these genes are associated with asthma and whether atopy and exposures to smoking and air pollution influence the associations.<h4>Methods</h4>Among non-Hispanic and Hispanic white participants of the Children's Health Study (n = 2946), we characterized variation in each locus (including promoter region) with 6 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms for ARG1 and 10 for ARG2. Asthma was defined by parental report of physician-diagnosed asthma at study entry.<h4>Results</h4>Both ARG1 and ARG2 genetic loci were significantly associated with asthma (global locus level P = .02 and .04, respectively). Compared with the most common haplotype within each locus, 1 ARG1 haplotype was associated with reduced risk (odds ratio [OR] per haplotype copy, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.36-0.84), and 1 ARG2 haplotype was associated with increased risk (OR per haplotype copy, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.04-1.76) of asthma. The effect of the ARG1 haplotype that was significantly associated with asthma varied by the child's history of atopy and ambient ozone (P(interaction) = .04 and .02, respectively). Among atopic children living in high-ozone communities, those carrying the ARG1 haplotype had reduced asthma risk (OR per haplotype copy, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.04-0.43; P(heterogeneity) across atopy/ozone categories = .008).<h4>Conclusions</h4>ARG1 and ARG2 loci are associated with childhood asthma. The association between ARG1 variation and asthma might depend on atopy and ambient ozone levels.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>S-nitrosothiols are potent endogenous bronchodilators depleted in asthmatic airway lining fluid. S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR; also known as alcohol dehydrogenase 5 or formaldehyde dehydrogenase) catalyzes the metabolism of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and controls intracellular levels of S-nitrosothiols. GSNOR knockout mice have increased lung S-nitrosothiol levels and are therefore protected from airway hyperresponsiveness after methacholine or allergen challenge.<h4>Objective</h4>We sought to investigate whether genetic variation in GSNOR is associated with childhood asthma and atopy.<h4>Methods</h4>We genotyped 5 tagging and 2 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSNOR in 532 nuclear families consisting of asthmatic children aged 4 to 17 years and both parents in Mexico City. Atopy was determined by means of skin prick testing.<h4>Results</h4>Carrying 1 or 2 copies of the minor allele of SNP rs1,154,404 was associated with decreased risk of asthma (relative risk [RR], 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.97; P = .028 for 1 copy and RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44-0.99; P = .046 for 2 copies). Homozygosity for the minor allele of SNP rs28,730,619 was associated with increased risk of asthma (RR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.13-2.26; P = .0077). Haplotype analyses supported the single SNP findings. GSNOR SNPs were not associated with the degree of atopy.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This is the first study of genetic polymorphisms in GSNOR and asthma. These data suggest that genetic variation in GSNOR might play a role in asthma susceptibility.<h4>Clinical implications</h4>The association of GSNOR polymorphisms with asthma suggests a potential therapeutic target.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor is a proinflammatory cytokine found in increased concentrations in asthmatic airways. The TNF-alpha (TNF) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) genes belong to the TNF gene superfamily located within the human major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6p in a region repeatedly linked to asthma. The TNF position -308 and LTA NcoI polymorphisms are believed to influence TNF transcription and secretion, respectively.This study sought to determine whether polymorphisms in TNF or LTA, or in TNF-LTA haplotypes, are associated with asthma and asthma phenotypes.We genotyped the TNF -308 and LTA NcoI polymorphisms, and two other haplotype-tagging polymorphisms in the TNF and LTA genes, in 708 children with mild to moderate asthma enrolled in the Childhood Asthma Management Program and in their parents. Using an extension of the family-based association tests in the PBAT program, each polymorphism was tested for association with asthma, age at onset of asthma, and time series data on baseline FEV(1) % predicted, postbronchodilator FEV(1) % predicted, body mass index, and log of PC(20).Although no associations were found for the individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms, the haplotype analysis found the LTA NcoI_G/LTA 4371T/TNF -308G/TNF 1078G haplotype to be associated with asthma and with all five phenotype groups.We conclude that it is unlikely that the TNF -308 or LTA NcoI polymorphisms influence asthma susceptibility individually, but that this haplotype of variants may be functional or may be in linkage disequilibrium with other functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms.
Project description:Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1) may influence asthma by modulating allergic airway inflammation and airway remodeling. The role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TGFB1 in asthma remains inconclusive. We examined TGFB1 SNPs in relation to asthma risk and degree of atopy among 546 case-parent triads, consisting of asthmatics aged 4-17 years and their parents in Mexico City. Atopy to 24 aeroallergens was determined by skin prick tests. We genotyped five TGFB1 SNPs, including two known functional SNPs [C-509T (rs1800469), T869C (rs1982073)] and three others (rs7258445, rs1800472, rs8179181), using TaqMan and Masscode assays. We analyzed the data using log-linear and polytomous logistic methods. Three associated SNPs, including the two known functional SNPs, were statistically significantly related to asthma risk. Individuals carrying the T allele of C-509T had an increased risk of asthma [relative risk (RR)=1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-1.87 for one copy; RR (95%CI)=1.95 (1.36-2.78) for two copies]. For T869C, the RRs (95%CI) were 1.47 (1.09-1.98) for one and 2.00 (1.38-2.90) for two copies of the C allele. Similar results were found for rs7258445. The haplotype containing all three risk alleles conferred an increased risk of asthma (RR=1.48, 95% CI=1.11-1.95 for one copy; RR=1.77, 95% CI=1.22-2.57 for two copies). These three SNPs were also related to the degree of atopy. This largest study to date of genetic variation in TGFB1 and asthma and atopy adds to increasing evidence for a role in these disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A genome-wide association study identified ORM1-like 3 (orosomucoid 1-like 3, ORMDL3) as an asthma candidate gene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the region including ORMDL3 on chromosome 17q21 were related to childhood asthma risk and ORMDL3 expression levels in Europeans. OBJECTIVE:We examined whether polymorphisms in ORMDL3 and the adjacent gasdermin-like (GSDML) gene associated with asthma in the genome-wide association study are related to childhood asthma and atopy in a Mexico City population. METHODS:We genotyped rs4378650 in ORMDL3 and rs7216389 in GSDML in 615 nuclear families consisting of asthmatic children aged 4-17 years and their parents. Atopy was determined by skin prick tests to 25 aeroallergens. RESULTS:Individuals carrying the C allele of rs4378650 or the T allele of rs7216389 had increased risk of asthma [relative risk (RR) = 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-2.53, P = 0.003 for one or two copies of rs4378650 C, and RR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.12-2.38, P = 0.009 for one or two copies of rs7216389 T). Linkage disequilibrium between the two SNPs was high (r(2) = 0.92). Neither of the SNPs was associated with the degree of atopy. A meta-analysis of five published studies on rs7216389 in nine populations gave an odds ratio for asthma of 1.44 (95% CI, 1.35-1.54, P < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS:Our results and the meta-analysis provide evidence to confirm the finding from a recent genome-wide association study that polymorphisms in ORMDL3 and the adjacent GSDML may contribute to childhood asthma.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studies have shown an inverse association of pet ownership with allergy but inconclusive findings for asthma. OBJECTIVE:To investigate whether pet ownership during pregnancy and childhood was associated with asthma and atopy at the age of 7 in a UK population-based birth cohort. METHODS:Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were used to investigate associations of pet ownership at six time points from pregnancy to the age of 7 with asthma, atopy (grass, house dust mite, and cat skin prick test) and atopic vs. non-atopic asthma at the age of 7 using logistic regression models adjusted for child's sex, maternal history of asthma/atopy, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and family adversity. RESULTS:A total of 3768 children had complete data on pet ownership, asthma, and atopy. Compared with non-ownership, continuous ownership of any pet (before and after the age of 3) was associated with 52% lower odds of atopic asthma [odds ratio (OR) 0.48, 95% CI 0.34-0.68]. Pet ownership tended to be associated with increased risk of non-atopic asthma, particularly rabbits (OR 1.61, 1.04-2.51) and rodents (OR 1.86, 1.15-3.01), comparing continuous vs. non-ownership. Pet ownership was consistently associated with lower odds of sensitization to grass, house dust mite, and cat allergens, but rodent ownership was associated with higher odds of sensitization to rodent allergen. Differential effects of pet ownership on atopic vs. non-atopic asthma were evident for all pet types. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Pet ownership during pregnancy and childhood in this birth cohort was consistently associated with a reduced risk of aeroallergen sensitization and atopic asthma at the age of 7, but tended to be associated (particularly for rabbits and rodents) with an increased risk of non-atopic asthma. The opposing effects on atopy vs. non-atopic asthma might be considered by parents when they are deciding whether to acquire a pet.
Project description:Puerto Rican children share a disproportionate burden of prematurity and asthma in the United States. Little is known about prematurity and childhood asthma in Puerto Rican subjects.We sought to examine whether prematurity is associated with asthma in Puerto Rican children.We performed a case-control study of 678 children aged 6 to 14 years with (n = 351) and without (n = 327) asthma living in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Prematurity was defined by parental report for our primary analysis. In a secondary analysis, we only included children whose parents reported prematurity that required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the prior year. We used logistic regression for analysis. All multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, household income, atopy (?1 positive IgE level to common allergens), maternal history of asthma, and early-life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.In a multivariate analysis there was a significant interaction between prematurity and atopy on asthma (P = .006). In an analysis stratified by atopy, prematurity was associated with a nearly 5-fold increased odds of asthma in atopic children (adjusted odds ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.5-14.3; P = .007). In contrast, there was no significant association between prematurity and asthma in nonatopic children. Similar results were obtained in our analysis of prematurity requiring admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and asthma.Our results suggest that atopy modifies the estimated effect of prematurity on asthma in Puerto Rican children. Prematurity might explain, in part, the high prevalence of atopic asthma in this ethnic group.
Project description:Parental, particularly maternal, smoking increases the risk for childhood allergic asthma and infection. Similarly, in a murine allergic asthma model, prenatal plus early postnatal exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke (SS) exacerbates airways hyperreactivity and Th2 responses in the lung. However, the mechanism and contribution of prenatal versus early postnatal SS exposure on allergic asthma remain unresolved. To identify the effects of prenatal and/or early postnatal SS on allergic asthma, BALB/c dams and their offspring were exposed gestationally and/or 8-10 wk postbirth to filtered air or SS. Prenatal, but not postnatal, SS strongly increased methacholine and allergen (Aspergillus)-induced airway resistance, Th2 cytokine levels, and atopy and activated the Th2-polarizing pathway GATA3/Lck/ERK1/2/STAT6. Either prenatal and/or early postnatal SS downregulated the Th1-specific transcription factor T-bet and, surprisingly, despite high levels of IL-4/IL-13, dramatically blocked the allergen-induced mucous cell metaplasia, airway mucus formation, and the expression of mucus-related genes/proteins: Muc5ac, ?-aminobutyric acid A receptors, and SAM pointed domain-containing Ets-like factor. Given that SS/nicotine exposure of normal adult mice promotes mucus formation, the results suggested that fetal and neonatal lung are highly sensitive to cigarette smoke. Thus, although the gestational SS promotes Th2 polarization/allergic asthma, it may also impair and/or delay the development of fetal and neonatal lung, affecting mucociliary clearance and Th1 responses. Together, this may explain the increased susceptibility of children from smoking parents to allergic asthma and childhood respiratory infections.
Project description:We investigated if greenness and air pollution exposure in parents' childhood affect offspring asthma and hay fever, and if effects were mediated through parental asthma, pregnancy greenness/pollution exposure, and offspring exposure. We analysed 1106 parents with 1949 offspring (mean age 35 and 6) from the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe, Spain and Australia (RHINESSA) generation study. Mean particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), ozone (O3) (µg/m3) and greenness (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)) were calculated for parents 0-18 years old and offspring 0-10 years old, and were categorised in tertiles. We performed logistic regression and mediation analyses for two-pollutant models (clustered by family and centre, stratified by parental lines, and adjusted for grandparental asthma and education). Maternal medium PM2.5 and PM10 exposure was associated with higher offspring asthma risk (odds ratio (OR) 2.23, 95%CI 1.32-3.78, OR 2.27, 95%CI 1.36-3.80), and paternal high BC exposure with lower asthma risk (OR 0.31, 95%CI 0.11-0.87). Hay fever risk increased for offspring of fathers with medium O3 exposure (OR 4.15, 95%CI 1.28-13.50) and mothers with high PM10 exposure (OR 2.66, 95%CI 1.19-5.91). The effect of maternal PM10 exposure on offspring asthma was direct, while for hay fever, it was mediated through exposures in pregnancy and offspring's own exposures. Paternal O3 exposure had a direct effect on offspring hay fever. To conclude, parental exposure to air pollution appears to influence the risk of asthma and allergies in future offspring.