Selective role for RGS12 as a Ras/Raf/MEK scaffold in nerve growth factor-mediated differentiation.
ABSTRACT: Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins accelerate GTP hydrolysis by heterotrimeric G-protein alpha subunits and thus inhibit signaling by many G protein-coupled receptors. Several RGS proteins have a multidomain architecture that adds further complexity to their roles in cell signaling in addition to their GTPase-accelerating activity. RGS12 contains a tandem repeat of Ras-binding domains but, to date, the role of this protein in Ras-mediated signal transduction has not been reported. Here, we show that RGS12 associates with the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor tyrosine kinase TrkA, activated H-Ras, B-Raf, and MEK2 and facilitates their coordinated signaling to prolonged ERK activation. RGS12 is required for NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells, but not outgrowth stimulated by basic fibroblast growth factor. siRNA-mediated knockdown of RGS12 expression also inhibits NGF-induced axonal growth in dissociated cultures of primary dorsal root ganglia neurons. These data suggest that RGS12 may play a critical, and receptor-selective, role in coordinating Ras-dependent signals that are required for promoting and/or maintaining neuronal differentiation.
Project description:Regulators of G-protein Signaling (Rgs) proteins are the members of a multigene family of GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAP) for the Galpha subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins. Rgs proteins play critical roles in the regulation of G protein couple receptor (GPCR) signaling in normal physiology and human diseases such as cancer, heart diseases, and inflammation. Rgs12 is the largest protein of the Rgs protein family. Some in vitro studies have demonstrated that Rgs12 plays a critical role in regulating cell differentiation and migration; however its function and mechanism in vivo is largely unknown. Here, we generated a floxed Rgs12 allele (Rgs12(flox/flox) ) in which the exon 2, containing both PDZ and PTB_PID domains of Rgs12, was flanked with two loxp sites. By using the inducible Mx1-cre and Poly I:C system to specifically delete Rgs12 at postnatal 10 days in interferon-responsive cells including monocyte and macrophage cells, we found that Rgs12 mutant mice had growth retardation with the phenotype of increased bone mass. We further found that deletion of Rgs12 reduced osteoclast numbers and had no significant effect on osteoblast formation. Thus, Rgs12(flox/flox) conditional mice provide a valuable tool for in vivo analysis of Rgs12 function and mechanism through time- and cell-specific deletion of Rgs12.
Project description:Regulators of G Protein Signaling (RGS proteins) inhibit G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling by accelerating the GTP hydrolysis rate of activated G? subunits. Some RGS proteins exert additional signal modulatory functions, and RGS12 is one such protein, with five additional, functional domains: a PDZ domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain, two Ras-binding domains, and a G?·GDP-binding GoLoco motif. RGS12 expression is temporospatially regulated in developing mouse embryos, with notable expression in somites and developing skeletal muscle. We therefore examined whether RGS12 is involved in the skeletal muscle myogenic program. In the adult mouse, RGS12 is expressed in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle, and its expression is increased early after cardiotoxin-induced injury, suggesting a role in muscle regeneration. Consistent with a potential role in coordinating myogenic signals, RGS12 is also expressed in primary myoblasts; as these cells undergo differentiation and fusion into myotubes, RGS12 protein abundance is reduced. Myoblasts isolated from mice lacking Rgs12 expression have an impaired ability to differentiate into myotubes ex vivo, suggesting that RGS12 may play a role as a modulator/switch for differentiation. We also assessed the muscle regenerative capacity of mice conditionally deficient in skeletal muscle Rgs12 expression (via Pax7-driven Cre recombinase expression), following cardiotoxin-induced damage to the TA muscle. Eight days post-damage, mice lacking RGS12 in skeletal muscle had attenuated repair of muscle fibers. However, when mice lacking skeletal muscle expression of Rgs12 were cross-bred with mdx mice (a model of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy), no increase in muscle degeneration was observed over time. These data support the hypothesis that RGS12 plays a role in coordinating signals during the myogenic program in select circumstances, but loss of the protein may be compensated for within model syndromes of prolonged bouts of muscle damage and repair.
Project description:Kappa opioid receptor (KOR) agonists show promise in ameliorating disorders, such as addiction and chronic pain, but are limited by dysphoric and aversive side effects. Clinically beneficial effects of KOR agonists (e.g., analgesia) are predominantly mediated by heterotrimeric G protein signaling, whereas ?-arrestin signaling is considered central to their detrimental side effects (e.g., dysphoria/aversion). Here we show that Regulator of G protein Signaling-12 (RGS12), via independent signaling mechanisms, simultaneously attenuates G protein signaling and augments ?-arrestin signaling downstream of KOR, exhibiting considerable selectivity in its actions for KOR over other opioid receptors. We previously reported that RGS12-null mice exhibit increased dopamine transporter-mediated dopamine (DA) uptake in the ventral (vSTR), but not dorsal striatum (dSTR), as well as reduced psychostimulant-induced hyperlocomotion; in the current study, we found that these phenotypes are reversed following KOR antagonism. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry studies of dopamine (DA) release and reuptake suggest that striatal disruptions to KOR-dependent DAergic neurotransmission in RGS12-null mice are restricted to the nucleus accumbens. In both ventral striatal tissue and transfected cells, RGS12 and KOR are seen to interact within a protein complex. Ventral striatal-specific increases in KOR levels and KOR-induced G protein activation are seen in RGS12-null mice, as well as enhanced sensitivity to KOR agonist-induced hypolocomotion and analgesia-G protein signaling-dependent behaviors; a ventral striatal-specific increase in KOR levels was also observed in ?-arrestin-2-deficient mice, highlighting the importance of ?-arrestin signaling to establishing steady-state KOR levels in this particular brain region. Conversely, RGS12-null mice exhibited attenuated KOR-induced conditioned place aversion (considered a ?-arrestin signaling-dependent behavior), consistent with the augmented KOR-mediated ?-arrestin signaling seen upon RGS12 over-expression. Collectively, our findings highlight a role for RGS12 as a novel, differential regulator of both G protein-dependent and -independent signaling downstream of KOR activation.
Project description:Others and we have characterized several Gβγ-dependent effectors in smooth muscle, including G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), PLCβ3, and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-γ, and have identified various signaling targets downstream of PI 3-kinase-γ, including cSrc, integrin-linked kinase, and Rac1-Cdc42/p21-activated kinase/p38 MAP kinase. This study identified a novel mechanism whereby Gβγ acting via PI 3-kinase-γ and cSrc exerts an inhibitory influence on Gαi activity. The Gi2-coupled δ-opioid receptor agonist d-penicillamine (2,5)-enkephalin (DPDPE) activated cSrc, stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of Gαi2, and induced regulator of G protein signaling 12 (RGS12) association; all three events were blocked by PI 3-kinase (LY294002) and cSrc (PP2) inhibitors and by expression of the COOH-terminal sequence of GRK2-(495-689), a Gβγ-scavenging peptide. Inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP and muscle relaxation by DPDPE was augmented by PP2, LY294002, and a selective PI 3-kinase-γ inhibitor, AS-605420. Expression of tyrosine-deficient (Y69F, Y231F, or Y321F) Gαi2 mutant or knockdown of RGS12 blocked Gαi2 phosphorylation and Gαi2-RGS12 association and caused greater inhibition of cAMP. Parallel studies using somatostatin, cyclopentyl adenosine, or ACh to activate, respectively, Gi1-coupled somatostatin (sstr3) receptors, and Gi3-coupled adenosine A1 or muscarinic m2 receptors elicited cSrc activation, Gαi1 or Gαi3 phosphorylation, Gαi1-RGS12 or Gαi3-RGS12 association, and inhibition of cAMP. Inhibition of cAMP and muscle relaxation was greatly increased by AS-605240 and PP2. The results demonstrate that Gβγ-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of Gαi1/2/3 by cSrc facilitated recruitment of RGS12, a Gαi-specific RGS protein with a unique phosphotyrosine-binding domain, resulting in rapid deactivation of Gαi and facilitation of smooth muscle relaxation.
Project description:Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins have been well-described as accelerators of Galpha-mediated GTP hydrolysis ("GTPase-accelerating proteins" or GAPs). However, RGS proteins with complex domain architectures are now known to regulate much more than Galpha GTPase activity. RGS14 contains tandem Ras-binding domains that have been reported to bind to Rap- but not Ras GTPases in vitro, leading to the suggestion that RGS14 is a Rap-specific effector. However, more recent data from mammals and Drosophila imply that, in vivo, RGS14 may instead be an effector of Ras.Full-length and truncated forms of purified RGS14 protein were found to bind indiscriminately in vitro to both Rap- and Ras-family GTPases, consistent with prior literature reports. In stark contrast, however, we found that in a cellular context RGS14 selectively binds to activated H-Ras and not to Rap isoforms. Co-transfection / co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated the ability of full-length RGS14 to assemble a multiprotein complex with components of the ERK MAPK pathway in a manner dependent on activated H-Ras. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of RGS14 inhibited both nerve growth factor- and basic fibrobast growth factor-mediated neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells, a process which is known to be dependent on Ras-ERK signaling.In cells, RGS14 facilitates the formation of a selective Ras.GTP-Raf-MEK-ERK multiprotein complex to promote sustained ERK activation and regulate H-Ras-dependent neuritogenesis. This cellular function for RGS14 is similar but distinct from that recently described for its closely-related paralogue, RGS12, which shares the tandem Ras-binding domain architecture with RGS14.
Project description:Regulators of G protein signaling (Rgs) have pivotal roles in controlling various cellular processes, such as cell differentiation. How Rgs proteins regulate osteoclast (OC) differentiation, function and bone homeostasis is poorly understood. It was previously demonstrated that Rgs12, the largest protein in the Rgs family, is predominantly expressed in OCs and regulates OC differentiation in vitro. To further understand the role and mechanism of Rgs12 in OC differentiation and bone diseases in vivo, we created OC-targeted Rgs12 knockout mice by using inducible Mx1-Cre and CD11b-Cre. Deletion of Rgs12 in hematopoietic cells or specifically in OC precursors resulted in increased bone mass with decreased OC numbers. Loss of Rgs12 impaired OC differentiation and function with impaired Ca(2+) oscillations and reduced nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) 2 expression. The introduction of wild-type osteoblasts did not rescue the defective osteoclastogenesis. Ectopic expression of NFAT2 rescued defective OC differentiation in CD11b;Rgs12(fl/fl) cells and promoted normal OC differentiation. Moreover, deletion of Rgs12 significantly inhibited pathological osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction in Rgs12-deficient mice that were subjected to ovariectomy and lipodysaccharide for bone loss. Thus our findings demonstrate that Rgs12 is an important regulator in OC differentiation and function and identify Rgs12 as a potential therapeutic target for osteoporosis and inflammation-induced bone loss.
Project description:Mitochondrial morphology and function are crucial for tissue homeostasis, such as for skeletal development, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we provide evidence that regulator of G-protein signaling 12 (RGS12) is present in the mitochondria of primary chondrocytes and cartilage tissues. Deletion of RGS12 in type II collagen-positive cells led to a significant decrease in mitochondrial number, membrane potential, and oxidative phosphorylation function. Mechanistically, RGS12 promoted the function of ATP5A as an enhancer of tyrosine phosphorylation. Mice with RGS12 deficiency in the chondrocyte lineage showed serious body retardation, decreased bone mass, and chondrocyte apoptosis due to the defective activity of ATP synthase. To our knowledge, this is the first report that RGS12 is required for maintaining the function of mitochondria, which may allow it to orchestrate responses to cellular homeostasis.
Project description:Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)-induced neuronal differentiation requires the activation of members of the Rho family of small GTPases. However, the molecular mechanisms through which NGF regulates cytoskeletal changes and neurite outgrowth are not totally understood. In this work, we identify the Rac1-specific guanine exchange factor (GEF) Tiam1 as a novel mediator of NGF/TrkA-dependent neurite elongation. In particular, we report that knockdown of Tiam1 causes a significant reduction in Rac1 activity and neurite outgrowth induced by NGF. Physical interaction between Tiam1 and active Ras (Ras-GTP), but not tyrosine phosphorylation of Tiam1, plays a central role in Rac1 activation by NGF. In addition, our findings indicate that Ras is required to associate Tiam1 with Rac1 and promote Rac1 activation upon NGF stimulation. Taken together, these findings define a novel molecular mechanism through which Tiam1 mediates TrkA signaling and neurite outgrowth induced by NGF.