Loss of fibulin-2 expression is associated with breast cancer progression.
ABSTRACT: Fibulin-2, an extracellular matrix protein expressed by normal epithelia, was found to be down-regulated in several breast cancer cell lines. Fibulin-2 protein expression was also decreased in breast cancer tissue samples as evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Reintroduction of Fibulin-2 into breast cancer cell lines that do not express Fibulin-2 reduced cancer cell motility and invasion in vitro but had no effect on cell growth and adhesion properties. Together with evidence that Fibulin-2 contributes to wound healing and inhibits smooth muscle cell migration, our findings suggest that loss of Fibulin-2 expression may facilitate migration and invasion in breast cancer.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is an important regulator of breast cancer progression. However, how the breast cancer microenvironment regulates TGF-? signaling during breast cancer progression remains largely unknown. Here, we identified fibulin-3 as a secreted protein in the breast cancer microenvironment, which efficiently inhibits TGF-? signaling in both breast cancer cells and endothelial cells. Mechanistically, fibulin-3 interacts with the type I TGF-? receptor (T?RI) to block TGF-? induced complex formation of T?RI with the type II TGF-? receptor (T?RII) and subsequent downstream TGF-? signaling. Fibulin-3 expression decreases during breast cancer progression, with low fibulin-3 levels correlating with a poorer prognosis. Functionally, high fibulin-3 levels inhibited TGF-?-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration, invasion and endothelial permeability, while loss of fibulin-3 expression/function promoted these TGF-?-mediated effects. Further, restoring fibulin-3 expression in breast cancer cells inhibited TGF-? signaling, breast cancer cell EMT, invasion and metastasis in vivo. These studies provide a novel mechanism for how TGF-? signaling is regulated by the tumor microenvironment, and provide insight into targeting the TGF-? signaling pathway in human breast cancer patients.
Project description:The high mortality rate of lung cancer is largely due to the spread of disease to other organs. However, the molecular changes driving lung cancer invasion and metastasis remain unclear. In this study, we identified fibulin-5, a vascular ligand for integrin receptors, as a suppressor of lung cancer invasion and metastasis. Fibulin-5 was silenced by promoter hypermethylation in a majority of lung cancer cell lines and primary tumors. It inhibited lung cancer cell invasion and down-regulated matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), which promoted lung cancer cell invasion. Knockdown of fibulin-5 was sufficient to stimulate cell invasion and MMP-7 expression. The expression levels of fibulin-5 and MMP-7 were inversely correlated in lung tumors. Suppression of MMP-7 expression by fibulin-5 was mediated by an integrin-binding RGD motif via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Furthermore, overexpression of fibulin-5 in H460 lung cancer cells inhibited metastasis in mice. Collectively, these results suggest that epigenetic silencing of fibulin-5 promotes lung cancer invasion and metastasis by activating MMP-7 expression through the ERK pathway.
Project description:The 5 year survival rate of lung cancer is <20%, with most patients dying from distant metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying lung cancer invasion and metastasis have not been fully characterized. In this study, we found that fibulin-3, a fibulin family extracellular matrix protein, functions as a suppressor of lung cancer invasion and metastasis. Fibulin-3 was downregulated in large fractions of lung tumors and cell lines, and inhibited lung cancer cell invasion and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), a promoter of lung cancer invasion. The expression levels of fibulin-3 and MMP-7 were inversely correlated in lung tumors. Fibulin-3 inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) to activate glycogen synthase kinase 3? and suppress Wnt/?-catenin signaling, which induces MMP-7 expression in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, fibulin-3 expression impeded the growth and metastasis of lung tumors in mice. Collectively, these results suggest that downregulation of fibulin-3 contributes to lung cancer invasion and metastasis by activating Wnt/?-catenin signaling and MMP-7 expression.
Project description:Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality. In particular, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) comprise a heterogeneous group of basal-like tumors lacking estrogen receptor (ER?), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 (ErbB2). TNBC represents 15-20% of all breast cancers and occurs frequently in women under 50 years of age. Unfortunately, these patients lack targeted therapy, are typically high grade and metastatic at time of diagnosis. The mechanisms regulating metastasis remain poorly understood. We have previously shown that the kisspeptin receptor, KISS1R stimulates invasiveness of TNBC cells. In this report, we demonstrate that KISS1R signals via the secreted extracellular matrix protein, fibulin-3, to regulate TNBC invasion. We found that the fibulin-3 gene is amplified in TNBC primary tumors and that plasma fibulin-3 levels are elevated in TNBC patients compared to healthy subjects. In this study, we show that KISS1R activation increases fibulin-3 expression and secretion. We show that fibulin-3 regulates TNBC metastasis in a mouse experimental metastasis xenograft model and signals downstream of KISS1R to stimulate TNBC invasion, by activating matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and the MAPK pathway. These results identify fibulin-3 as a new downstream mediator of KISS1R signaling and as a potential biomarker for TNBC progression and metastasis, thus revealing KISS1R and fibulin-3 as novel drug targets in TNBC.
Project description:Fibulin-4, an extracellular glycoprotein, which plays significant roles in elastic fiber assembly, is correlated to the progression of some cancers. However, the role of fibulin-4 in endometrial cancer cell invasion and metastasis remains unexplored. In our study, fibulin-4 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in normal endometrial tissues and endometrial carcinoma tissues. Using single cell cloning, strongly, and weakly, invasive subclones were derived from KLE and Ishikawa endometrial carcinoma cell lines. RT-qPCR, western blotting, and immunocytochemistry (ICC) were used to assess mRNA and protein expressions of fibulin-4 in primary cultured endometrial cells, 4 types of endometrial cancer cell lines, and the different invasive subclones. Using lentivirus transfection, fibulin-4 shRNA and pLVX-fibulin-4 were constructed and used to infect the strongly and weakly invasive subclones. The effects of fibulin-4 on the biological characteristics of endometrial carcinoma cells were detected by cell functional assays in vitro and in vivo. Using Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor XAV-939 and activator LiCl, we detected the role of fibulin-4 in the Wnt/?-catenin pathway and the relationship with epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Fibulin-4 was decreased in endometrial carcinoma tissues, and loss of fibulin-4 expression was significantly related with poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis of endometrial carcinoma. Fibulin-4 significantly inhibited endometrial carcinoma cell proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and EMT through the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. Fibulin-4 has the ability to suppress endometrial cancer progression. These results can contribute to the development of a new potential therapeutic target for patients with endometrial carcinoma.
Project description:Balance between pro-tumor and anti-tumor effects may be affected by molecular interactions within tumor microenvironment. On this basis we searched for molecular partners of ADAMTS-12, a secreted metalloprotease that shows both oncogenic and tumor-suppressive effects. Using its spacer region as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified fibulin-2 as a potential ADAMTS-12-interacting protein. Fibulins are components of basement membranes and elastic matrix fibers in connective tissue. Besides this structural function, fibulins also play crucial roles in different biological events, including tumorigenesis. To examine the functional consequences of the ADAMTS-12/fibulin-2 interaction, we performed different in vitro assays using two breast cancer cell lines: the poorly invasive MCF-7 and the highly invasive MDA-MB-231. Overall our data indicate that this interaction promotes anti-tumor effects in breast cancer cells. To assess the in vivo relevance of this interaction, we induced tumors in nude mice using MCF-7 cells expressing both ADAMTS-12 and fibulin-2 that showed a remarkable growth deficiency. Additionally, we also found that ADAMTS-12 may elicit pro-tumor effects in the absence of fibulin-2. Immunohistochemical staining of breast cancer samples allowed the detection of both ADAMTS-12 and fibulin-2 in the connective tissue surrounding tumor area in less aggressive carcinomas. However, both proteins are hardly detected in more aggressive tumors. These data and survival analysis plots of breast cancer patients suggest that concomitant detection of ADAMTS-12 and fibulin-2 could be a good prognosis marker in breast cancer diagnosis.
Project description:Fibulin-3, originally identified in senescent and Werner syndrome fibroblasts, has been implicated in cell morphology, growth, adhesion and motility. Fibulin-3 exhibits both antitumor and oncogenic activities towards human cancers; however, the role of Fibulin-3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains elusive. In this study, we showed that both the mRNA and protein levels of Fibulin-3 were remarkably downregulated in HCC cell lines and fresh tissues. Immunohistochemical data revealed that Fibulin-3 was decreased in tumorous tissues in 67.1% (171/255) of cases compared to the corresponding adjacent nontumorous tissues. The results of statistical analysis indicated that low Fibulin-3 expression, defined by the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), was significantly associated with tumor differentiation (P=0.008), clinical stage (P=0.014) and serum AFP levels (P<0.01). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analysis suggested that Fibulin-3 is an independent negative prognostic indicator for both overall (P<0.001) and recurrence-free (P=0.036) survival. In addition, an in vitro study demonstrated that knockdown of Fibulin-3 by siRNA markedly increased cell viability and promoted cell invasion in HCC cells. Collectively, our data suggest that Fibulin-3 exhibits antitumor effects towards HCC and serves as a biomarker of unfavorable prognosis for this deadly disease.
Project description:Fibulin-2 participates in the assembly of extracellular matrix components through interactions with multiple ligands and promotes contacts between cells and their surrounding environment. Consequently, identification of processes that could lead to an altered Fibulin-2 could have a major impact not only in the maintenance of tissue architecture and morphogenesis but also in pathological situations including cancer. Herein, we have investigated the ability of the secreted metalloproteases ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 to digest Fibulin-2. Using in vitro approaches and cultured breast cancer cell lines we demonstrate that Fibulin-2 is a better substrate for ADAMTS-5 than it is for ADAMTS-4. Moreover, Fibulin-2 degradation is associated to an enhancement of the invasive potential of T47D, MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 cells. We have also found that conditioned medium from MCF-7 cells that simultaneously overexpress Fibulin-2 and ADAMTS-5 significantly induced the migratory and invasive ability of normal breast fibroblasts using 3D collagen matrices. Immunohistochemical analysis highlights the close proximity or partial overlap of both Fibulin-2 and ADAMTS-5 in breast tumor samples. Additionally, proteolytic products derived from a potential degradation of Fibulin-2 by ADAMTS-5 were also identified in these samples. Finally, we also show that the cleavage of Fibulin-2 by ADAMTS-5 is counteracted by ADAMTS-12, a metalloprotease that interacts with Fibulin-2. Overall, our results provide direct evidence indicating that Fibulin-2 is a novel substrate of ADAMTS-5 and that this proteolysis could alter the cellular microenvironment affecting the balance between protumor and antitumor effects associated to both Fibulin-2 and the ADAMTSs metalloproteases.
Project description:Metastatic lung cancer is incurable and a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. However, the molecular mechanism by which lung cancer cells invade other tissues has remained unclear. We previously identified fibulin-5, an extracellular matrix protein, as a frequently silenced gene in lung cancer and a suppressor of cell invasion. In this study, we found fibulin-5 functions by inhibiting the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets show a strong association between loss of fibulin-5 expression and poor outcomes of lung cancer patients, and also activation of the Wnt target genes MMP-7 and c-Myc. Fibulin-5 impedes Wnt/?-catenin signaling by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) to activate glycogen synthase kinase-3 ? (GSK3?), which downregulates ?-catenin and prevents its nuclear accumulation, leading to suppression of MMP-7 and c-Myc expression. These effects of fibulin-5 are mediated by its amino-terminal integrin-binding RGD motif. Fibulin-5 also blocks Wnt/?-catenin signaling in vivo in H460 metastasis and H1299 tumor models. Furthermore, knockdown of ?-catenin suppresses metastasis of H460 tumors, while knockdown of GSK3? promotes metastasis of fibulin-5-expressing H1752 tumors. Together, our results suggest that fibulin-5 functions as a metastasis suppressor in lung cancer by modulating tumor microenvironment to suppress Wnt/?-catenin signaling.
Project description:This study explored the role of fibulin-3 in osteosarcoma progression and the possible signaling pathway involved. Fibulin-3 mRNA and protein expression in normal tissue, benign fibrous dysplasia, osteosarcoma, osteosarcoma cell lines (HOS and U-2OS), the normal osteoblastic cell line hFOB, and different invasive subclones was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or immunocytochemistry (ICC) and real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (real time qRT-PCR). To assess the role of fibulin-3 in the invasion and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells, lentiviral vectors with fibulin-3 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) and pLVX-fibulin-3 were constructed and used to infect the highly invasive and low invasive subclones. The effects of fibulin-3 knockdown and upregulation on the biological behavior of osteosarcoma cells were investigated by functional in vitro and in vivo assays. The results revealed that fibulin-3 expression was upregulated in osteosarcoma, and was positively correlated with low differentiation, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis. Fibulin-3 could promote osteosarcoma cell invasion and metastasis by inducing EMT and activating the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that fibulin-3 is a promoter of osteosarcoma development and progression, and suggest a novel therapeutic target for future studies.