The second extracellular loop of CCR5 contains the dominant epitopes for highly potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus monoclonal antibodies.
ABSTRACT: Six mouse anti-human CCR5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that showed potent antiviral activities were identified from over 26,000 mouse hybridomas. The epitopes for these mAbs were determined by using various CCR5 mutants, including CCR5/CCR2B chimeras. One mAb, ROAb13, was found to bind to a linear epitope in the N terminus of CCR5. Strikingly, the other five mAbs bind to epitopes derived from extracellular loop 2 (ECL2). The three most potent mAbs, ROAb12, ROAb14, and ROAb18, require residues from both the N-terminal (Lys171 and Glu172) and C-terminal (Trp190) halves of ECL2 for binding; two other mAbs, ROAb10 and ROAb51, which also showed potent antiviral activities, require Lys171 and Glu172 but not Trp190 for binding. Binding of the control mAb 2D7 completely relies on Lys171 and Glu172. Unlike 2D7, the novel mAbs ROAb12, ROAb14, and ROAb18 do not bind to the linear peptide 2D7-2SK. In addition, all three mAbs bind to monkey CCR5 (with Arg at position 171 instead of Lys); however, 2D7 does not. Since five of the six most potent CCR5 mAbs derived from the same pool of immunized mice require ECL2 as epitopes, we hypothesize that CCR5 ECL2 contains the dominant epitopes for mAbs with potent antiviral activities. These dominant epitopes were found in CCR5 from multiple species and were detected in large proportions of the total cell surface CCR5. mAbs recognizing these epitopes also showed high binding affinity. A homology model of CCR5 was generated to aid in the interpretation of these dominant epitopes in ECL2.
Project description:R5 HIV-1 strains resistant to the CCR5 antagonist Maraviroc (MVC) can use drug-bound CCR5. We demonstrate that MVC-resistant HIV-1 exhibits delayed kinetics of coreceptor engagement and fusion during drug-bound versus free CCR5 infection of cell lines. Antibodies directed against the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of CCR5 had greater antiviral activity against MVC-bound compared to MVC-free CCR5 infection. However, in PBMCs, only ECL2 CCR5 antibodies HGS004 and HGS101, but not 2D7, inhibited infection by MVC resistant HIV-1 more potently with MVC-bound than with free CCR5. In addition, HGS004 and HGS101, but not 2D7, restored the antiviral activity of MVC against resistant virus in PBMCs. In flow cytometric studies, CCR5 binding by the HGS mAbs, but not by 2D7, was increased when PBMCs were treated with MVC, suggesting MVC increases exposure of the relevant epitope. Thus, HGS004 and HGS101 have antiviral mechanisms distinct from 2D7 and could help overcome MVC resistance.
Project description:We developed a strategy for creating epitope maps of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) containing photo-cross-linkers. Using human CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) as a model system, we genetically incorporated the photolabile unnatural amino acid p-azido-l-phenylalanine (azF) at various positions within extracellular loop 2 (EC2). We then mapped the interactions of the azF-CXCR4 variants with mAb 12G5 using targeted loss-of-function studies and photo-cross-linking in whole cells in a microplate-based format. We used a novel variation of a whole cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate cross-linking efficiency. 12G5 cross-linked primarily to residues 184, 178, and 189 in EC2 of CXCR4. Mapping of the data to the crystal structure of CXCR4 showed a distinct mAb epitope footprint with the photo-cross-linked residues clustered around the loss-of-function sites. We also used the targeted photo-cross-linking approach to study the interaction of human CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) with PRO 140, a humanized mAb that inhibits human immunodeficiency virus-1 cellular entry, and 2D7. The mAbs produced distinct cross-linking patterns on EC2 of CCR5. PRO 140 cross-linked primarily to residues 174 and 175 at the amino-terminal end of EC2, and 2D7 cross-linked mainly to residues 170, 176, and 184. These results were mapped to the recent crystal structure of CCR5 in complex with maraviroc, showing cross-linked residues at the tip of the maraviroc binding crevice formed by EC2. As a strategy for mapping mAb epitopes on GPCRs, our targeted photo-cross-linking method is complementary to loss-of-function mutagenesis results and should be especially useful for studying mAbs with discontinuous epitopes.
Project description:C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), a member of G-protein-coupled receptors, serves as a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In the present study, we examined the interactions between CCR5 and novel CCR5 inhibitors containing the spirodiketopiperazine scaffolds AK530 and AK317, both of which were lodged in the hydrophobic cavity located between the upper transmembrane domain and the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of CCR5. Although substantial differences existed between the two inhibitors--AK530 had 10-fold-greater CCR5-binding affinity (K(d)=1.4 nM) than AK317 (16.7 nM)-their antiviral potencies were virtually identical (IC(50)=2.1 nM and 1.5 nM, respectively). Molecular dynamics simulations for unbound CCR5 showed hydrogen bond interactions among transmembrane residues Y108, E283, and Y251, which were crucial for HIV-1-gp120/sCD4 complex binding and HIV-1 fusion. Indeed, AK530 and AK317, when bound to CCR5, disrupted these interhelix hydrogen bond interactions, a salient molecular mechanism enabling allosteric inhibition. Mutagenesis and structural analysis showed that ECL2 consists of a part of the hydrophobic cavity for both inhibitors, although AK317 is more tightly engaged with ECL2 than AK530, explaining their similar anti-HIV-1 potencies despite the difference in K(d) values. We also found that amino acid residues in the beta-hairpin structural motif of ECL2 are critical for HIV-1-elicited fusion and binding of the spirodiketopiperazine-based inhibitors to CCR5. The direct ECL2-engaging property of the inhibitors likely produces an ECL2 conformation, which HIV-1 gp120 cannot bind to, but also prohibits HIV-1 from utilizing the "inhibitor-bound" CCR5 for cellular entry--a mechanism of HIV-1's resistance to CCR5 inhibitors. The data should not only help delineate the dynamics of CCR5 following inhibitor binding but also aid in designing CCR5 inhibitors that are more potent against HIV-1 and prevent or delay the emergence of resistant HIV-1 variants.
Project description:To initiate HIV entry, the HIV envelope protein gp120 must engage its primary receptor CD4 and a coreceptor CCR5 or CXCR4. In the absence of a high resolution structure of a gp120-coreceptor complex, biochemical studies of CCR5 have revealed the importance of its N terminus and second extracellular loop (ECL2) in binding gp120 and mediating viral entry. Using a panel of synthetic CCR5 ECL2-derived peptides, we show that the C-terminal portion of ECL2 (2C, comprising amino acids Cys-178 to Lys-191) inhibit HIV-1 entry of both CCR5- and CXCR4-using isolates at low micromolar concentrations. In functional viral assays, these peptides inhibited HIV-1 entry in a CD4-independent manner. Neutralization assays designed to measure the effects of CCR5 ECL2 peptides when combined with either with the small molecule CD4 mimetic NBD-556, soluble CD4, or the CCR5 N terminus showed additive inhibition for each, indicating that ECL2 binds gp120 at a site distinct from that of N terminus and acts independently of CD4. Using saturation transfer difference NMR, we determined the region of CCR5 ECL2 used for binding gp120, showed that it can bind to gp120 from both R5 and X4 isolates, and demonstrated that the peptide interacts with a CD4-gp120 complex in a similar manner as to gp120 alone. As the CCR5 N terminus-gp120 interactions are dependent on CD4 activation, our data suggest that gp120 has separate binding sites for the CCR5 N terminus and ECL2, the ECL2 binding site is present prior to CD4 engagement, and it is conserved across CCR5- and CXCR4-using strains. These peptides may serve as a starting point for the design of inhibitors with broad spectrum anti-HIV activity.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Small chemical compounds which target chemokine receptors have been developed against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and are under investigation for use as anti-HIV-1 microbicides. In addition, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against chemokine receptors have also been shown to have anti-HIV-1 activities. The objective of the present study was to screen a panel of three anti-CXCR4 specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for their ability to block the HIV-1 infection using in vitro activated primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). RESULTS: PBMCs from normal donors were pre-activated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 mAbs for 1 day, and aliquots were infected with a low dose of CCR5-tropic (R5), CXCR4 tropic (X4) or dual tropic (X4R5) HIV-1 isolates and cultured in the presence of a panel of anti-CXCR4 mAbs. The panel included clones A145 mAb against the N-terminus, A120 mAb against a conformational epitope consisting of extracellular loops (ECL)1 and ECL2, and A80 mAb against ECL3 of CXCR4. Among these mAbs, the A120 mAb showed the most potent inhibition of infection, by not only X4 but surprisingly also R5 and X4R5 HIV-1. The inhibition of R5 HIV-1 was postulated to result from the novel ability of the A120 mAb to induce the levels of the CCR5-binding ?-chemokines MIP-1?, MIP-1? and/or RANTES, and the down modulation of CCR5 expression on activated CD4+ T cells. Neutralizing anti-MIP-1? mAb significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of the A120 mAb on R5 HIV-1 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The data described herein have identified a unique epitope of CXCR4 whose ligation not only directly inhibits X4 HIV-1, but also indirectly inhibits R5 HIV-1 infection by inducing higher levels of natural CCR5 ligands.
Project description:The chemokine receptor CCR5 is essential for HIV infection and is thus a potential target for vaccine development. However, because CCR5 is a host protein, generation of anti-CCR5 antibodies requires the breaking of immune tolerance and thus carries the risk of autoimmune responses. In this study, performed in mice, we compared 3 different immunogens representing surface domains of murine CCR5, 4 different adjuvants, and 13 different immunization protocols, with the goal of eliciting HIV-blocking activity without inducing autoimmune dysfunction. In all cases the CCR5 sequences were presented as fusions to the Flock House virus (FHV) capsid precursor protein. We found that systemic immunization and mucosal boosting elicited CCR5-specific antibodies and achieved consistent priming in Peyer's patches, where most cells showed a phenotype corresponding to activated B cells and secreted high levels of IgA, representing up to one-third of the total HIV-blocking activity. Histopathological analysis revealed mild to moderate chronic inflammation in some tissues but failed in reporting signs of autoimmune dysfunction associated with immunizations. Antisera against immunogens representing the N terminus and extracellular loops 1 and 2 (Nter1 and ECL1 and ECL2) of CCR5 were generated. All showed specific anti-HIV activity, which was stronger in the anti-ECL1 and -ECL2 sera than in the anti-Nter sera. ECL1 and ECL2 antisera induced nearly complete long-lasting CCR5 downregulation of the receptor, and especially, their IgG-depleted fractions prevented HIV infection in neutralization and transcytosis assays. In conclusion, the ECL1 and ECL2 domains could offer a promising path to achieve significant anti-HIV activity in vivo.The study was the first to adopt a systematic strategy to compare the immunogenicities of all extracellular domains of the CCR5 molecule and to set optimal conditions leading to generation of specific antibodies in the mouse model. There were several relevant findings, which could be translated into human trials. (i) Prime (systemic) and boost (mucosal) immunization is the best protocol to induce anti-self antibodies with the expected properties. (ii) Aluminum is the best adjuvant in mice and thus can be easily used in nonhuman primates (NHP) and humans. (iii) The Flock House virus (FHV) system represents a valid delivery system, as the structure is well known and is not pathogenic for humans, and it is possible to introduce constrained regions able to elicit antibodies that recognize conformational epitopes. (iv) The best CCR5 vaccine candidate should include either extracellular loop 1 or 2 (ECL1 or ECL2), but not N terminus domains.
Project description:Ebola virus (EBOV) continues to pose significant threats to global public health, requiring ongoing development of multiple strategies for disease control. To date, numerous monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) have demonstrated potent protective activity in animal disease models and are thus promising candidates for the control of EBOV. However, recent work in a variety of virus diseases has highlighted the importance of coupling Fab neutralization with Fc effector activity for effective antibody-mediated protection. To determine the contribution of Fc effector activity to the protective function of mAbs to EBOV GP, we selected anti-GP mAbs targeting representative, protective epitopes and characterized their Fc receptor (Fc?R) dependence in vivo in Fc?R humanized mouse challenge models of EBOV disease. In contrast to previous studies, we find that anti-GP mAbs exhibited differential requirements for Fc?R engagement in mediating their protective activity independent of their distance from the viral membrane. Anti-GP mAbs targeting membrane proximal epitopes or the GP mucin domain do not rely on Fc-Fc?R interactions to confer activity, whereas antibodies against the GP chalice bowl and the fusion loop require Fc?R engagement for optimal in vivo antiviral activity. This complexity of antibody-mediated protection from EBOV disease highlights the structural constraints of Fc?R binding for specific viral epitopes and has important implications for the development of mAb-based immunotherapeutics with optimal potency and efficacy.
Project description:While CCR5 is the principal coreceptor used by macrophage (M)-tropic HIV-1, not all primary CCR5-using (R5) viruses enter macrophages efficiently. Here, we used functionally-diverse R5 envelope (Env) clones to characterize virus-cell interactions important for efficient CCR5-mediated macrophage entry. The magnitude of macrophage entry by Env-pseudotyped reporter viruses correlated with increased immunoreactivity of CD4-induced gp120 epitopes, increased ability to scavenge low levels of cell-surface CCR5, reduced sensitivity to the CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc, and increased dependence on specific residues in the CCR5 ECL2 region. These results are consistent with an altered and more efficient mechanism of CCR5 engagement. Structural studies revealed potential alterations within the gp120 V3 loop, the gp41 interaction sites at the gp120 C- and N-termini, and within the gp120 CD4 binding site which may directly or indirectly lead to more efficient CCR5-usage. Thus, enhanced gp120-CCR5 interactions may contribute to M-tropism of R5 HIV-1 strains through different structural mechanisms.
Project description:We studied the effect of entry inhibitors on 58 virus isolates derived during acute and chronic infection to validate these inhibitors in vitro and to probe whether viruses at early and chronic disease stages exhibit general differences in the interaction with entry receptors. We included members of all types of inhibitors currently identified: (i) agents that block gp120 binding to CD4 (CD4-IgG2 and monoclonal antibody [MAb] IgG1b12), (ii) compounds that block the interaction with CCR5 (the chemokine RANTES/CCL5, the small-molecule inhibitor AD101, and the anti-CCR5 antibody PRO 140), (iii) the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide (T-20), and (iv) neutralizing antibodies directed against gp120 (MAb 2G12) and gp41 (MAbs 2F5 and 4E10). No differences between viruses from acute and chronic infections in the susceptibility to inhibitors targeting the CD4 binding site, CCR5, or fusion or to MAb 2G12 were apparent, rendering treatment with entry inhibitors feasible across disease stages. The notable exceptions were antibodies 2F5 and 4E10, which were more potent in inhibiting viruses from acute infection (P = 0.0088 and 0.0005, respectively), although epitopes of these MAbs were equally well preserved in both groups. Activities of these MAbs correlated significantly with each other, suggesting that common features of the viral envelope modulate their potencies.
Project description:HIV/AIDS continues to pose an enormous burden on global health. Current HIV therapeutics include inhibitors that target the enzymes HIV protease, reverse transcriptase, and integrase, along with viral entry inhibitors that block the initial steps of HIV infection by preventing membrane fusion or virus-coreceptor interactions. With regard to the latter, peptides derived from the HIV coreceptor CCR5 were previously shown to modestly inhibit entry of CCR5-tropic HIV strains, with a peptide containing residues 178-191 of the second extracellular loop (peptide 2C) showing the strongest inhibition. Here we use an iterative approach of amino acid scanning at positions shown to be important for binding the HIV envelope, and recombining favorable substitutions to greatly improve the potency of 2C. The most potent candidate peptides gain neutralization breadth and inhibit CXCR4 and CXCR4/CCR5-using viruses, rather than CCR5-tropic strains only. We found that gains in potency in the absence of toxicity were highly dependent on amino acid position and residue type. Using virion capture assays we show that 2C and the new peptides inhibit capture of CD4-bound HIV-1 particles by antibodies whose epitopes are located in or around variable loop 3 (V3) on gp120. Analysis of antibody binding data indicates that interactions between CCR5 ECL2-derived peptides and gp120 are localized around the base and stem of V3 more than the tip. In the absence of a high-resolution structure of gp120 bound to coreceptor CCR5, these findings may facilitate structural studies of CCR5 surrogates, design of peptidomimetics with increased potency, or use as functional probes for further study of HIV-1 gp120-coreceptor interactions.