Genetic elements carrying erm(B) in Streptococcus pyogenes and association with tet(M) tetracycline resistance gene.
ABSTRACT: This study was directed at characterizing the genetic elements carrying the methylase gene erm(B), encoding ribosome modification-mediated resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLS) antibiotics, in Streptococcus pyogenes. In this species, erm(B) is responsible for MLS resistance in constitutively resistant isolates (cMLS phenotype) and in a subset (iMLS-A) of inducibly resistant isolates. A total of 125 erm(B)-positive strains were investigated, 81 iMLS-A (uniformly tetracycline susceptible) and 44 cMLS (29 tetracycline resistant and 15 tetracycline susceptible). Whereas all tetracycline-resistant isolates carried the tet(M) gene, tet(M) sequences were also detected in most tetracycline-susceptible isolates (81/81 iMLS-A and 7/15 cMLS). In 2 of the 8 tet(M)-negative cMLS isolates, erm(B) was carried by a plasmid-located Tn917-like transposon. erm(B)- and tet(M)-positive isolates were tested by PCR for the presence of genes int (integrase), xis (excisase), and tndX (resolvase), associated with conjugative transposons of the Tn916 family. In mating experiments using representatives of different combinations of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics as donors, erm(B) and tet(M) were consistently cotransferred, suggesting their linkage in individual genetic elements. The linkage was confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and hybridization studies, and different elements, variably associated with the different phenotypes/genotypes, were detected and characterized by amplification and sequencing experiments. A previously unreported genetic organization, observed in all iMLS-A and some cMLS isolates, featured an erm(B)-containing DNA insertion into the tet(M) gene of a defective Tn5397, a Tn916-related transposon. This new element was designated Tn1116. Genetic elements not previously described in S. pyogenes also included Tn6002, an unpublished transposon whose complete sequence is available in GenBank, and Tn3872, a composite element resulting from the insertion of the Tn917 transposon into Tn916 [associated with a tet(M) gene expressed in some cMLS isolates and silent in others]. The high frequency of association between a tetracycline-susceptible phenotype and tet(M) genes suggests that transposons of the Tn916 family, so far typically associated solely with a tetracycline-resistant phenotype, may be more widespread in S. pyogenes than currently believed.
Project description:This study investigated the genetic organization of erm(B)-carrying transposons of Streptococcus pneumoniae and their distribution in tetracycline-resistant clinical isolates. By comparatively analyzing reference pneumococci carrying erm(B)/tet(M) transposon Tn1545, Tn6003, Tn6002, or Tn3872, we demonstrated a substantial correspondence between Tn1545 and Tn6003, which have the same resistance gene combination [tet(M) (tetracycline), erm(B) (erythromycin), and aphA-3 (kanamycin)]; share the macrolide-aminoglycoside-streptothricin element, containing a second erm(B); and only differ by a ca. 1.2-kb insertion (containing a putative IS1239 insertion sequence) detected in Tn1545 from S. pneumoniae reference strain BM4200. These results enabled elucidation of the structure of Tn1545, the first erm(B)-carrying transposon described in S. pneumoniae. A collection of 83 erythromycin- and tetracycline-resistant clinical pneumococci, representative of recent Italian isolates carrying erm(B) as the sole erythromycin resistance gene, was used to investigate the distribution of the different transposons. All 83 organisms were positive for tet(M) and bore an erm(B)/tet(M) transposon that could be characterized by using a specific set of primer pairs; Tn3872 was detected in 18 isolates, Tn6002 in 59 isolates, and Tn6003 in 6 (the sole kanamycin-resistant) isolates. The genetic organization of transposon Tn1545, with its specific insertion, was not detected in any of the isolates tested. The erm(B)-carrying elements of tetracycline-resistant pneumococci substantially corresponded to those [bearing a silent tet(M) gene] recently detected in tetracycline-susceptible pneumococci. Overall, in erm(B)-positive pneumococci, Tn6003 was the least common erm(B)-carrying Tn916-related element and Tn6002 the most common.
Project description:The structure of the macrolide efflux genetic assembly (mega) element, its genomic locations, and its association with other resistance determinants and genetic elements were investigated in 16 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates carrying mef(E), of which 1 isolate also carried tet(M) and 4 isolates also carried tet(M) and erm(B). All isolates carried a mega element of similar size and structure that included the operon mef(E)-msr(D) encoding the efflux transport system. Among tetracycline-susceptible isolates, six different integration sites were identified, five of which were recognized inside open reading frames present in the R6 genome. In the five isolates also carrying tet(M), mega was inserted in different genetic contexts. In one isolate, it was part of previously described Tn916-like element Tn2009. In another isolate, mega was inserted in a transposon similar to Tn2009 that also included an erm(B) element. This new composite transposon was designated Tn2010. Neither Tn2009 nor Tn2010 could be transferred by conjugation to pneumococcal or enterococcal recipients. In the three isolates in which mega was not physically linked with tet(M), this gene was associated with erm(B) in transposon Tn3872, a Tn916-like element. Homologies between the chromosomal insertions of these composite transposons and sequences of multidrug-resistant pneumococcal genomes in the databases indicate the presence of preferential sites for the integration of composite Tn916-like elements carrying multiple resistance determinants in S. pneumoniae.
Project description:This study examined differences in antibiotic-resistant soil bacteria and the presence and quantity of resistance genes in soils with a range of management histories. We analyzed four soils from agricultural systems that were amended with manure from animals treated with erythromycin and exposed to streptomycin and/or oxytetracycline, as well as non-manure-amended compost and forest soil. Low concentrations of certain antibiotic resistance genes were detected using multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), with tet(B), aad(A), and str(A) each present in only one soil and tet(M) and tet(W) detected in all soils. The most frequently detected resistance genes were tet(B), tet(D), tet(O), tet(T), and tet(W) for tetracycline resistance, str(A), str(B), and aac for streptomycin resistance, and erm(C), erm(V), erm(X), msr(A), ole(B), and vga for erythromycin resistance. Transposon genes specific for Tn916, Tn1549, TnB1230, Tn4451, and Tn5397 were detected in soil bacterial isolates. The MIC ranges of isolated bacteria for tetracycline, streptomycin, and erythromycin were 8 to >256 ?g/ml, 6 to >1,024 ?g/ml, and 0.094 to >256 ?g/ml, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene similarity, isolated bacteria showed high sequence identity to genera typical of soil communities. Bacteria with the highest MICs were detected in manure-amended soils or soils from agricultural systems with a history of antibiotic use. Non-manure-amended soils yielded larger proportions of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, but these had lower MICs, carried fewer antibiotic resistance genes, and did not display multidrug resistance (MDR).
Project description:Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is the leading cause of neonatal and maternal sepsis. Penicillin is recommended for intrapartum prophylaxis, but erythromycin or clindamycin is used for penicillin-allergic carriers. Antibiotic resistance (AR) has increased recently and needs to be monitored. We have developed a multiplex PCR-based reverse line blot (mPCR/RLB) hybridization assay to detect, simultaneously, seven genes encoding AR--erm(A/TR), erm(B), mef(A/E), tet(M), tet(O), aphA-3, and aad-6--and two AR-related genes, int-Tn and mreA. We tested 512 GBS isolates from Asia and Australasia and compared mPCR/RLB with antibiotic susceptibility phenotype or single-gene PCR. Phenotypic resistance to tetracycline was identified in 450 (88%) isolates, of which 442 had tet(M) (93%) and/or tet(O) (6%). Of 67 (13%) erythromycin-resistant isolates, 18 were susceptible to clindamycin, i.e., had the M phenotype, encoded by mef(A/E); 39 had constitutive (cMLS(B)) and 10 inducible clindamycin resistance, and of these, 34 contained erm(B) and 12 erm(A/TR). Of four additional isolates with mef(A/E), three contained erm(B) with cMLS(B) and one was erythromycin susceptible. Of 61 (12%) clindamycin-resistant isolates, 20 were susceptible to erythromycin and two had intermediate resistance. Based on sequencing, 21 of 22 isolates with mef had mef(E), and 8 of 353 with int-Tn had an atypical sequence. Several AR genes, erm(B), tet(O), aphA-3, aad-6, and mef(A/E), were significantly more common among Asian than Australasian isolates, and there were significant differences in distribution of AR genes between GBS serotypes. Our mPCR/RLB assay is simple, rapid, and suitable for surveillance of antibiotic resistance in GBS.
Project description:In the present study, a collection of 187 Enterococcus food isolates mainly originating from European cheeses were studied for the phenotypic and genotypic assessment of tetracycline (TC) resistance. A total of 45 isolates (24%) encompassing the species Enterococcus faecalis (n = 33), E. durans (n = 7), E. faecium (n = 3), E. casseliflavus (n = 1), and E. gallinarum (n = 1) displayed phenotypic resistance to TC with MIC ranges of 16 to 256 microg/ml. Eight of these strains exhibited multiresistance to TC, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol. By PCR detection, TC resistance could be linked to the presence of the tet(M) (n = 43), tet(L) (n = 16), and tet(S) (n = 1) genes. In 15 isolates, including all of those for which the MIC was 256 micro g/ml, both tet(M) and tet(L) were found. Furthermore, all tet(M)-containing enterococci also harbored a member of the Tn916-Tn1545 conjugative transposon family, of which 12 erythromycin-resistant isolates also contained the erm(B) gene. Filter mating experiments revealed that 10 E. faecalis isolates, 3 E. durans isolates, and 1 E. faecium isolate could transfer either tet(M), tet(L), or both of these genes to E. faecalis recipient strain JH2-2. In most cases in which only tet(M) was transferred, no detectable plasmids were acquired by JH2-2 but instead all transconjugants contained a member of the Tn916-Tn1545 family. Sequencing analysis of PCR amplicons and evolutionary modeling showed that a subset of the transferable tet(M) genes belonged to four sequence homology groups (SHGs) showing an internal homology of > or = 99.6%. Two of these SHGs contained tet(M) mosaic structures previously found in Tn916 elements and on Lactobacillus and Neisseria plasmids, respectively, whereas the other two SHGs probably represent new phylogenetic lineages of this gene.
Project description:One hundred and seven clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes, 80 susceptible to macrolides and 27 resistant to erythromycin A (MIC >0.5 microgram/ml), were examined. The erythromycin A-lincomycin double-disk test assigned 7 resistant strains to the M-phenotype, 8 to the inducible macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B resistance (iMLS(B)) phenotype, and 12 to the constitutive MLS(B) resistance (cMLS(B)) phenotype. MICs of erythromycin A, clarithromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin, and clindamycin were determined by a broth microdilution method. MICs of telithromycin were determined by three different methods (broth microdilution, agar dilution, and E-test methods) in an ambient air atmosphere and in a 5 to 6% CO(2) atmosphere. Erythromycin A resistance genes were investigated by PCR in the 27 erythromycin A-resistant isolates. MICs of erythromycin A and clindamycin showed six groups of resistant strains, groups A to F. iMLS(B) strains (A, B, and D groups) are characterized by two distinct patterns of resistance correlated with genotypic results. A- and B-group strains were moderately resistant to 14- and 15-membered ring macrolides and highly susceptible to telithromycin. All A- and B-group isolates harbored erm TR gene, D-group strains, highly resistant to macrolides and intermediately resistant to telithromycin (MICs, 1 to 16 microgram/ml), were all characterized by having the ermB gene. All M-phenotype isolates (C group), resistant to 14- and 15-membered ring macrolides and susceptible to clindamycin and telithromycin, harbored the mefA gene. All cMLS(B) strains (E and F groups) with high level of resistance to macrolides, lincosamide, and telithromycin had the ermB gene. The effect of 5 to 6% CO(2) was remarkable on resistant strains, by increasing MICs of telithromycin from 1 to 6 twofold dilutions against D-E- and F-group isolates.
Project description:The genetic elements carrying macrolide resistance genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates belonging to CC271 were investigated. The international clone Taiwan(19F)-14 was found to carry Tn2009, a Tn916-like transposon containing tet(M) and mef(E). The dual erm(B) mef(E) isolates carried Tn2010, which is similar to Tn2009 with the addition of a putative new transposon, the erm(B) genetic element.
Project description:Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 is the first cause of pneumococcal meningitis Niger. To determine the underlying mechanism of resistance to tetracycline in serotype 1 Streptococcus pneumoniae, a collection of 37 isolates recovered from meningitis patients over the period of 2002 to 2009 in Niger were analyzed for drug susceptibility, and whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed for molecular analyses. MIC level was determined for 31/37 (83.8%) isolates and allowed detection of full resistance (MIC = 8 µg) in 24/31 (77.4%) isolates. No resistance was found to macrolides and quinolones. Sequence-types deduced from WGS were ST217 (54.1%), ST303 (35.1%), ST2206 (5.4%), ST2839 (2.7%) and one undetermined ST (2.7%). All tetracycline resistant isolates carried a Tn5253 like element, which was found to be an association of two smaller transposons of Tn916 and Tn5252 families. No tet(O) and tet(Q) genes were detected. However, a tet(M) like sequence was identified in all Tn5253 positive strains and was found associated to Tn916 composite. Only one isolate was phenotypically resistant to chloramphenicol, wherein a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat) gene sequence homologous to catpC194 from the Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pC194 was detected. In conclusion, clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae type 1 isolated during 2002 to 2009 meningitis surveillance in Niger were fully susceptible to macrolides and quinolones but highly resistant to tetracycline (77.4%) through acquisition of a defective Tn5253 like element composed of Tn5252 and Tn916 transposons. Of the 31 tested isolates, only one was exceptionally resistant to chloramphenicol and carried a Tn5253 transposon that contained cat gene sequence.
Project description:The tet(W) gene is associated with tetracycline resistance in a wide range of bacterial species, including obligately anaerobic rumen bacteria and isolates from the human gut and oral mucosa. However, little is known about how this gene is disseminated and the types of genetic elements it is carried on. We examined tetracycline-resistant isolates of the animal commensal and opportunistic pathogen Arcanobacterium pyogenes, all of which carried tet(W), and identified three genetic elements designated ATE-1, ATE-2, and ATE-3. These elements were found in 25%, 35%, and 60% of tetracycline-resistant isolates, respectively, with some strains carrying both ATE-2 and ATE-3. ATE-1 shows characteristics of a mobilizable transposon, and the tet(W) genes from strains carrying this element can be transferred at low frequencies between A. pyogenes strains. ATE-2 has characteristics of a simple transposon, carrying only the resistance gene and a transposase, while in ATE-3, the tet(W) gene is associated with a streptomycin resistance gene that is 100% identical at the DNA level with the aadE gene from the Campylobacter jejuni plasmid pCG8245. Both ATE-2 and ATE-3 show evidence of being carried on larger genetic elements, but conjugation to other strains was not observed under the conditions tested. ATE-1 was preferentially associated with A. pyogenes strains of bovine origin, while ATE-2 and ATE-3 elements were primarily found in porcine isolates, suggesting that these elements may circulate in different environments. In addition, four alleles of the tet(W) gene, primarily associated with different elements, were detected among A. pyogenes isolates.
Project description:Antimicrobial resistance among pneumococci has greatly increased over the past two to three decades. Resistance to tetracycline (tet(M)), chloramphenicol (cat) and macrolides (erm(B) and/or mef(A/E)) is generally conferred by acquisition of specific genes that are associated with mobile genetic elements, including those of the Tn916 and Tn5252 families. The first tetracycline-, chloramphenicol- and macrolide-resistant pneumococci were detected between 1962 and 1970; however, until now the oldest pneumococcus shown to harbour Tn916 and/or Tn5252 was isolated in 1974. In this study the genomes of 38 pneumococci isolated prior to 1974 were probed for the presence of tet(M), cat, erm(B), mef(A/E) and int (integrase) to indicate the presence of Tn916/Tn5252-like elements.Two Tn916-like, tet(M)-containing, elements were identified among pneumococci dated 1967 and 1968. The former element was highly similar to that of the PMEN1 multidrug-resistant, globally-distributed pneumococcal reference strain, which was isolated in 1984. The latter element was associated with a streptococcal phage. A third, novel genetic element, designated ICESpPN1, was identified in the genome of an isolate dated 1972. ICESpPN1 contained a region of similarity to Tn5252, a region of similarity to a pneumococcal pathogenicity island and novel lantibiotic synthesis/export-associated genes.These data confirm the existence of pneumococcal Tn916 elements in the first decade within which pneumococcal tetracycline resistance was described. Furthermore, the discovery of ICESpPN1 demonstrates the dynamic variability of pneumococcal genetic elements and is contrasted with the evidence for Tn916 stability.