Quorum-sensing regulation of adhesion in Serratia marcescens MG1 is surface dependent.
ABSTRACT: Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen and a major cause of ocular infections. In previous studies of S. marcescens MG1, we showed that biofilm maturation and sloughing were regulated by N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS). Because of the importance of adhesion in initiating biofilm formation and infection, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether QS is important in adhesion to both abiotic and biotic surfaces, as assessed by determining the degree of attachment to hydrophilic tissue culture plates and human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells. Our results demonstrate that while adhesion to the abiotic surface was AHL regulated, adhesion to the HCE cell biotic surface was not. Type I fimbriae were identified as the critical adhesin for non-QS-mediated attachment to the biotic HCE cell surface but played no role in adhesion to the abiotic surface. While we were not able to identify a single QS-regulated adhesin essential for attachment to the abiotic surface, four AHL-regulated genes involved in adhesion to the abiotic surface were identified. Interestingly, two of these genes, bsmA and bsmB, were also shown to be involved in adhesion to the biotic surface in a non-QS-controlled fashion. Therefore, the expression of these two genes appears to be cocontrolled by regulators other than the QS system for mediation of attachment to HCE cells. We also found that QS in S. marcescens regulates other potential cell surface adhesins, including exopolysaccharide and the outer membrane protein OmpX. We concluded that S. marcescens MG1 utilizes different regulatory systems and adhesins in attachment to biotic and abiotic surfaces and that QS is a main regulatory pathway in adhesion to an abiotic surface but not in adhesion to a biotic surface.
Project description:The bacterial mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium causes attaching and effacing (AE) lesions in the same manner as pathogenic Escherichia coli, and is an important model for this mode of pathogenesis. Quorum sensing (QS) involves chemical signalling by bacteria to regulate gene expression in response to cell density. E. coli has never been reported to have N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) QS, but it does utilize luxS-dependent signalling. We found production of AHL QS signalling molecules by an AE pathogen, C. rodentium. AHL QS is directed by the croIR locus and a croI mutant is affected in its surface attachment, although not in Type III secretion. AHL QS has an important role in virulence in the mouse as, unexpectedly, the QS mutant is hypervirulent; by contrast, we detected no impact of luxS inactivation. Further study of QS in Citrobacter should provide new insights into AE pathogenesis. As the croIR locus might have been horizontally acquired, AHL QS might exist in some strains of pathogenic E. coli.
Project description:Quorum sensing (QS) regulates bacterial gene expression and studies suggest quercetin, a flavonol found in onion, as a QS inhibitor. There are no studies showing the anti-QS activity of plants containing quercetin in its native glycosylated forms. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial and anti-QS potential of organic extracts of onion varieties and its representative phenolic compounds quercetin aglycone and quercetin 3-?-D-glucoside in the QS model bacteria Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and Serratia marcescens MG1. Three phenolic extracts were obtained: red onion extract in methanol acidified with 2.5% acetic acid (RO-1), white onion extract in methanol (WO-1) and white onion extract in methanol ammonium (WO-2). Quercetin 4-O-glucoside and quercetin 3,4-O-diglucoside were identified as the predominant compounds in both onion varieties using HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS/MS. However, quercetin aglycone, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and quercetin glycoside were identified only in RO-1. The three extracts showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values equal to or above 125 ?g/ml of dried extract. Violacein production was significantly reduced by RO-1 and quercetin aglycone, but not by quercetin 3-?-D-glucoside. Motility in P. aeruginosa PAO1 was inhibited by RO-1, while WO-2 inhibited S. marcescens MG1 motility only in high concentration. Quercetin aglycone and quercetin 3-?-D-glucoside were effective at inhibiting motility in P. aeruginosa PAO1 and S. marcescens MG1. Surprisingly, biofilm formation was not affected by any extracts or the quercetins tested at sub-MIC concentrations. In silico studies suggested a better interaction and placement of quercetin aglycone in the structures of the CviR protein of C. violaceum ATCC 12472 than the glycosylated compound which corroborates the better inhibitory effect of the former over violacein production. On the other hand, the two quercetins were well placed in the AHLs binding pockets of the LasR protein of P. aeruginosa PAO1. Overall onion extracts and quercetin presented antimicrobial activity, and interference on QS regulated production of violacein and swarming motility.
Project description:Serratia marcescens is one of the important nosocomial pathogens which rely on quorum sensing (QS) to regulate the production of biofilm and several virulence factors. Hence, blocking of QS has become a promising approach to quench the virulence of S. marcescens. For the first time, QS inhibitory (QSI) and antibiofilm potential of Actinidia deliciosa have been explored against S. marcescens clinical isolate (CI). A. deliciosa pulp extract significantly inhibited the virulence and biofilm production without any deleterious effect on the growth. Vanillic acid was identified as an active lead responsible for the QSI activity. Addition of vanillic acid to the growth medium significantly affected the QS regulated production of biofilm and virulence factors in a concentration dependent mode in S. marcescens CI, ATCC 14756 and MG1. Furthermore vanillic acid increased the survival of Caenorhabditis elegans upon S. marcescens infection. Proteomic analysis and mass spectrometric identification of differentially expressed proteins revealed the ability of vanillic acid to modulate the expression of proteins involved in S-layers, histidine, flagellin and fatty acid production. QSI potential of the vanillic acid observed in the current study paves the way for exploring it as a potential therapeutic candidate to treat S. marcescens infections.
Project description:The prominent antibacterial and quorum sensing (QS) inhibition activity of aromatic plants can be used as a novel intervention strategy for attenuating bacterial pathogenicity. In the present work, a total of 29 chemical components were identified in the essential oil (EO) of Melaleuca bracteata leaves by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The principal component was methyleugenol, followed by methyl trans-cinnamate, with relative contents of 90.46% and 4.25%, respectively. Meanwhile, the antibacterial activity and the QS inhibitory activity of M. bracteata EO were first evaluated here. Antibacterial activity assay and MIC detection against seven pathogens (Dickeya dadantii Onc5, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25933, Pseudomonas spp., Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Serratia marcescens MG1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC31532) demonstrated that S. aureus ATCC25933 and S. marcescens MG1 had the higher sensitivity to M. bracteata EO, while P. aeruginosa PAO1 displayed the strongest resistance to M. bracteata EO. An anti-QS (anti-quorum sensing) assay revealed that at sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs), M. bracteata EO strongly interfered with the phenotype, including violacein production, biofilm biomass, and swarming motility, as well as N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) production (i.e., a signaling molecule in C. violaceum ATCC31532) of C. violaceum. Detection of C6-HSL indicated that M. bracteata EO was capable of not only inhibiting C6-HSL production in C. violaceum, but also degrading the C6-HSL. Importantly, changes of exogenous C6-HSL production in C. violaceum CV026 revealed a possible interaction between M. bracteata EO and a regulatory protein (cviR). Additionally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis demonstrated that the expression of QS-related genes (cviI, cviR, vioABCDE, hmsNR, lasA-B, pilE1, pilE3, and hcnB) was significantly suppressed. Conclusively, these results indicated that M. bracteata EO can act as a potential antibacterial agent and QS inhibitor (QSI) against pathogens, preventing and controlling bacterial contamination.
Project description:The focal intent of this study was to find out an alternative strategy for the antibiotic usage against bacterial infections. The quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activity of marine sponges collected from Palk Bay, India was evaluated against acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) mediated violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum (ATCC 12472), CV026 and virulence gene expressions in clinical isolate Serratia marcescens PS1. Out of 29 marine sponges tested, the methanol extracts of Aphrocallistes bocagei (TS 8), Haliclona (Gellius) megastoma (TS 25) and Clathria atrasanguinea (TS 27) inhibited the AHL mediated violacein production in C. violaceum (ATCC 12472) and CV026. Further, these sponge extracts inhibited the AHL dependent prodigiosin pigment, virulence enzymes such as protease, hemolysin production and biofilm formation in S. marcescens PS1. However, these sponge extracts were not inhibitory to bacterial growth, which reveals the fact that the QSI activity of these extracts was not related to static or killing effects on bacteria. Based on the obtained results, it is envisaged that the marine sponges could pave the way to prevent quorum sensing (QS) mediated bacterial infections.
Project description:Although <i>Yersinia enterocolitica</i> genomes are highly heterogeneous, they contain a conserved <i>N</i>-acylhomoserine lactone-dependent (AHL) quorum sensing (QS) system consisting of the <i>luxR</i> and <i>luxI</i> orthologs <i>yenR</i> and <i>yenI</i> respectively. Certain hypervirulent strains also contain a putative orphan <i>luxR</i> gene, <i>ycoR</i>, that is not linked to an AHL synthase. To explore the contribution of <i>yenR/yenI/ycoR</i> to QS-dependent phenotypes in <i>Yersinia enterocolitica</i> strain 8081, single and multiple mutants were constructed. AHL profiling identified <i>N</i>-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone, <i>N</i>-hexanoylhomoserine lactone, and <i>N</i>-(3-oxoseptanoyl) homoserine lactone as the most abundant. The AHL profiles of the <i>yenR</i>, <i>ycoR</i> and <i>yenR/ycoR</i> mutants were similar to the parent suggesting that the two LuxR homologues do not regulate AHL production while the <i>yenI</i> mutants were AHL-negative. A role for QS in swimming motility and cell attachment was demonstrated. Down-regulation of the virulence plasmid partition gene, <i>spyA</i>, in <i>yenI</i> and <i>yenI</i>/<i>yenR</i>/<i>ycoR</i> mutants is consistent with the greater loss of the <i>Y. enterocolitica</i> pYVe virulence plasmid in the <i>yenI</i> mutant during serial passage at 37 °C but not at 22 °C. A role for QS-regulated <i>spyA</i> in virulence plasmid maintenance is suggested.
Project description:Quorum sensing (QS) is often critical in both pathogenic and mutualistic relationships between bacteria and their eukaryotic hosts. Gram-negative bacteria typically use N-acylated l-homoserine lactone (AHL) signals for QS. We have identified a number of synthetic AHL analogues that are able to strongly modulate QS in culture-based, reporter gene assays. While informative, these assays represent idealized systems, and their relevance to QS under native conditions is often unclear. As one of our goals is to utilize synthetic QS modulators to study bacterial communication under native conditions, identifying robust host-bacteria model systems for their evaluation is crucial. We reasoned that the host-pathogen interaction between Solanum tuberosum (potato) and the Gram-negative pathogen Pectobacterium carotovora would be ideal for such studies as we have identified several potent, synthetic QS modulators for this pathogen, and infection assays in potato are facile. Herein, we report on our development of this host-pathogen system, and another in Phaseolus vulgaris (green bean), as a means for monitoring the ability of abiotic AHLs to modulate QS-regulated virulence in host infection assays. Our assays confirmed that QS modulators previously identified through culture-based assays largely retained their activity profiles when introduced into the plant host. However, inhibition of virulence in wild-type infections was highly dependent on the timing of compound dosing. This study is the first to demonstrate that our AHL analogues are active in wild-type bacteria in their native eukaryotic hosts and provides compelling evidence for the application of these molecules as probes to study QS in a range of organisms and environments.
Project description:We demonstrate an approach to the surface-mediated release of a synthetic N-acylated L-homoserine lactone (AHL) modulator of bacterial quorum sensing (QS). AHL released gradually from thin films of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) is shown to activate QS in the model symbiont Vibrio fischeri at levels that exceed those promoted by direct solution-based administration.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii presents a typical luxI/luxR quorum sensing (QS) system (abaI/abaR) but the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signal profile and factors controlling the production of QS signals in this species have not been determined yet. A very complex AHL profile was identified for A. baumannii ATCC17978 as well as for A. nosocomialis M2, but only when cultivated under static conditions, suggesting that surface or cell-to-cell contact is involved in the activation of the QS genes. The analysis of A. baumanni clinical isolates revealed a strain-specific AHL profile that was also affected by nutrient availability. The concentration of OHC12-HSL, the major AHL found in A. baumannii ATCC17978, peaked upon stationary-phase establishment and decreases steeply afterwards. Quorum quenching (QQ) activity was found in the cell extracts of A. baumannii ATCC17978, correlating with the disappearance of the AHLs from the culture media, indicating that AHL concentration may be self-regulated in this pathogen. Since QQ activity was observed in strains in which AidA, a novel ?/?-hydrolase recently identified in A. baumannii, is not present, we have searched for additional QQ enzymes in A. baumannii ATCC17978. Seven putative AHL-lactonase sequences could be identified in the genome and the QQ activity of 3 of them could be confirmed. At least six of these lactonase sequences are also present in all clinical isolates as well as in A. nosocomialis M2. Surface-associated motility and biofilm formation could be blocked by the exogenous addition of the wide spectrum QQ enzyme Aii20J. The differential regulation of the QQ enzymes in A. baumannii ATCC17978 and the full dependence of important virulence factors on the QS system provides a strong evidence of the importance of the AHL-mediated QS/QQ network in this species.
Project description:Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-cell signaling mechanism that allows bacteria to monitor their population size and alter their behavior at high cell densities. Gram-negative bacteria use N-acylated L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as their primary signals for QS. These signals are susceptible to lactone hydrolysis in biologically relevant media, and the ring-opened products are inactive QS signals. We have previously identified a range of non-native AHLs capable of strongly agonizing and antagonizing QS in Gram-negative bacteria. However, these abiotic AHLs are also prone to hydrolysis and inactivation and thereby have a relatively short time window for use (?12-48 h). Non-native QS modulators with reduced or no hydrolytic instability could have enhanced potencies and would be valuable as tools to study the mechanisms of QS in a range of environments (for example, on eukaryotic hosts). This study reports the design and synthesis of two libraries of new, non-hydrolyzable AHL mimics. The libraries were screened for QS modulatory activity using LasR, LuxR, and TraR bacterial reporter strains, and several new, abiotic agonists and antagonists of these receptors were identified.