The Informatics for Diabetes and Education Telemedicine (IDEATel) project.
ABSTRACT: Telemedicine is a promising but largely unproven technology for providing case management services to patients with chronic conditions who experience barriers to access to care or a high burden of illness. We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing telemedicine case management to usual care, with blinding of those obtaining outcome data, in 1,665 Medicare recipients with diabetes, aged 55 years or greater, and living in federally designated medically underserved areas of New York State. In New York City, 98% of participants were black or Hispanic, 69% were Medicaid-eligible, and 93% reported annual household income < or =$20,000. In upstate New York, 91% were white, 14% Medicaid eligible, and 50% reported annual household income < or =$20,000. A baseline survey found that 95% of participants in New York City and 67% in upstate New York reported that they did not know how to use a computer. The primary endpoints were HgbA1c, blood pressure, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. In the intervention group (N = 844), mean HgbA1c improved over 1 year from 7.35% to 6.97%, and from 8.35% to 7.42% in the subgroup with baseline HgbA1c > or =7% (N = 353). In the usual care group (N = 821), mean HgbA1c improved over 1 year from 7.42% to 7.17%. Adjusted net reductions (1-year minus baseline mean values in each group, compared between groups) favoring the intervention were as follows: HgbA1c, 0.18% (p = 0.006), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, 3.4 (p = 0.001) and 1.9 mmHg (p < 0.001), and LDL cholesterol, 9.5 mg/dl (p < 0.001). In the subgroup with baseline HgbA1c > or =7%, net adjusted reduction in HgbA1c favoring the intervention group was 0.32% (p = 0.002). Mean LDL cholesterol level in the intervention group at one year was 95.7 mg/dl. The intervention effects were similar in magnitude in the subgroups living in New York City and upstate New York. A satisfaction survey of intervention group participants (N = 346 respondents) showed high levels of satisfaction with major intervention components. A satisfaction survey of participating primary care physicians (N = 116 respondents) showed positive perceptions for acceptability, impact on patients and communication. Telemedicine case management improved glycemic control, blood pressure levels, and total and LDL-cholesterol levels at 1 year of follow-up. Telemedicine is an effective method for translating modern approaches to disease management into effective care for underserved populations.
Project description:CONTEXT Telemedicine is a promising but largely unproven technology for providing case management services to patients with chronic conditions and lower access to care. OBJECTIVES To examine the effectiveness of a telemedicine intervention to achieve clinical management goals in older, ethnically diverse, medically underserved patients with diabetes. DESIGN, Setting, and Patients A randomized controlled trial was conducted, comparing telemedicine case management to usual care, with blinded outcome evaluation, in 1,665 Medicare recipients with diabetes, aged >/= 55 years, residing in federally designated medically underserved areas of New York State. Interventions Home telemedicine unit with nurse case management versus usual care. Main Outcome Measures The primary endpoints assessed over 5 years of follow-up were hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1c), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and blood pressure levels. RESULTS Intention-to-treat mixed models showed that telemedicine achieved net overall reductions over five years of follow-up in the primary endpoints (HgbA1c, p = 0.001; LDL, p < 0.001; systolic and diastolic blood pressure, p = 0.024; p < 0.001). Estimated differences (95% CI) in year 5 were 0.29 (0.12, 0.46)% for HgbA1c, 3.84 (-0.08, 7.77) mg/dL for LDL cholesterol, and 4.32 (1.93, 6.72) mm Hg for systolic and 2.64 (1.53, 3.74) mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure. There were 176 deaths in the intervention group and 169 in the usual care group (hazard ratio 1.01 [0.82, 1.24]). CONCLUSIONS Telemedicine case management resulted in net improvements in HgbA1c, LDL-cholesterol and blood pressure levels over 5 years in medically underserved Medicare beneficiaries. Mortality was not different between the groups, although power was limited. Trial Registration http://clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00271739.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To examine whether improved diabetes control is related to better cognitive outcomes. DESIGN:Randomized control trial. SETTING:A randomized trial of telemedicine vs. usual care in elderly persons with type 2 diabetes. PARTICIPANTS:Participants were 2169 persons 55 years and older with type 2 diabetes from New York City and Upstate New York. INTERVENTION:The diabetes case management intervention was implemented by a diabetes nurse, via a telemedicine unit in the participant's home, and in coordination with the primary care physician. MEASUREMENTS:Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), were measured at a baseline visit and at up to 5 annual follow-up visits. Global cognition was measured at those visits with the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (CARE). RESULT:In mixed models the intervention was related to slower global cognitive decline in the intervention group (p = 0.01). Improvements in HbA1c (p = 0.03), but not SBP or LDL, mediated the effect of the intervention on cognitive decline. CONCLUSION:Improved diabetes control in the elderly following existing guidelines through a telemedicine intervention was associated with less global cognitive decline. The main mediator of this effect seemed to be improvements in HbA1c.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Detection and response to medically urgent situations in patients with diabetes mellitus can improve the process and outcomes of care and potentially decrease morbidity and mortality. We examined the detection and remediation of medically urgent situations among older patients receiving telemedicine case management for diabetes. METHODS:In the setting of a randomized trial, 338 patients in the intervention group and living in upstate New York received a home telemedicine unit to transmit blood glucose and blood pressure values to a nurse case manager, videoconference with a nurse or dietitian every 4-6 weeks and access educational websites. The educators met with a supervising endocrinologist 4-5 times weekly and clinical recommendations were proposed to the primary care providers via mail, fax, or phone. RESULTS:Over a 36 month period, 67 medically urgent situations were identified and addressed (1.9 events/month). Some of these situations were potentially life-threatening, including major drug contraindications (N = 24), other medically urgent situations (N = 19), and medical urgent conditions (ie, unstable angina) (N = 24). CONCLUSION:The interaction via telemedicine in rural upstate New York between patients with diabetes mellitus, a diabetes care team, and primary care providers can successfully identify and remediate medically urgent situations.
Project description:Data to Care (DTC) represents a public health strategy using HIV surveillance data to link persons living with diagnosed HIV infection (PLWDHI) to HIV-related medical care.To investigate the feasibility of the DTC approach applied to a Partner Services program serving a geographically diffuse area of New York State.Disease intervention specialists received training to function as Expanded Partner Services (ExPS) advocates. HIV surveillance data identified PLWDHI presumed to be out of care (OOC). ExPS advocates attempted to locate and reengage OOC individuals in HIV-related care. The pilot ran from September 1, 2013, to August 31, 2014.Four upstate New York counties, home to one-third of all PLWDHI in upstate New York.A total of 1155 PLWDHI presumed to be OOC.Linked to HIV medical care-cases verified as attending 1 or more HIV medical appointments subsequent to case assignment; reengaging in HIV care-any HIV laboratory test in the 6 months following case closure; and retention in HIV care-2 or more HIV laboratory tests in the 6 months following case closure.The majority of assigned cases (85.3%) were located; 23.7% (n = 233) of located cases confirmed as OOC; and 71.2% of OOC cases (n = 166) were successfully relinked into care. Relinkage success did not differ by gender, transmission risk, or major race/ethnicity categories; however, there was a direct relationship between age and successful relinkage (P < .001). Ninety-five percent of relinked cases reengaged in medical care, and 63.3% were retained in care. Individuals relinked by ExPS advocates were more likely to reengage in care (95%) than individuals interviewed but not relinked to care by advocates (53.7%) and individuals ineligible for the ExPS intervention (34.2%).DTC can be effective when conducted outside large metropolitan areas and/or closed health care systems. It can also be effectively incorporated into existing Partner Services programs; however, the relative priority of DTC work must be established in this context.
Project description:Objective To determine whether a diabetes case management telemedicine intervention reduced healthcare expenditures, as measured by Medicare claims, and to assess the costs of developing and implementing the telemedicine intervention. Design We studied 1665 participants in the Informatics for Diabetes Education and Telemedicine (IDEATel), a randomized controlled trial comparing telemedicine case management of diabetes to usual care. Participants were aged 55 years or older, and resided in federally designated medically underserved areas of New York State. Measurements We analyzed Medicare claims payments for each participant for up to 60 study months from date of randomization, until their death, or until December 31, 2006 (whichever happened first). We also analyzed study expenditures for the telemedicine intervention over six budget years (February 28, 2000- February 27, 2006). Results Mean annual Medicare payments (SE) were similar in the usual care and telemedicine groups, $9040 ($386) and $9669 ($443) per participant, respectively (p>0.05). Sensitivity analyses, including stratification by censored status, adjustment by enrollment site, and semi-parametric weighting by probability of dropping-out, rendered similar results. Over six budget years 28 821 participant/months of telemedicine intervention were delivered, at an estimated cost of $622 per participant/month. Conclusion Telemedicine case management was not associated with a reduction in Medicare claims in this medically underserved population. The cost of implementing the telemedicine intervention was high, largely representing special purpose hardware and software costs required at the time. Lower implementation costs will need to be achieved using lower cost technology in order for telemedicine case management to be more widely used.
Project description:OBJECTIVE The Northern Manhattan Diabetes Community Outreach Project evaluated whether a community health worker (CHW) intervention improved clinically relevant markers of diabetes care in adult Hispanics. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were adult Hispanics, ages 35-70 years, with recent hemoglobin A1c (A1C) ≥8% (≥64 mmol/mol), from a university-affiliated network of primary care practices in northern Manhattan (New York City, NY). They were randomized to a 12-month CHW intervention (n = 181), or enhanced usual care (educational materials mailed at 4-month intervals, preceded by phone calls, n = 179). The primary outcome was A1C at 12 months; the secondary outcomes were systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, and LDL-cholesterol levels. RESULTS There was a nonsignificant trend toward improvement in A1C levels in the intervention group (from unadjusted mean A1C of 8.77 to 8.40%), as compared with usual care (from 8.58 to 8.53%) (P = 0.131). There was also a nonsignificant trend toward an increase in SBP and LDL cholesterol in the intervention arm. Intervention fidelity, measured as the number of contacts in the intervention arm (visits, phone contacts, group support, and nutritional education), showed a borderline association with greater A1C reduction (P = 0.054). When assessed separately, phone contacts were associated with greater A1C reduction (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS The trend toward A1C reduction with the CHW intervention failed to achieve statistical significance. Greater intervention fidelity may achieve better glycemic control, and more accessible treatment models, such as phone-based interventions, may be more efficacious in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This review examines the effectiveness of diet and physical activity interventions to reduce cardiometabolic risk among Chinese immigrants and their descendants living in high income countries. The objective of this review is to provide information to help build future interventions aimed at improving diet and increasing physical activity levels among Chinese immigrants. METHODS:Outcomes included BMI, weight, waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), cholesterol (LDL, HDL), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG), and HOMA-IR. Six databases were systematically searched from database inception to date of search (February 2020). Meta-analyses used random effect models to estimate pooled effects of outcomes with 95% confidence intervals. The outcomes assessed were changes in mean outcomes (post-intervention versus baseline) among the intervention group versus control groups. RESULTS:Twenty-one articles were included for synthesis, and eight of these were included in the meta-analysis. Among children/adolescents, there were no significant effects of intervention for any of the outcomes having sufficient data for meta-analysis (BMI, WHR, SBP, and DBP). Among adults, the pooled effect including three studies showed significant changes in BMI (effect size?=?-?1.14?kg/m2; (95% CI: -?2.06, -?0.21), I2 =?31%). There were also significant effects of intervention among adults in terms of changes in SBP and DBP, as the pooled effect across three studies was -?6.08?mmHg (95% CI -?9.42, -?2.73), I2 =?0% and?-?3.81?mmHg (95% CI: -?6.34, -?1.28), I2 =?0%, respectively. Among adults there were no other significant effects among the meta-analyses conducted (weight, WC, LDL, HgbA1c, and FBG). CONCLUSIONS:This review is the first to summarize the effectiveness of diet and physical activity interventions specifically designed for Chinese immigrants living in high income countries. There were clinically meaningful changes in BMI and blood pressure among adults, but evidence was weak for other cardiometabolic outcomes (weight, WC, LDL, HgbA1c, and FBG), and among children, there was no evidence of effect for any cardiometabolic outcomes. Given our mixed findings, more work is needed to support the design of successful interventions, particularly those targeting children and their families. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The systematic review protocol was registered in PROSPERO on December 17, 2018, the international prospective register of systematic reviews (registration number: CRD42018117842 ).
Project description:BACKGROUND: The impact of telemedicine application on the management of diabetes patients is unclear, as the results are not consistent among different studies. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the impact of telemedicine interventions on change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure, LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) and body mass index (BMI) in diabetes patients. METHODS: Electronic databases MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and LILACS were searched to identify relevant studies published until April 2012, supplemented by references from the selected articles. Study search and selection were performed by independent reviewers. Of the 6.258 articles retrieved, 13 RCTs (4207 patients) were included. Random effects model was applied to estimate the pooled results. RESULTS: Telemedicine was associated with a statistically significant and clinically relevant absolute decline in HbA1c level compared to control (mean difference -0.44% [-4.8 mmol/mol] and 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.61 to -0.26% [-6.7 to -2.8 mmol/mol]; p<0.001). LDL-c was reduced in 6.6 mg/dL (95% CI -8.3 to -4.9; p<0.001), but the clinical relevance of this effect can be questioned. No effects of telemedicine strategies were seen on systolic (-1.6 mmHg and 95% CI -7.2 to 4.1) and diastolic blood pressure (-1.1 mmHg and 95% CI -3.0 to 0.8). The 2 studies that assessed the effect on BMI demonstrated a tendency of BMI reduction in favor of telemedicine. CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine strategies combined to the usual care were associated with improved glycemic control in diabetic patients. No clinical relevant impact was observed on LDL-c and blood pressure, and there was a tendency of BMI reduction in diabetes patients who used telemedicine, but these outcomes should be further explored in future trials.
Project description:Five cases of human babesiosis were reported in the Lower Hudson Valley Region of New York State in 2001. An investigation to determine if Babesia microti was present in local Ixodes scapularis ticks yielded 5 positive pools in 123 pools tested, the first detection of B. microti from field-collected I. scapularis in upstate New York.
Project description:Medication nonadherence is a major obstacle to better control of glucose, blood pressure (BP), and LDL cholesterol in adults with diabetes. Inexpensive effective strategies to increase medication adherence are needed.In a pragmatic randomized trial, we randomly assigned 2,378 adults with diabetes mellitus who had recently been prescribed a new class of medication for treating elevated levels of glycated hemoglobin (A1C) ?8% (64 mmol/mol), BP ?140/90 mmHg, or LDL cholesterol ?100 mg/dL, to receive 1) one scripted telephone call from a diabetes educator or clinical pharmacist to identify and address nonadherence to the new medication or 2) usual care. Hierarchical linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the impact on 1) the first medication fill within 60 days of the prescription; 2) two or more medication fills within 180 days of the prescription; and 3) clinically significant improvement in levels of A1C, BP, or LDL cholesterol.Of the 2,378 subjects, 89.3% in the intervention group and 87.4% in the usual-care group had sufficient data to analyze study outcomes. In intent-to-treat analyses, intervention was not associated with significant improvement in primary adherence, medication persistence, or intermediate outcomes of care. Results were similar across subgroups of patients defined by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and study site, and when limiting the analysis to those who completed the intended intervention.This low-intensity intervention did not significantly improve medication adherence or control of glucose, BP, or LDL cholesterol. Wide use of this strategy does not appear to be warranted; alternative approaches to identify and improve medication adherence and persistence are needed.