Analysis of sequence variations in the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 gene in extremely obese children and adolescents.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 is a negative feedback regulator of cytokine signaling and also influences leptin signaling. We investigated association of variations in the coding sequence and promoter region of SOCS3 with extreme obesity in German children and adolescents. METHODS:An initial screen for sequence variations in 181 extremely obese children and adolescents and 188 healthy underweight adults revealed two previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SOCS3 5' region: -1044 C>A (numbering refers to bases upstream of ATG in exon 2) within a predicted STAT3 binding element and -920 C>A (rs12953258, for numbering, see above). RESULTS:We did not detect significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies for any of these SNPs between the analysed study groups (all nominal p > 0.2). In addition, we performed a pedigree transmission disequilibrium test (PDT) for the SNP -1044 C>A in families comprising 703 obese children and adolescents, 281 of their obese siblings and both biological parents. The PDT revealed no transmission disequilibrium (nominal p > 0.05). CONCLUSION:In conclusion, our data do not suggest evidence for a major role of the respective SNPs in SOCS3 in the pathogenesis of extreme obesity in our study groups.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The SH2B1 gene (Src-homology 2B adaptor protein 1 gene) is a solid candidate gene for obesity. Large scale GWAS studies depicted markers in the vicinity of the gene; animal models suggest a potential relevance for human body weight regulation. METHODS: We performed a mutation screen for variants in the SH2B1 coding sequence in 95 extremely obese children and adolescents. Detected variants were genotyped in independent childhood and adult study groups (up to 11,406 obese or overweight individuals and 4,568 controls). Functional implications on STAT3 mediated leptin signalling of the detected variants were analyzed in vitro. RESULTS: We identified two new rare mutations and five known SNPs (rs147094247, rs7498665, rs60604881, rs62037368 and rs62037369) in SH2B1. Mutation g.9483C/T leads to a non-synonymous, non-conservative exchange in the beta (?Thr656Ile) and gamma (?Pro674Ser) splice variants of SH2B1. It was additionally detected in two of 11,206 (extremely) obese or overweight children, adolescents and adults, but not in 4,506 population-based normal-weight or lean controls. The non-coding mutation g.10182C/A at the 3' end of SH2B1 was only detected in three obese individuals. For the non-synonymous SNP rs7498665 (Thr484Ala) we observed nominal over-transmission of the previously described risk allele in 705 obesity trios (nominal p?=?0.009, OR?=?1.23) and an increased frequency of the same allele in 359 cases compared to 429 controls (nominal p?=?0.042, OR?=?1.23). The obesity risk-alleles at Thr484Ala and ?Thr656Ile/?Pro674Ser had no effect on STAT3 mediated leptin receptor signalling in splice variants ? and ?. CONCLUSION: The rare coding mutation ?Thr656Ile/?Pro674Ser (g.9483C/T) in SH2B1 was exclusively detected in overweight or obese individuals. Functional analyzes did not reveal impairments in leptin signalling for the mutated SH2B1.
Project description:Heritability estimates for body mass index (BMI) variation are high. For mothers and their offspring higher BMI correlations have been described than for fathers. Variation(s) in the exclusively maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) might contribute to this parental effect. Thirty-two to 40 mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were available from genome-wide association study SNP arrays (Affymetrix 6.0). For discovery, we analyzed association in a case-control (CC) sample of 1,158 extremely obese children and adolescents and 435 lean adult controls. For independent confirmation, 7,014 population-based adults were analyzed as CC sample of n = 1,697 obese cases (BMI ? 30 kg/m2) and n = 2,373 normal weight and lean controls (BMI<25 kg/m2). SNPs were analyzed as single SNPs and haplogroups determined by HaploGrep. Fisher's two-sided exact test was used for association testing. Moreover, the D-loop was re-sequenced (Sanger) in 192 extremely obese children and adolescents and 192 lean adult controls. Association testing of detected variants was performed using Fisher's two-sided exact test. For discovery, nominal association with obesity was found for the frequent allele G of m.8994G/A (rs28358887, p = 0.002) located in ATP6. Haplogroup W was nominally overrepresented in the controls (p = 0.039). These findings could not be confirmed independently. For two of the 252 identified D-loop variants nominal association was detected (m.16292C/T, p = 0.007, m.16189T/C, p = 0.048). Only eight controls carried the m.16292T allele, five of whom belonged to haplogroup W that was initially enriched among these controls. m.16189T/C might create an uninterrupted poly-C tract located near a regulatory element involved in replication of mtDNA. Though follow-up of some D-loop variants still is conceivable, our hypothesis of a contribution of variation in the exclusively maternally inherited mtDNA to the observed larger correlations for BMI between mothers and their offspring could not be substantiated by the findings of the present study.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified 97 chromosomal loci associated with increased body mass index in population-based studies on adults. One of these SNPs, rs7359397, tags a large region (approx. 1MB) with high linkage disequilibrium (r2>0.7), which comprises five genes (SH2B1, APOBR, sulfotransferases: SULT1A1 and SULT1A2, TUFM). We had previously described a rare mutation in SH2B1 solely identified in extremely obese individuals but not in lean controls. METHODS:The coding regions of the genes APOBR, SULT1A1, SULT1A2, and TUFM were screened for mutations (dHPLC, SSCP, Sanger re-sequencing) in 95 extremely obese children and adolescents. Detected non-synonymous variants were genotyped (TaqMan SNP Genotyping, MALDI TOF, PCR-RFLP) in independent large study groups (up to 3,210 extremely obese/overweight cases, 485 lean controls and 615 obesity trios). In silico tools were used for the prediction of potential functional effects of detected variants. RESULTS:Except for TUFM we detected non-synonymous variants in all screened genes. Two polymorphisms rs180743 (APOBR p.Pro428Ala) and rs3833080 (APOBR p.Gly369_Asp370del9) showed nominal association to (extreme) obesity (uncorrected p = 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively). In silico analyses predicted a functional implication for rs180743 (APOBR p.Pro428Ala). Both APOBR variants are located in the repetitive region with unknown function. CONCLUSION:Variants in APOBR contributed as strongly as variants in SH2B1 to the association with extreme obesity in the chromosomal region chr16p11.2. In silico analyses implied no functional effect of several of the detected variants. Further in vitro or in vivo analyses on the functional implications of the obesity associated variants are warranted.
Project description:SIM1 (single-minded 1) haploinsufficiency is responsible for obesity in both humans and mice, but the contribution of frequent DNA variation to polygenic obesity is unknown. Sequencing of all exons, exon/intron boundaries, 870 base pairs (bp) of the putative promoter, and 1,095 bp of the 3'UTR of SIM1 gene in 143 obese children and 24 control adults identified 13 common variants. After analysis of the linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure, association study of eight variants was performed in 1,275 obese children and severely obese adults, in 1,395 control subjects, and in 578 obesity-selected pedigrees. A nominal evidence of association was found for the nonsynonymous variant P352T C/A (rs3734354) (P = 0.01, OR = 0.81 (0.70-0.95)), the +2,004 TGA -/insT SNP (rs35180395) (P = 0.02, OR = 1.21 (1.02-1.43)), the +2,215A/G TGA SNP (rs9386126) (P = 0.002, OR = 0.81 (0.71-0.93)), and pooled childhood/adult obesity. Even though transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) further supported the association of P352T and +2,004 -/inst T with obesity, none of these nominal associations remained significant after a multiple testing Bonferroni correction. Therefore, our study excludes a major contribution of SIM1 common variants in exons, 5' and 3' UTR regions in polygenic obesity susceptibility in French Europeans.
Project description:The SOCS3 gene product participates in the feedback inhibition of a range of cytokine signals. Most notably, SOCS3 inhibits the functioning of leptin and downstream steps in insulin signaling after being expressed by terminal transcription factors, such as STAT3 and c-fos. The SOCS3 gene is located in the chromosome region 17q24-17q25, previously linked to body mass index (BMI), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and waist circumference (WAIST) in Hispanic families in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). A high density map of 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was constructed to cover a portion of the 17q linkage interval in 1,425 Hispanic subjects from 90 extended families in IRASFS. Analysis of this dense SNP map data revealed evidence of association of rs9914220 (located 10 kb 5' of the SOCS3 gene) with BMI, VAT, and WAIST (P-value ranging from 0.003 to 0.017). Using a tagging SNP approach, rs9914220 and 22 additional SOCS3 SNPs were genotyped for genetic association analysis with measures of adiposity and glucose homeostasis. The adiposity phenotypes utilized in association analyses included BMI, WAIST, waist to hip ratio (WHR), subcutaneous adipose tissue, VAT, and visceral to subcutaneous ratio (VSR). Linkage disequilibrium calculations revealed three haplotype blocks near SOCS3. Haplotype Block 3 (5' of SOCS3) contained SNPs consistently associated with BMI, WAIST, WHR, and VAT (P-values ranging from 2.00 x 10(-4) to 0.036). Haplotype Block 1 contained single-SNPs that were associated with most adiposity traits except for VSR (P-values ranging from 0.002 to 0.047). When trait associated SNPs were included in linkage analyses as covariates, a reduction of VAT LOD score from 1.26 to 0.76 above the SOCS3 locus (110 cM) was observed. Multi-SNP haplotype testing using the quantitative pedigree disequilibrium test was broadly consistent with the single-SNP associations. In conclusion, these results support a role for SOCS3 genetic variants in human obesity.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Obesity has been linked to high dietary intake and low physical activity. Studies showed that those factors were not only regulated by environment but also by genetic. However, the relationship is less been understood in obese children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the role of SNPs in GHSR rs292216 and rs509035 on dietary intake in obese female adolescents. METHODS: This is an observational study with cross sectional design. Respondents were obese female adolescents enrolled from obesity screening done in six junior high schools in Yogyakarta. Dietary intake was measured using 6 days 24 hours inconsecutive dietary recall. Genotyping of 2 SNPs from GHSR was done using FRLP-PCR. RESULTS: There were 78 obese female adolescents joined this study. We found that no significant association between SNPs GHSR and dietary intake (p < 0.05). In addition, a SNP-SNP interaction analysis shown there is no difference between combination of GHSR rs292216 and rs509035 on dietary intake (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We concluded that SNPs on GHSR rs292216 and rs509035 were not related to dietary intake in Indonesian obese female adolescents. Further study is necessary to investigate the effect of those genes on dietary intake in the broader population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Several lines of evidence in volvement of procolipase (CLPS) or its derivative enterostatin in dietary fat absorption, regulation of fat intake, and body weight in rodents. We explored the relationship between genetic variation in CLPS, early-onset obesity and fat intake in humans. METHODS:We screened the CLPS in 93 extremely obese children and adolescents and 96 underweight young adults for sequence variations and genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in extremely obese children and adolescents, healthy normal-and underweight young adults and obesity trios. Case-control and family-based association analyses were performed. RESULTS:Five sequence variations were identified: two non-synonymous SNPs: rs2766597 (Leu8Pro), rs41270082 (Arg109Cys); one SNP in the 5'UTR: rs3748050; one intronic SNP: rs3748051; and one infrequent novel non-synonymous variant: Arg55His. For rs2766597, rs3748050, and rs3748051 we obtained no evidence for an association with obesity in the case-control comparison. For rs41270082 there was a trend for association which could not be substantiated in the family-based association analysis. Additionally, we found no association in subgroup analyses pertaining to the extremely obese children and adolescents in the lowest and highest quartile of the percentage of energy consumed as fat. CONCLUSIONS:We found no evidence for an association of CLPS SNPs rs2766597, rs41270082, rs3748050, and rs3748051 with obesity or percentage of dietary fat intake.
Project description:Although polymorphisms in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) was reported to be related to obesity, Metabolic syndrome (MS), and type 2 diabetes mellitus in various adult studies, there is a lack of data in children. In this study, we examined eight reported polymorphisms of SOCS3 in obese Turkish children and adolescent with and without MS and compared the results with that of controls.One hundred and forty eight obese and 63 age- and sex-matched control subjects were enrolled in the study. Obesity classification was carried out according to body mass index. World Health Organization and National Cholesterol Education Program criteria were used for the diagnosis of MS. Genotyping procedure was carried out by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing protocol.The frequency of rs2280148 polymorphism was significantly higher in obese subjects with MS than in the control group, whereas the frequency of rs8064821 polymorphism was significantly higher in obese subjects with MS than in obese children without MS.The significant associations of certain SOCS3 polymorphisms with obesity parameters in both MS and MS -related insulin resistance, hypertension, and fatty liver suggest that polymorphisms in this gene may play a role in the pathogenesis of MS and also that they can be potentially used as a marker for attenuated or aggressive disease.
Project description:Genes encoding adipokines are considered as candidates for human obesity. In this study we analyzed the expression of leptin (LEP) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) genes in relation to common 5'-flanking or 5'UTR variants: -2548G>A (LEP), 19A>G (LEP) and -11377C>G (ADIPOQ) in Polish obese children and adolescents. Relative transcription levels in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (real time RT-PCR) and serum protein concentrations (RIA) were measured in 48 obese subjects with known genotypes at three polymorphic sites and in five non-obese controls. None of the studied polymorphisms altered significantly the expression. Significantly elevated relative transcription levels of the LEP gene (P < 0.05) and serum leptin concentrations (P < 0.01) were recorded in obese patients, when compared with the non-obese controls, but such differences were not found for the ADIPOQ gene. Interestingly, the leptin to adiponectin protein concentration ratio (L/A) was approximately sevenfold higher in obese children and adolescents when compared with the non-obese controls (P < 0.001). Taking into consideration the observed relationship between the genotypes and the gene expression level we suggest that these SNPs are not conclusive markers for predisposition to obesity in Polish children and adolescents. On the other hand, we confirmed that the leptin to adiponectin gene expression ratio (L/A) is an informative index characterizing obesity.
Project description:Extensive studies of the MC4R gene polymorphism showed that, among numerous variants, there are mutations responsible for monogenic obesity, as well as polymorphisms negatively correlated with the risk of obesity. In this report, we present the first studies of the whole coding sequence of the MC4R gene in 243 Polish obese children and adolescents (the mean relative body mass index [RBMI] was 163.6). In addition, 101 non-obese adults were also analyzed. Direct sequencing facilitated the identification of six missense (K73R, V103I, T112M, S127L, M215L, and I251L) and one silent (c.756 C?>?T) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two non-synonymous polymorphisms (K73R and M215L) appeared to be novel and one was found in obese patients (M215L, one patient) and one in non-obese adults (K73R, one person). The overall frequency of non-synonymous variant carriers reached 4.1% and 6.9% in obese patients and non-obese adults, respectively. Only one obesity-associated variant (127L) was found in two obese patients (0.82%) and in two non-obese adults (1.98%). The obesity-protecting variants (103I and 251L) appeared to be the most common in both groups: 3.3% and 4.0%, respectively. It was also observed that the RBMI in obese children and adolescents carrying the minor variants did not differ significantly from the non-carriers; however, the expected trends for the associated and protecting variants were observed. We conclude that the contribution of the MC4R gene variants to the pathogenesis of obesity in Polish children and adolescents is low.