Intranuclear targeting and nuclear export of the adenovirus E1B-55K protein are regulated by SUMO1 conjugation.
ABSTRACT: We have investigated the requirements for CRM1-mediated nuclear export and SUMO1 conjugation of the adenovirus E1B-55K protein during productive infection. Our data show that CRM1 is the major export receptor for E1B-55K in infected cells. Functional inactivation of the E1B-55K CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES) or leptomycin B treatment causes an almost complete redistribution of the viral protein from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and its accumulation at the periphery of the viral replication centers. Interestingly, however, this nuclear restriction imposed on the wild type and the NES mutant protein is fully compensated by concurrent inactivation of the adjacent SUMO1 conjugation site. Moreover, the same mutation fully reverses defects of the NES mutant in the nucleocytoplasmic transport of Mre11 and proteasomal degradation of p53. These results show that nuclear export of E1B-55K in infected cells occurs via CRM1-dependent and -independent pathways and suggest that SUMO1 conjugation and deconjugation provide a molecular switch that commits E1B-55K to a CRM1-independent export pathway.
Project description:Human adenovirus (HAdV) E1B-55K is a multifunctional regulator of productive viral replication and oncogenic transformation in nonpermissive mammalian cells. These functions depend on E1B-55K's posttranslational modification with the SUMO protein and its binding to HAdV E4orf6. Both early viral proteins recruit specific host factors to form an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that targets antiviral host substrates for proteasomal degradation. Recently, we reported that the PML-NB-associated factor Daxx represses efficient HAdV productive infection and is proteasomally degraded via a SUMO-E1B-55K-dependent, E4orf6-independent pathway, the details of which remained to be established. RNF4, a cellular SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL), induces ubiquitinylation of specific SUMOylated proteins and plays an essential role during DNA repair. Here, we show that E1B-55K recruits RNF4 to the insoluble nuclear matrix fraction of the infected cell to support RNF4/Daxx association, promoting Daxx PTM and thus inhibiting this antiviral factor. Removing RNF4 from infected cells using RNA interference resulted in blocking the proper establishment of viral replication centers and significantly diminished viral gene expression. These results provide a model for how HAdV antagonize the antiviral host responses by exploiting the functional capacity of cellular STUbLs. Thus, RNF4 and its STUbL function represent a positive factor during lytic infection and a novel candidate for future therapeutic antiviral intervention strategies.IMPORTANCE Daxx is a PML-NB-associated transcription factor that was recently shown to repress efficient HAdV productive infection. To counteract this antiviral measurement during infection, Daxx is degraded via a novel pathway including viral E1B-55K and host proteasomes. This virus-mediated degradation is independent of the classical HAdV E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which is essential during viral infection to target other host antiviral substrates. To maintain a productive viral life cycle, HAdV E1B-55K early viral protein inhibits the chromatin-remodeling factor Daxx in a SUMO-dependent manner. In addition, viral E1B-55K protein recruits the STUbL RNF4 and sequesters it into the insoluble fraction of the infected cell. E1B-55K promotes complex formation between RNF4- and E1B-55K-targeted Daxx protein, supporting Daxx posttranslational modification prior to functional inhibition. Hence, RNF4 represents a novel host factor that is beneficial for HAdV gene expression by supporting Daxx counteraction. In this regard, RNF4 and other STUbL proteins might represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention.
Project description:Adenovirus has evolved strategies to usurp host-cell factors and machinery to facilitate its life cycle, including cell entry, replication, assembly and egress. Adenovirus continues, therefore, to be an important model system for investigating fundamental cellular processes. The role of adenovirus E1B-55k in targeting host-cell proteins that possess antiviral activity for proteasomal degradation is now well established. To expand our understanding of E1B-55k in regulating the levels of host-cell proteins, we performed comparative proteome analysis of wild-type, and E1B-55k-deletion, adenovirus-infected cancer cells. As such we performed quantitative MS/MS analysis to monitor protein expression changes affected by viral E1B-55k. We identified 5937 proteins, and of these, 69 and 58 proteins were down-regulated during wild-type and E1B-55k (dl1520) adenovirus infection, respectively. This analysis revealed that there are many, previously unidentified, cellular proteins subjected to degradation by adenovirus utilizing pathways independent of E1B-55k expression. Moreover, we found that ALCAM, EPHA2 and PTPRF, three cellular proteins that function in the regulation of cell-cell contacts, appeared to be degraded by E1B-55k/E4orf3 and/or E1B-55k/E4orf6 complexes. These molecules, like integrin ?3 (a known substrate of E1B-55k/E4orf6), are critical regulators of cell signalling, cell adhesion and cell surface modulation, and their degradation during infection is, potentially, pertinent to adenovirus propagation. The data presented in this study illustrate the broad nature of protein down-regulation mediated by adenovirus.
Project description:The adenovirus E1B-55K and E4orf6 proteins cooperate during virus infection while performing several tasks that contribute to a productive infection, including the selective nucleocytoplasmic transport of late viral mRNA. Previous studies have shown that the E4orf6 protein retains the E1B-55K protein in the nucleus of human and monkey cells, but not in those of rodents, suggesting that primate-specific cellular factors contribute to the E4orf6-mediated retention of the E1B-55K protein in the nucleus. In an effort to identify these proposed primate-specific cellular factors, the interaction of the E1B-55K and E4orf6 proteins was studied in a panel of stable human-rodent monochromosomal somatic cell hybrids. Analysis of this panel of cell lines has demonstrated the existence of an activity associated with human chromosome 21 that permits the E1B-55K and E4orf6 proteins to colocalize in the nucleus of a rodent cell. Additional hybrid cells bearing portions of human chromosome 21 were used to map this activity to a 10-megabase-pair segment of the chromosome, extending from 21q22.12 to a region near the q terminus. Strikingly, this region also facilitates the expression of adenovirus late genes in a rodent cell background while having little impact on the expression of early viral genes.
Project description:Early region 1B 55K (E1B-55K) from adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) is a multifunctional regulator of lytic infection and contributes in vitro to complete cell transformation of primary rodent cells in combination with Ad5 E1A. Inhibition of p53 activated transcription plays a key role in processes by which E1B-55K executes its oncogenic potential. Nevertheless, additional functions of E1B-55K or further protein interactions with cellular factors of DNA repair, transcription, and apoptosis, including Mre11, PML, and Daxx, may also contribute to the transformation process. In line with previous results, we performed mutational analysis to define a Daxx interaction motif within the E1B-55K polypeptide. The results from these studies showed that E1B-55K/Daxx binding is not required for inhibition of p53-mediated transactivation or binding and degradation of cellular factors (p53/Mre11). Surprisingly, these mutants lost the ability to degrade Daxx and showed reduced transforming potential in primary rodent cells. In addition, we observed that E1B-55K lacking the SUMO-1 conjugation site (SCS/K104R) was sufficient for Daxx interaction but no longer capable of E1B-55K-dependent proteasomal degradation of the cellular factor Daxx. These results, together with the observation that E1B-55K SUMOylation is required for efficient transformation, provides evidence for the idea that SUMO-1-conjugated E1B-55K-mediated degradation of Daxx plays a key role in adenoviral oncogenic transformation. We assume that the viral protein contributes to cell transformation through the modulation of Daxx-dependent pathways. This further substantiates the assumption that further mechanisms for efficient transformation of primary cells can be separated from functions required for the inhibition of p53-stimulated transcription.
Project description:The polyketide natural product Leptomycin B inhibits nuclear export mediated by the karyopherin protein chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM1). Here, we present 1.8- to 2.0-Å-resolution crystal structures of CRM1 bound to Leptomycin B and related inhibitors Anguinomycin A and Ratjadone A. Structural and complementary chemical analyses reveal an unexpected mechanism of inhibition involving covalent conjugation and CRM1-mediated hydrolysis of the natural products' lactone rings. Furthermore, mutagenesis reveals the mechanism of hydrolysis by CRM1. The nuclear export signal (NES)-binding groove of CRM1 is able to drive a chemical reaction in addition to binding protein cargoes for transport through the nuclear pore complex.
Project description:CRM1 (also known as XPO1 and exportin 1) mediates nuclear export of hundreds of proteins through the recognition of the leucine-rich nuclear export signal (LR-NES). Here we present the 2.9 A structure of CRM1 bound to snurportin 1 (SNUPN). Snurportin 1 binds CRM1 in a bipartite manner by means of an amino-terminal LR-NES and its nucleotide-binding domain. The LR-NES is a combined alpha-helical-extended structure that occupies a hydrophobic groove between two CRM1 outer helices. The LR-NES interface explains the consensus hydrophobic pattern, preference for intervening electronegative residues and inhibition by leptomycin B. The second nuclear export signal epitope is a basic surface on the snurportin 1 nucleotide-binding domain, which binds an acidic patch on CRM1 adjacent to the LR-NES site. Multipartite recognition of individually weak nuclear export signal epitopes may be common to CRM1 substrates, enhancing CRM1 binding beyond the generally low affinity LR-NES. Similar energetic construction is also used in multipartite nuclear localization signals to provide broad substrate specificity and rapid evolution in nuclear transport.
Project description:The nuclear export receptor CRM1 (XPO1) recognizes and binds specific sequence motifs termed nuclear export signals (NESs) in cargo proteins. About 200 NES motifs have been identified, but over a thousand human proteins are potential CRM1 cargos, and most of their NESs remain to be identified. On the other hand, the interaction of NES peptides with the "NES-binding groove" of CRM1 was studied in detail using structural and biochemical analyses, but a better understanding of CRM1 function requires further investigation of how the results from these in vitro studies translate into actual NES export in a cellular context. Here we show that a simple cellular assay, based on a recently described reporter (SRVB/A), can be applied to identify novel potential NESs motifs, and to obtain relevant information on different aspects of CRM1-mediated NES export. Using cellular assays, we first map 19 new sequence motifs with nuclear export activity in 14 cancer-related proteins that are potential CRM1 cargos. Next, we investigate the effect of mutations in individual NES-binding groove residues, providing further insight into CRM1-mediated NES export. Finally, we extend the search for CRM1-dependent NESs to a recently uncovered, but potentially vast, set of small proteins called micropeptides. By doing so, we report the first NES-harboring human micropeptides.
Project description:The karyopherin CRM1 mediates nuclear export of proteins and ribonucleoproteins bearing a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES). To elucidate the precise mechanism by which NES-cargos are dissociated from CRM1 in the cytoplasm, which is important for transport directionality, we determined a 2.0-A resolution crystal structure of yeast CRM1:RanBP1:RanGTP complex, an intermediate in the disassembly of the CRM1 nuclear export complex. The structure shows that on association of Ran-binding domain (RanBD) of RanBP1 with CRM1:NES-cargo:RanGTP complex, RanBD and the C-terminal acidic tail of Ran induce a large movement of the intra-HEAT9 loop of CRM1. The loop moves to the CRM1 inner surface immediately behind the NES-binding site and causes conformational rearrangements in HEAT repeats 11 and 12 so that the hydrophobic NES-binding cleft on the CRM1 outer surface closes, squeezing out the NES-cargo. This allosteric mechanism accelerates dissociation of NES by over two orders of magnitude. Structure-based mutagenesis indicated that the HEAT9 loop also functions as an allosteric autoinhibitor to stabilize CRM1 in a conformation that is unable to bind NES-cargo in the absence of RanGTP.
Project description:CRM1 is an export receptor mediating rapid nuclear exit of proteins and RNAs to the cytoplasm. CRM1 export cargoes include proteins with a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) that bind directly to CRM1 in a trimeric complex with RanGTP. Using a quantitative CRM1-NES cargo binding assay, significant differences in affinity for CRM1 among natural NESs are demonstrated, suggesting that the steady-state nucleocytoplasmic distribution of shuttling proteins could be determined by the relative strengths of their NESs. We also show that a trimeric CRM1-NES-RanGTP complex is disassembled by RanBP1 in the presence of RanGAP, even though RanBP1 itself contains a leucine-rich NES. Selection of CRM1-binding proteins from Xenopus egg extract leads to the identification of an NES-containing DEAD-box helicase, An3, that continuously shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In addition, we identify the Xenopus homologue of the nucleoporin CAN/Nup214 as a RanGTP- and NES cargo-specific binding site for CRM1, suggesting that this nucleoporin plays a role in export complex disassembly and/or CRM1 recycling.
Project description:CRM1 exports proteins that carry a short leucine-rich peptide signal, the nuclear export signal (NES), from the nucleus. Regular NESs must have low affinity for CRM1 to function optimally. We previously generated artificial NESs with higher affinities for CRM1, termed supraphysiological NESs. Here we identify a supraphysiological NES in an endogenous protein, the NS2 protein of parvovirus Minute Virus of Mice (MVM). NS2 interacts with CRM1 without the requirement of RanGTP, whereas addition of RanGTP renders the complex highly stable. Mutation of a single hydrophobic residue that inactivates regular NESs lowers the affinity of the NS2 NES for CRM1 from supraphysiological to regular. Mutant MVM harboring this regular NES is compromised in viral nuclear export and productivity. In virus-infected mouse fibroblasts we observe colocalization of NS2, CRM1 and mature virions, which is dependent on the supraphysiological NS2 NES. We conclude that supraphysiological NESs exist in nature and that the supraphysiological NS2 NES has a critical role in active nuclear export of mature MVM particles before cell lysis.