Should fine needle aspiration biopsy be the first pathological investigation in the diagnosis of a bone lesion? An algorithmic approach with review of literature.
ABSTRACT: Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is gaining increasing popularity in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal lesions; and in many patients, a definitive diagnosis can be rendered from aspiration smears alone. Its applicability in bone pathology, however, has been controversial due to a high percentage of inadequate smears, difficulty in evaluation of tissue architecture and nonspecific results in the diagnosis of primary bone lesions. In this study, the value of aspiration as the first pathological investigation in the diagnosis of a bone lesion was evaluated.91 cases of clinically suspected cases of bone lesions were aspirated over a period of two years. Direct or cytospin smears were fixed in 95% alcohol and stained by Hematoxylin and Eosin or air-dried and later fixed in methanol for May Gr?nwald Giemsa staining.Of the 91 patients who were subjected to FNAB, 81 were considered satisfactory and 10.9 % (10) were inadequate\inconclusive for diagnosis. Cyto-histological concordance was obtained in 78.5 % (51/65) patients. Positive and negative predictive values were 87.5% and 97.2 % respectively. Sensitivity as a preliminary diagnostic technique was 93.3%, whereas specificity was 94.5 %. Overall, diagnostic accuracy was 94.2 %. Metastatic lesions were detected with 100% accuracy. Two cases were reported as false positive and one case as false negative.Cytology provides valuable information to the clinician to make an informed decision regarding appropriate therapy. We conclude that time-consuming and costly investigations may be reduced by choosing FNAB as the initial pathological diagnostic method for skeletal lesions of unknown origin. The choice of radiological examinations, laboratory tests and surgical biopsies can be determined after the FNAB diagnosis.
Project description:Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of intraocular mass lesions is an important intervention in the presence of diagnostic difficulty. FNAB of intraocular mass lesions is also likely to become more commonly recommended for prognostication of tumors such as choroidal melanoma. The most commonly described approach for tumor localization and visualization during FNAB is transillumination and indirect ophthalmoscopic viewing. Herein, we report endoillumination (chandelier) and wide-angle viewing assisted, microscope-based approach for FNAB in two patients using two port minimally invasive vitreoretinal surgical approach. The submission is supported by a video demonstration. The entire procedure was completed under the microscope. Adequate sample was obtained. In the first patient, the inflammatory nature of the lesion was confirmed though magnetic resonance imaging had been reported as melanoma. In the second patient, a clinical diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma was confirmed. Endoillumination-assisted FNAB of intraocular mass lesions is easier to learn and more precise and hence carries lesser risks.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), an important diagnostic tool given its simplicity, safety, and cost-effectiveness, is fast becoming a popular procedure in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. Generally, cells isolated from biopsies are transferred directly to microscope slides to prepare smears for cytopathological examination; however, the technical difficulties of this procedure often cause poor reproducibility, which limits the accuracy of diagnostic results. Liquid-based cytology (LBC), in which isolated cells are collected in a fixative solution, is advantageous in that it facilitates the preparation of homogenous cytological specimens. However, LBC has not been applied to molecular diagnoses, such as RNA expression-based diagnosis, mainly because of difficulties in cell recovery and RNA isolation. This study was aimed to improve RNA extraction from papillary cancer-derived K1 cells and thyroid FNAB specimens suspended in LBC solutions. RESULTS:K1 cells suspended in CytoRich-Red and CytoRich-Blue, fixatives for LBC, were efficiently recovered by trapping to glass-fiber filters. Importantly, subsequent Proteinase K treatment was essential for efficient RNA extraction from the fixed cells. This finding was also applicable to RNA extraction from CytoRich-Red-fixed thyroid FNAB specimens processed in the same way. Consistently, U6 small nuclear RNA was detected in these RNA samples by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gastric subepithelial lesions, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors, are often found during routine gastroscopy. While endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB) has been the gold standard for diagnosing gastric subepithelial lesions, alternative open biopsy procedures, such as mucosal incision-assisted biopsy (MIAB) has been reported useful. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of MIAB for the diagnosis of gastric SELs compared with EUS-FNAB. METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 177 consecutive patients with gastric SELs who underwent either MIAB or EUS-FNAB at five hospitals in Japan between January 2010 and January 2018. Diagnostic yield, procedural time, and adverse event rates for the two procedures were evaluated before and after propensity-score matching. RESULTS:No major procedure-related adverse events were observed in either group. Both procedures yielded highly-accurate diagnoses once large enough samples were obtained; however, such successful sampling was more often accomplished by MIAB than by EUS-FNAB, especially for small SELs. As a result, MIAB provided better diagnostic yields for SELs smaller than 20-mm diameter. The diagnostic yields of both procedures were comparable for SELs larger than 20-mm diameter; however, MIAB required significantly longer procedural time (approximately 13?min) compared with EUS-FNAB. CONCLUSIONS:Although MIAB required longer procedural time, it outperformed EUS-FNAB when diagnosing gastric SELs smaller than 20-mm diameter.
Project description:Background: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB) has become an important modality for identification of intra-abdominal masses. This study analyzed the accuracy of EUS-FNAB in a single medical center and explored factors related to positive diagnosis. Materials and methods: In total, 77 patients with EUS-FNAB were retrospectively reviewed from July 2016 to February 2020. "Atypical (tends to be neoplasm/malignancy)," "suspicious (first consider neoplasm/malignancy)," and "malignant" were defined as positive cytology. The final diagnoses were based on histopathologic examination. The positive rate of EUS-FNAB for the diagnosis of neoplasm and its associations with age, sex, target puncture mass size, liver function, tumor markers, albumin, hypertension, and diabetes were examined. Results: Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of EUS-FNAB cytologic diagnoses in all patients were 77.9% (60/77), 76.1% (54/71), 100%, 100%, and 26.1% (6/23), respectively. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of EUS-FNAB cytologic diagnoses in the pancreas were 80.0% (48/60), 79.3% (46/58), 100%, 100%, and 14.3% (2/14), respectively. The results of EUS-FNAB in pancreatic masses showed that the level of CA19-9 was higher in the true positive group than in the false-negative group (p<0.05). There were no factors associated with the true positive cytologic diagnoses (p>0.05). Conclusions: Our single-medical center study showed that EUS-FNAB is an accurate diagnostic procedure for the evaluation of intra-abdominal masses. Further follow-up is required to explore factors associated with the true positive cytology.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) cytology has been a highly effective methodology for tissue diagnosis and for various ancillary studies including molecular tests. In addition to other benefits, FNAB predominantly retrieves the diagnostic loosely cohesive cells in the lesion as compared to the adjacent supporting stroma with relatively higher cohesiveness. However, FNAB procedure performed with currently available resources is highly skill dependent with inter-performer variability, which compromises its full potential as a diagnostic tool. In this study we report a device overcoming these limitations. METHODS: 'Tissue Harvester with Functional Valve' (THFV) was evaluated as part of a phase 1 National Institute of Health (NIH) research grant under Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program. Working prototypes of the device were prepared. Each of the four cytopathologists with previous cytopathology fellowship training and experience in performing FNAB evaluated 5 THFV and 5 hypodermic needles resulting in 40 specimens (20 with THFV, 20 with hypodermic needles). A piece of fresh cattle liver stuffed in latex glove was used as the specimen. Based on these results a finished design was finalized. RESULTS: The smears and cell blocks prepared from the specimens obtained by THFV were superior in terms of cellularity to specimens obtained with hypodermic needles. The tissuecrit of specimens obtained with THFV ranged from 70 to 100 microl (mean 87, SD 10), compared to 17 to 30 microl (mean 24, SD 4) with conventional hypodermic needles (p < .0001, Student t-test). The technical ease [on a scale of 1 (easy) to 5 (difficult)] with THFV ranged from 1 to 2 as compared to 2 to 3 with hypodermic needles. CONCLUSION: The specimen yield with the new THFV was significantly higher when compared to hypodermic needles. Also, the FNAB procedure with THFV was relatively easier in comparison with hypodermic needles. The final version of Shidham's THFV device would improve the FNAB specimen yield by eliminating the skill factor. The increased specimen yield by this device would also facilitate wider application of FNAB specimens for various ancillary tests, including molecular tests.
Project description:Fine needle aspiration biospy (FNAB) is a simple, cost effective procedure, which can be carried out in the out-patient department. The objective of our study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy in small round cell tumors of childhood, keeping histopathology as the gold standard.Out of these 50 cases, 35 (70%) were small round cell tumors and 15 (30%) cases of other childhood malignancies and certain reactive conditions. In our study, the most common malignant small round cell tumor (SRCT) on histopathology was Wilms tumor (10 cases) followed by non Hodgkin lymphoma (9 cases). FNAB results were correlated with the histological findings and the diagnostic accuracy of SRCT came out to be 98%. The sensitivity and specificity of FNAB in diagnosing SRCT was 97% and 100% respectively. FNAB was found to be a very useful technique in the initial evaluation of any palpable lesion of childhood. Although the small round cell tumors appear cytologically similar, in the hands of experienced cytopathologists, the subtle morphological features can help towards the final diagnosis. In addition, clinical and radiological findings are invaluable assets, which help to reach the final diagnosis.
Project description:Aim:The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic adequacy of computed tomography (CT)-ultrasound (US) fusion image-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) and US-guided FNA in patients with suspected hepatic metastases. Methods:Thirty consecutive patients of either sex with known or unknown primary malignancy suspected of having liver metastases on both US and CT, whose multiphasic contrast-enhanced computed tomography was performed using a 64-slice or a higher slice CT scanner, and who were referred for percutaneous FNA were included in this prospective study approved by the institutional review board of the study institute. CT-ultrasound fusion image-guided FNA of the largest lesion using electromagnetic tracking and with freehand ultrasound-guided FNA were performed in the same sitting. Value of fitness, which is a rough estimate of how well the fusion has been achieved, was recorded. Diagnostic adequacy of smears was assessed by a scoring system based on cellular material, background blood/clot, degree of cellular degeneration or trauma, and retention of architecture. Results:The size of the lesions ranged from 1 to 10 cm, and the depth of location of the lesions ranged from 1.4 to 9.3 cm. The fusion fitness values ranged from 1.2 to 10 mm. The scores of the smears did not correlate with lesion size, depth of location, and fusion fitness value. Diagnostic adequacy was seen in 90% and 93.3% of lesions sampled by fusion image guidance and ultrasound guidance, respectively (p = 0.655). All the lesions that yielded inadequate smears by fusion guidance were deep-seated lesions (>5 cm). All the lesions that yielded inadequate smears by ultrasound guidance were small lesions (<3 cm). No complications were encountered in any of the patients. Conclusion:Fusion image-guided FNA is a safe procedure with a high diagnostic adequacy rate. Fusion image-guided FNA is not better than US-guided FNA for conspicuous hepatic lesions; however, it may be useful in inconspicuous lesions.
Project description:Rapid on site examination (ROSE) is encouraged at endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needles aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) to improve diagnostic yield. Due to new therapeutic options in lung cancer, it is not sufficient to merely distinguish between non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) distinction is now standard practice, as well as additional molecular testing where clinically indicated. We investigated the diagnostic yield of on-site smears vs. cell block and the provision of cellular material for ancillary testing at our centre.A retrospective audit of all EBUS-TBNA procedures performed until July 2012 was undertaken. Diagnostic yield on smears versus cell block was recorded. Cell blocks were reviewed by an experienced pathologist to determine diagnostic accuracy and whether IHC and molecular testing were possible.In total, 234 procedures were recorded with 101 (43.2%) malignant cases, 107 (45.7%) benign cases and an initial 26/234 (11.1%) insufficient for diagnosis of which 11/234 (4.7%) were false negatives for malignancy after further follow up. The average number of passes was 4.5. For malignancies, smear diagnosis was possible in 95% (96/101) of cases and cell block diagnosis in 93.5% (87/93) of cases. There was sufficient material for IHC in 97.7% (85/87) of malignant cases. In 79.3% (69/87) of NSCLCs molecular testing for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation analysis was theoretically possible on samples obtained.Cell blocks are not inferior to smears for diagnostic accuracy and provide sufficient samples for histology. However, ROSE assists the physician on how best to manage samples for ancillary testing.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a recognized technique for the basic, preoperative cytological diagnosis of thyroid nodules. AIM OF THE STUDY:To analyze the accuracy of FNAB in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in patients with solitary and multiple thyroid nodules and to compare the demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with thyroid carcinoma in solitary and multiple tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The case records of 2,403 patients with solitary and multiple thyroid tumors treated consecutively between 2008 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. We selected 1,645 for further analysis. A solitary thyroid nodule was observed in 493 patients, and multiple nodules were detected in 1,152 patients. Further classification of the patients in these two groups was performed on the basis of the FNAB results, type of surgery performed and histopathology. TC was histopathologically confirmed in 166 patients, and benign disease was found in 1,479. The TC patients were assigned to the study group, and those with benign thyroid disease were placed into the control group. The study group was divided into two subgroups according to the presence of cancer in a single thyroid nodule or in multiple nodules. Malignancy in a solitary thyroid nodule was diagnosed in 98 (59.0%) patients, and cancer in multiple nodules was diagnosed in 68 (41.0%). Comparative analyses of the demographic, clinical and histopathological characteristics were performed for both subgroups. The following statistical analyses were performed: comparative characteristic of subgroups, ROC analysis for study group and subgroup of patients, and multivariable logistic regression analysis for study group. RESULTS:The rate of prediction of TC by FNAB was three times higher in the patients with a solitary thyroid nodule compared with those with multiple thyroid nodules and it was statistically significant (p<0.001). The rate of total thyroid resection and lack of necessity for reoperation were also significantly higher in the TC patients with a solitary nodule. The histopathological results showed that significantly more patients with a solitary nodule had advanced-stage TC (stage III or IV) and tumor progression (pT3 or pT4) (p = 0.002 for both). ROC analysis demonstrated that the overall accuracy of FNAB as a predictor of thyroid cancer presence was high, especially for the subgroup of patients with a solitary thyroid nodule (AUC = 0.958, p<0.0001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis confirmed that a positive FNAB result was the sole predictor of the performance of total resection in the TC study group (p<0.0001), while a negative FNAB result and the presence of a papillary cancer type were independent predictors of the risk of reoperation (p<0.0001 and p = 0.002, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:FNAB often produces false-negative results in patients with multiple malignant thyroid tumors, which results in reoperation in many cases. False-negative FNAB results are rare in patients with a solitary tumor. Because of the low predictive capacity of FNAB for thyroid cancer in patients with multiple thyroid tumors, total thyroid excision should be considered in most cases despite a "negative" (no malignant) FNAB result.
Project description:Cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC) is a subgroup of PTC presenting a diagnostic challenge at fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). To further investigate this entity we aimed to characterize protein profiles of cyst fluids from cPTC and benign thyroid cystic lesions. In total, 20 cPTCs and 56 benign thyroid cystic lesions were studied. Profiling by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed on cyst fluids from a subset of cases after depletion, and selected proteins were further analyzed by Western blot (WB), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 1,581 proteins were detected in cyst fluids, of which 841 were quantified in all samples using LC-MS/MS. Proteins with different expression levels between cPTCs and benign lesions were identified by univariate analysis (41 proteins) and multivariate analysis (59 proteins in an orthogonal partial least squares model). WB analyses of cyst fluid and IHC on corresponding tissue samples confirmed a significant up-regulation of cytokeratin 19 (CK-19/CYFRA 21-1) and S100A13 in cPTC vs. benign lesions. These findings were further confirmed by ELISA in an extended material of non-depleted cyst fluids from cPTCs (n = 17) and benign lesions (n = 55) (p<0.05). Applying a cut-off at >55 ng/ml for CK-19 resulted in 82% specificity and sensitivity. For S100A13 a cut-off at >230 pg/ml revealed a 94% sensitivity, but only 35% specificity. This is the first comprehensive catalogue of the protein content in fluid from thyroid cysts. The up-regulations of CK-19 and S100A13 suggest their possible use in FNAB based preoperative diagnostics of cystic thyroid lesions.