Pathway of biogenesis of apolipoprotein E-containing HDL in vivo with the participation of ABCA1 and LCAT.
ABSTRACT: We have investigated the ability of apoE (apolipoprotein E) to participate in the biogenesis of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) particles in vivo using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in apoA-I-/- (apolipoprotein A-I) or ABCA1-/- (ATP-binding cassette A1) mice. Infection of apoA-I-/- mice with 2x10(9) pfu (plaque-forming units) of an apoE4-expressing adenovirus increased both HDL and the triacylglycerol-rich VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein)/IDL (intermediate-density lipoprotein)/LDL (low-density lipoprotein) fraction and generated discoidal HDL particles. ABCA1-/- mice treated similarly failed to form HDL particles, suggesting that ABCA1 is essential for the generation of apoE-containing HDL. Combined infection of apoA-I-/- mice with a mixture of adenoviruses expressing both apoE4 (2x10(9) pfu) and human LCAT (lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase) (5x10(8) pfu) cleared the triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins, increased HDL and converted the discoidal HDL into spherical HDL. Similarly, co-infection of apoE-/- mice with apoE4 and human LCAT corrected the hypercholesterolaemia and generated spherical particles, suggesting that LCAT is essential for the maturation of apoE-containing HDL. Overall, the findings indicate that apoE has a dual functionality. In addition to its documented functions in the clearance of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins, it participates in the biogenesis of HDL-sized apoE-containing particles. HDL particles generated by this pathway may account at least for some of the atheroprotective functions of apoE.
Project description:INTRODUCTION. We have studied the functions of truncated apoE4 forms in vitro and in vivo in order to identify the domains of apoE4 required for the biogenesis of apoE-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL). RESULTS. We have found that apoE4-185, -202, -229, or -259 could promote ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-dependent cholesterol efflux in vitro, although less efficiently than Full-length apoE4, and had diminished capacity to activate lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). Formation of HDL in vivo was assessed by various methods following gene transfer in apolipoprotein A-I(-/-) × apoE(-/-) mice. Fast protein liquid chromatography of plasma showed that the truncated apoE forms, except apoE4-185, generated an apoE-containing HDL peak. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of plasma and electron microscopy showed that truncated apoE forms generated distinct HDL subpopulations and formed discoidal HDL particles which could be converted to spherical by co-administration of truncated apoE4-202 and LCAT. CONCLUSION. Overall, the in-vivo and in-vitro data are consistent and indicate that apoE4-185 is the shortest truncated form that supports formation of discoidal apoE4-containing HDL particles.
Project description:The objective of this study was to establish the role of apoA-IV, ABCA1, and LCAT in the biogenesis of apoA-IV-containing HDL (HDL-A-IV) using different mouse models. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of apoA-IV in apoA-I(-/-) mice did not change plasma lipid levels. ApoA-IV floated in the HDL2/HDL3 region, promoted the formation of spherical HDL particles as determined by electron microscopy, and generated mostly ?- and a few pre-?-like HDL subpopulations. Gene transfer of apoA-IV in apoA-I(-/-) × apoE(-/-) mice increased plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and 80% of the protein was distributed in the VLDL/IDL/LDL region. This treatment likewise generated ?- and pre-?-like HDL subpopulations. Spherical and ?-migrating HDL particles were not detectable following gene transfer of apoA-IV in ABCA1(-/-) or LCAT(-/-) mice. Coexpression of apoA-IV and LCAT in apoA-I(-/-) mice restored the formation of HDL-A-IV. Lipid-free apoA-IV and reconstituted HDL-A-IV promoted ABCA1 and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI)-mediated cholesterol efflux, respectively, as efficiently as apoA-I and apoE. Our findings are consistent with a novel function of apoA-IV in the biogenesis of discrete HDL-A-IV particles with the participation of ABCA1 and LCAT, and may explain previously reported anti-inflammatory and atheroprotective properties of apoA-IV.
Project description:A key step in plasma HDL maturation from discoidal to spherical particles is the esterification of cholesterol to cholesteryl ester, which is catalyzed by LCAT. HDL-like lipoproteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are also spherical, whereas nascent lipoprotein particles secreted from astrocytes are discoidal, suggesting that LCAT may play a similar role in the CNS. In plasma, apoA-I is the main LCAT activator, while in the CNS, it is believed to be apoE. apoE is directly involved in the pathological progression of Alzheimer's disease, including facilitating ?-amyloid (A?) clearance from the brain, a function that requires its lipidation by ABCA1. However, whether apoE particle maturation by LCAT is also required for A? clearance is unknown. Here we characterized the impact of LCAT deficiency on CNS lipoprotein metabolism and amyloid pathology. Deletion of LCAT from APP/PS1 mice resulted in a pronounced decrease of apoA-I in plasma that was paralleled by decreased apoA-I levels in CSF and brain tissue, whereas apoE levels were unaffected. Furthermore, LCAT deficiency did not increase A? or amyloid in APP/PS1 LCAT(-/-) mice. Finally, LCAT expression and plasma activity were unaffected by age or the onset of Alzheimer's-like pathology in APP/PS1 mice. Taken together, these results suggest that apoE-containing discoidal HDLs do not require LCAT-dependent maturation to mediate efficient A? clearance.
Project description:We investigated the significance of hydrophobic and charged residues 218-226 on the structure and functions of apoA-I and their contribution to the biogenesis of HDL. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of apoA-I[L218A/L219A/V221A/L222A] in apoA-I?/? mice decreased plasma cholesterol and apoA-I levels to 15% of wild-type (WT) control mice and generated pre-?- and ?4-HDL particles. In apoA-I?/? × apoE?/? mice, the same mutant formed few discoidal and pre-?-HDL particles that could not be converted to mature ?-HDL particles by excess LCAT. Expression of the apoA-I[E223A/K226A] mutant in apoA-I?/? mice caused lesser but discrete alterations in the HDL phenotype. The apoA-I[218-222] and apoA-I[E223A/K226A] mutants had 20% and normal capacity, respectively, to promote ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux. Both mutants had ?65% of normal capacity to activate LCAT in vitro. Biophysical analyses suggested that both mutants affected in a distinct manner the structural integrity and plasticity of apoA-I that is necessary for normal functions. We conclude that the alteration of the hydrophobic 218-222 residues of apoA-I disrupts apoA-I/ABCA1 interactions and promotes the generation of defective pre-? particles that fail to mature into ?-HDL subpopulations, thus resulting in low plasma apoA-I and HDL. Alterations of the charged 223, 226 residues caused milder but discrete changes in HDL phenotype.
Project description:We studied the significance of four hydrophobic residues within the 225-230 region of apoA-I on its structure and functions and their contribution to the biogenesis of HDL. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of an apoA-I[F225A/V227A/F229A/L230A] mutant in apoA-I?/? mice decreased plasma cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and apoA-I levels. When expressed in apoA-I?/? × apoE?/? mice, approximately 40% of the mutant apoA-I as well as mouse apoA-IV and apoB-48 appeared in the VLDL/IDL/LDL. In both mouse models, the apoA-I mutant generated small spherical particles of pre-?- and ?4-HDL mobility. Coexpression of the apoA-I mutant and LCAT increased and shifted the-HDL cholesterol peak toward lower densities, created normal ?HDL subpopulations, and generated spherical-HDL particles. Biophysical analyses suggested that the apoA-I[225-230] mutations led to a more compact folding that may limit the conformational flexibility of the protein. The mutations also reduced the ability of apoA-I to promote ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux and to activate LCAT to 31% and 66%, respectively, of the WT control. Overall, the apoA-I[225-230] mutations inhibited the biogenesis of-HDL and led to the accumulation of immature pre-?- and ?4-HDL particles, a phenotype that could be corrected by administration of LCAT.
Project description:We previously reported that hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), an independent risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD), is associated with increased atherosclerosis and decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in cystathionine beta-synthase-/apolipoprotein E-deficient (CBS(-/-)/apoE(-/-)) mice. We observed that plasma homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations are negatively correlated with HDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 (apoA-I) in patients with CAD. We found the loss of large HDL particles, increased HDL-free cholesterol, and decreased HDL protein in CBS(-/-)/apoE(-/-) mice, and attenuated cholesterol efflux from cholesterol-loaded macrophages to plasma in CBS(-/-)/apoE(-/-) mice. ApoA-I protein was reduced in the plasma and liver, but hepatic apoA-I mRNA was unchanged in CBS(-/-)/apoE(-/-) mice. Moreover, Hcy (0.5 to 2 mmol/L) reduced the levels of apoA-I protein but not mRNA and inhibited apoA-1 protein synthesis in mouse primary hepatocytes. Further, plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) substrate reactivity was decreased, LCAT specific activity increased, and plasma LCAT protein levels unchanged in apoE(-/-)/CBS(-/-) mice. Finally, the clearance of plasma HDL cholesteryl ester, but not HDL protein, was faster in CBS(-/-)/apoE(-/-) mice, correlated with increased scavenger receptor B1, and unchanged ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 protein expression in the liver. These findings indicate that HHcy inhibits reverse cholesterol transport by reducing circulating HDL via inhibiting apoA-I protein synthesis and enhancing HDL-C clearance.
Project description:MDCO-216, a complex of dimeric recombinant apoA-IMilano (apoA-IM) and palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), was administered to cynomolgus monkeys at 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg every other day for a total of 21 infusions, and effects on lipids, (apo)lipoproteins, and ex-vivo cholesterol efflux capacity were monitored. After 7 or 20 infusions, free cholesterol (FC) and phospholipids (PL) were strongly increased, and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), apoA-I, and apoA-II were strongly decreased. We then measured short-term effects on apoA-IM, lipids, and (apo)lipoproteins after the first or the last infusion. After the first infusion, PL and FC went up in the HDL region and also in the LDL and VLDL regions. ApoE shifted from HDL to LDL and VLDL regions, while ApoA-IM remained located in the HDL region. On day 41, ApoE levels were 8-fold higher than on day 1, and FC, PL, and apoE resided mostly in LDL and VLDL regions. Drug infusion quickly decreased the endogenous cholesterol esterification rate. ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux on day 41 was markedly increased, whereas scavenger receptor type B1 (SRB1) and ABCG1-mediated effluxes were only weakly increased. Strong increase of FC is due to sustained stimulation of ABCA1-mediated efflux, and drop in HDL and formation of large apoE-rich particles are due to lack of LCAT activation.
Project description:In the present study we have used adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I) mutants in apoA-I-/- mice to investigate how structural mutations in apoA-I affect the biogenesis and the plasma levels of HDL (high-density lipoprotein). The natural mutants apoA-I(R151C)Paris, apoA-I(R160L)Oslo and the bioengineered mutant apoA-I(R149A) were secreted efficiently from cells in culture. Their capacity to activate LCAT (lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase) in vitro was greatly reduced, and their ability to promote ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1)-mediated cholesterol efflux was similar to that of WT (wild-type) apoA-I. Gene transfer of the three mutants in apoA-I-/- mice generated aberrant HDL phenotypes. The total plasma cholesterol of mice expressing the apoA-I(R160L)Oslo, apoA-I(R149A) and apoA-I(R151C)Paris mutants was reduced by 78, 59 and 61% and the apoA-I levels were reduced by 68, 64 and 55% respectively, as compared with mice expressing the WT apoA-I. The CE (cholesteryl ester)/TC (total cholesterol) ratio of HDL was decreased and the apoA-I was distributed in the HDL3 region. apoA-I(R160L)Oslo and apoA-I(R149A) promoted the formation of prebeta1 and alpha4-HDL subpopulations and gave a mixture of discoidal and spherical particles. apoA-I(R151C)Paris generated subpopulations of different sizes that migrate between prebeta and alpha-HDL and formed mostly spherical and a few discoidal particles. Simultaneous treatment of mice with adenovirus expressing any of the three mutants and human LCAT normalized plasma apoA-I, HDL cholesterol levels and the CE/TC ratio. It also led to the formation of spherical HDL particles consisting mostly of alpha-HDL subpopulations of larger size. The correction of the aberrant HDL phenotypes by treatment with LCAT suggests a potential therapeutic intervention for HDL abnormalities that result from specific mutations in apoA-I.
Project description:Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) catalyzes a critical step of reverse cholesterol transport by esterifying cholesterol in high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. LCAT is activated by apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), which forms a double belt around HDL, however the manner in which LCAT engages its lipidic substrates and ApoA-I in HDL is poorly understood. Here, we used negative stain electron microscopy, crosslinking, and hydrogen-deuterium exchange studies to refine the molecular details of the LCAT-HDL complex. Our data are consistent with LCAT preferentially binding to the edge of discoidal HDL near the boundary between helix 5 and 6 of ApoA-I in a manner that creates a path from the lipid bilayer to the active site of LCAT. Our results provide not only an explanation why LCAT activity diminishes as HDL particles mature, but also direct support for the anti-parallel double belt model of HDL, with LCAT binding preferentially to the helix 4/6 region.
Project description:We have used adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in apolipoprotein (apo)E(-/-) mice to elucidate the molecular etiology of a dominant form of type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) caused by the R142C substitution in apoE4. It was found that low doses of adenovirus expressing apoE4 cleared cholesterol, whereas comparable doses of apoE4[R142C] greatly increased plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and apoE levels, caused accumulation of apoE in VLDL/IDL/LDL region, and promoted the formation of discoidal HDL. Co-expression of apoE4[R142C] with lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) or lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in apoE(-/-) mice partially corrected the apoE4[R142C]-induced dyslipidemia. High doses of C-terminally truncated apoE4[R142C]-202 partially cleared cholesterol in apoE(-/-) mice and promoted formation of discoidal HDL. The findings establish that apoE4[R142C] causes accumulation of apoE in VLDL/IDL/LDL region and affects in vivo the activity of LCAT and LPL, the maturation of HDL, and the clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The prevention of apoE4[R142C]-induced dyslipidemia by deletion of the 203-299 residues suggests that, in the full-length protein, the R142C substitution may have altered the conformation of apoE bound to VLDL/IDL/LDL in ways that prevent triglyceride hydrolysis, cholesterol esterification, and receptor-mediated clearance in vivo.